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tectbhdR bReadiNctch QNNSO sis. 












Text of the following work is taken principally 
from a collation of three MSS., which are referred 
to in the Notes by the letters D., B., and L. 

1. The first of these, denoted by D., is a miscella- 
neous volume, containing various tracts and frag- 
ments of the fourteenth, fifteenth, and sixteenth 
centuries ; it was formerly in the possession of the celebrated anti- 
quaries, Duald Mac Firbis and Edward Lhwyd, whose autographs it 
possesses ; and it is now preserved in the Library of Trinity College, 
Dublin, Class H., Tab. 3. No. 17. 

The volume contains a copy of the celebrated code of Brehon 
Laws called the Seanchus Mor", with a copious gloss of great value. 
This is followed by several other tracts and fragments of tracts on 
Brehon Law, of difl'erent dates, and by various scribes, some of whom 
have given their names. 


a For an account of the Seanchus Mor, nity College, see Dr. Petrie's Essay on 
with several extracts from this very MS. Tarallill, in the Transactions of the lioyal 
of it, and from another copy also in Tri- Irish Academy, vol. xviii. pp. 71-80. 



After the Law Tracts follow several miscellaneous pieces on his- 
torical and religious subjects, short anecdotes of Irish saints, poems, 
and historical romantic tales. Of these the most curious are : i . The 
tract called Seancrmp na jielec, or the History of the Cemeteries, 
containing an account of the most celebrated burial-places of the 
Pagan Irish ; 2. The History of the plebeian Tribes called Aitheach 
Tuatha, who were subjugated by King Tuathal Teach tmar, in the 
second century of the Christian era ; 3. A List of the ancient Tales or 
historical Eomances which were wont to be recited by the Bards at 
Entertainments, in presence of Kings and Chieftains ; 4. A List of 
the celebrated Women of Antiquity ; with many other tales, tracts, 
genealogies, and poems, of the greatest value for the illustration of 
Irish history, language, and topography. 

The copy of the Leabhar Breathnach, or British Book, contained 
in this MS., occurs in p. 8o6 b , and was probably written in the four- 
teenth, or early part of the fifteenth century. 

This is the copy of the Irish version of the Britannia of Nennius, 
which has been made the basis of the text of the following work, 
and is denoted by D. in the notes. Its errors, however, have been 
corrected, as far as the Editor was able to correct them, by collation 
with the other MSS. to which he had access ; and such interpola- 
tions as occurred in the other MSS., when judged of any value, have 
been inserted in their proper places. All these deviations from the 
text of D. have been mentioned in the notes. 

2. The second MS. (denoted by B.) is the copy of the Irish Nen- 
nius, which is contained in the Book of Ballymote, in the Library of 
the Royal Irish Academy, written in the fourteenth century. 


'-' Or rather column 806. The MS. is paged by Edward Lhwyd, each column, 
written some parts of it in double columns wherever columns occurred, being count- 
and some parts not : the whole has been ed for a page. 


The order of the sections in this MS. differs considerably from 
that of D., and it also contains several interpolations. The Editor 
has numbered the sections in the printed text of the work, in order 
to enable him with greater facility to refer to them. 

The order of the copy in the Book of Ballymote is as follows : 
It begins with the section Ego Nennius, marked sect. i. p. 25, infra. 
Then follows the chapter " On the Origin of the Cruithnians," which 
has been given in the Additional Notes, No. XX., p. xci. After 
which follow sections IL, in., and iv., as in the printed text. 

After section iv. this MS. interpolates the prose account, sections 
xxvn. and xxvni , followed by the poem on the Origin and History of 
the Picts or Cruithnians, which has been published section xxx. p. 1 26, 

Then follow sections v. to xiv., inclusive, in the same order as 
in the text ; but after section xiv. is interpolated the Legend of 
St. Cairnech, which will be found in the Appendix, No. I., p. 178. 

After this we have the history of the Saxon conquest, sect. xv. ; 
the miracles of St. German, sects, xvi., xvn. ; and the story of 
Ambrose Merlin and the Druids, sects, xvni., xix.; followed by the 
history of the wars of Gortimer (or Gortighern, as he is called in 
this copy), sects, xx. to xxiv., inclusive, in the same order as in the 

At the end of this last section recording the battles of Arthur, 
and briefly noticing the conversion of the Saxons to Christianity, the 
copy of this work in the Book of Ballymote ends : and its comple- 
tion is notified by the words pmic Do'n bpeacnocop, which are 
literally "Finit to the Breathnochas," where the scribe evidently 
wrote Finit for Finis. It appears also from this note that the title 
then given to this book was " The Breathnochas," which would be 
equivalent to Britanismus, if we may be permitted to coin such a word. 

^ 2 3. The 


3. The next authority which has been employed in the formation 
of the text is the copy of this work in the Book of Lecan, a MS. 
written in the year 1417. To this copy is prefixed, but in a more 
recent hand, the title Leabctp bpearnach annpo pip, which has been 
adopted in the title page of the present volume, and which expresses 
what the Irish understood by the Latin titles, " Eulogiiun Britannia:," 
and " Historia Britonum." 

This copy, which is denoted byL. in the notes, begins with sect, 
ii., Britannia insula, &c., p. 27, infra, omitting the list of British cities. 
Then follows the chapter on the origin of the Picts, which will be 
found in the Additional Notes, No. XX. p. xciii. Section in. is 
omitted altogether, and then follow sects, iv. to vin., inclusive. 
Sections ix. and x. are omitted in this place. Then comes the 
account of the adventures of the Gacdhil, sects, xi. to xv., inclusive' 1 , 
followed by another copy of the history of Roman and Saxon Britain, 
sects, v., vi., vii., vin., which is headed, Oo peancnp fojieacan 
anopo booeapca, " Of the history of Britain, here follows ;" but 
the title prefixed to sect, vin., in the former copy of this chapter, is 
omitted here. 

Then follow sects, ix., x., with the title Oo galktlmb Gpenri 
amail moipeap Nerniup [sic] annpo, as in the text, p. 42. After 
which comes another copy of the history of the adventures of the 
Gaedhil, sects, xi.-xiv., with the title Oo imcheachccnb ^aeioeal 
anopo boof) ca ; but a portion of sect. xtv. is wanting after the words 
cujjpacnji leo lapoain raipechou, p. 72, line 9. 


" This date may be collected from the in section x., differs considerably in this 

MS. itself. See also Mr. O'Donovan's note copy from that given above, p. 50. See 

to the Annals of the Four Masters, at the Additional Notes, No. XX., p. xciv., where 

year 1417. the more important variations are uo- 

d The account of the sons of Cruithne, ticed. 


About ten leaves are here wanting in the Book of Lecan, which 
is now preserved in the Library of the Royal Irish Academy, al- 
though it originally belonged to Trinity College 6 , where nine of the 
missing leaves were discovered by Mr. Curry, bound up with other 
MSS., (Class H. Tab. 2. No. 17). One leaf, however, which contained 
the continuation of sect. xvi. is lost, and the next page begins with 
the words ip in lo.ngeap pin cainig a ingean co h-Gngipc, p. 84, 
1. 1 6, to the end of sect. xvn. 

Then follows the account of Dun Ambrose and of the contest of 
Ambrose Merlin with the Druids, sects, xvm. xix.; then the Avars 
of Gortimer or Gortighern, sect. xx. to xxn., with the short account 
of St. Patrick, sect, xxin., and the remainder of the history of the 
Saxons from the death of Gortighern (sect, xxiv.) to their conver- 
sion to Christianity. 

This was also regarded by the scribe who copied the Book of 
Lecan as the conclusion of the work, for he has written the word 
pinic at the end of sect. xxiv. But there follow immediately the 
tracts on the wonders of Britain, sect, xxv., and on the wonders of 
the isle of Man, sect. xxvi. 

After this begins what seems to have been intended as a new edi- 
tion of the work f . It commences with the chapter Ego Nennim, 
sect, i., followed by the chapter on the origin of the Picts, which has 
been given in the Additional Notes, No. XX., p. xcv. 


" The Book of Lecan is entered among cey, and by him deposited in the Library of 

the MSS. of Trinity College in the Cata- the Royal Irish Academy. See O'lJeilly, 

logus Manuscriptorum Anglia; et Ilibcr- Trans. Iberno-Celtic Society, p. cxvii. ; 

nise, published at Oxford, 1697 (No. 117, Mac Geoghegan, Hist. d'Irlande, torn. i. 

p. 22), and still bears the Library marks, p. 39. 

D. 19. It was carried off in the reign of f This new edition appears, from its con- 
James II. to Paris, but was restored to tents, to have had special reference to Piet- 
Ireland at the instance of General Vallan- ish history. 

Then follows "Britannia imula" &c., sect.ii., with the list of cities, 
and sections in. iv., as far as the words TTVC lapech, p. 32, line 1 1. 

Next we have the account of the origin of the Picts (sects, xxvu. 
to xxix., inclusive), with the title Oo Chpnichnechaib anop eo, Do 
]iei]i na n-eolach K . Section xxix., containing the account of the man- 
ner in which the Picts, after their settlement in North Britain, ob- 
tained their women from the Milesians of Ireland, is peculiar to the 
Book of Lecan. 

Then follows the poetical account of the Picts, sect, xxx., want- 
ing, however, the last two stanzas. 

With this poem the second copy of the Irish Nennius in the Book 
of Lecan concludes. 

4. A fragment of this Avork is also to be found in the remains of the 
Leabhar na h-U idhri, preserved in the Library of the Royal Irish 
Academy. It begins on the first page of the second leaf now remain- 
ing in that MS., with the words ace ceana ol pe, c., p. 94, line 15, 
and concludes at the end of sect, xxiv., which in this MS. was also 
the termination of the work. This fragment is referred to in the 
notes, pp. 95-1 13, by the letter U. The Leabhar na h-Uidhri is a 
MS. of the twelfth century. 

5. Another copy of the Leabhar Breathnach is to be found in the 
Book of lly-Many, or the Book of the O'Kellys, as it is called by 
O'Ecilly, a MS. of the early part of the fifteenth century, transcribed 
by Faclau Mac an Gabhan, whose death is recorded by the Four 
Masters at the year 1423. This MS. is not now accessible to Irish 
scholars in Dublin, and it has not been possible to consult it for the 
present work, although it is believed to be in existence in the pos- 
session of a private collector in England. In O'Reilly's time it be- 
longed to Sir William Bethain. 


s See p. 1 20, note c . 


We learn from O'Reilly 11 , that at the commencement of this 
copy of the work there is or was " a memorandum," stating " that 
Nennius was the author, and that Giolla Caoimhghin translated it 
into Scotic." 

Giolla Caoimhghin died about A. D. 1072, or shortly after, as lias 
been inferred from his chronological poem, beginning Qnnalaib anall 
uile, which brings down the series of events to that year. 

If, therefore, he is to be taken as the original translator of Nen- 
niusS we may probably fix the middle of the eleventh century as the 
earliest period at which the " Ilistoria Britonum" appeared in an 
Irish version. 

In its original form, the work, as we have seen, terminated at the 
end of sect. xxiv. ; and all that follows must be regarded as subse- 
quent interpolations, although, probably, added at the same period 
as the translation or edition, put forth by Giolla Caoimhghin. 

The first of these additions contains the section on the Wonders 
of the Island of Britain, and that on the Wonders of the Isle of Man. 
This is also found added to some copies of the Latin of Nennius k , with 
a chapter, omitted in all the Irish copies, on the Wonders of Ireland. 

The tract on the history of the Picts (sects, xxvir.-xxix.), with 
the curious poem (sect, xxx.), now for the first time printed, is also 
to be regarded as an addition made to the original work. The Book 
of Ballymote, although it omits the Mirabilia, has preserved these 
sources of Pictish history, of which the prose portion was known to 
Pinkerton, through a very faulty transcript, and still more erro- 

h Transactions of the Ibcrno-Celtic So- toria to an earlier author.- See his re- 

ciety, p. cxxii. marks, Introd. p. 21. 

'Mr. Herbert, however, has shown k See Mr. Herbert's note '", pp. 113- 

that there is some reason to attribute the 114. 
first attempt at a translation of the His- 


neous translation, but the poem appears to have escaped his notice. 
Although the text is corrupt in many places, in both the MSS. that 
have been employed in editing it, yet it is hoped that its publication, 
even in the imperfect state in which we have it, will be regarded as 
a service of some value to the student of Scottish history. 

The next interpolation or addition is an Irish version of the do- 
cument already known to the readers of Innes and Pinkerton, under 
the title of the " Chronicon Pictorum." This curious fragment occurs 
only in the manuscript D. ; but another copy of it has been given in 
the Additional Notes 1 , from a MS. in the Bodleian Library which 
preserves a considerable fragment of the Psalter of Cashel, and evi- 
dently contained formerly a copy of the Leabhar Breathnach, or Irish 
version of Nennius, of which the leaf containing the Pictish Chro- 
nicle is now the only remnant. 

Next follows (sect. xxxm. p. 168), an abridged translation of the 
beginning of the history of the Venerable Bede. This document occurs 
also immediately after the Pictish Chronicle, in the Bodleian MS. It is 
of very little value, but as it appears to have been connected with the 
work, and to have been regarded as a part of it in the manuscript 
D , which has been principally followed, it was thought right to in- 
clude it in the present volume. 

The Appendix contains some other documents of the same kind, 
not so immediately connected with the Leabhar Breathnach in any 
of the MSS., but tending to illustrate the history to which it relate?, 
and the traditions prevalent at the period when it was compiled. 
The first of these documents is the Legend of St. Cairnech, which, 


1 No. XVIII. p. Ixxv. further remarks on it by Mr. O'Donovan, 

m See an account of this MS., by the in his Introduction to the Book of Rights, 

Editor, in the Proceedings of the Royal published by the Celtic Society, p. xxviii. 

Irish Academy, vol. ii. p. 33; and some etseq. 


as we have seen, occurs only in the Book of Ballymote, having been 
interpolated in the copy of the Irish Nennius there preserved, imme- 
diately after the account of the final conquest of Britain by the 
Romans. It relates to the history of the sixth century, although it 
is evidently a compilation of a much later period. 

The next document inserted in the Appendix is an account of 
the "Wonders of Ireland, chiefly from the Book of Ballymote. This 
tract is not without interest, as a curious collection of ancient fables 
and traditions, not very unlike the celebrated Otia imperialia of Ger- 
vase of Tilbury, and compiled probably about the same period. It 
proves, incidentally, that the stories of Irish wonders told by Giraldus 
Cambrensis, for which Lynch has so severely, and, as it now appears, 
so unjustly censured him, were not his own inventions, but copied, 
with some embellishments of his own, from the genuine traditions of 
the Irish people. 

The poem of Maelmura of Fathain, on the history of the Milesian 
or Gadelian invasion of Ireland, is now published for the first time, 
and it was thought worth while to add to it the contemporaneous 
poem on the history of the Albanian Scots, known under the name 
of the " Duan Albanach," although this latter poem has already been 
published by Pinkerton, by Doctor O'Conor, and more recently by 
Mr. Skene, in the " Collectanea de Rebus Albanicis," edited by the 
lona Club. 

Thus the present work will be found to contain three specimens 
of the bardic sources of British and Irish history, written, one of them 
in the ninth, and the others probably in the eleventh century, con- 
taining the traditions, as they were then currently received, of the 
origin of the Pictish and Milesian tribes, and the succession of the 
early kings of Scotland. Two of these poems are now published 
for the first time ; and the third is presented to the reader in, it is 

IRISH AKCH. SOC. 1 6. C hoped 


hoped, a very much more correct version than those which accom- 
panied the former publications of it. 

In conclusion, the Editor has to acknowledge his very great 
obligations to Mr. O'Donovan and Mr. Curry, for the invaluable 
assistance they have afforded him throughout the following work. 
Without them he could not have executed it ; and to them he is 
indebted for the greater part of the historical and topographical 
information which is collected in the notes. For many valuable re- 
ferences to ancient Glossaries, and other MSS., containing philo- 
logical and historical illustrations of obscure or obsolete words and 
phrases, he is specially indebted to Mr. Curry. 

The Editor has preserved the orthography of the original, with- 
out any attempt at correction, or even at uniformity ; and in the 
case of proper names, he has retained, even in the English transla- 
tion, the spelling of the Irish. This seemed necessary, in order 
to give the English reader a fair representation of the age to which 
the original belongs. Thus the Picts are called Cruithnians ; the 
Gaels, Gaedhil ; Ireland, Eri ; and Scotland, Alba". 

The Notes marked (if.) have been contributed by Mr. Herbert. 
For those marked (T.) the Editor is responsible. 


April 8th, 1 848. 

" In some few instances this rule, from inadvertence, has not been adhered to. 
See, pp. 41, 43, 47, 53- 59- 




Liber Britannicus, 24 

Of the Kings of the Romans 38 

Of the Conquest of Ireland, as recorded by Nennius 42 

Of the Adventures of Gaedal 52 

Of the Conquest of the Saxons 74 

Of the Miracles of German, 78 

Of the Fortress of Ambrose [Merlin] and his Contest with the Druids, 90 

Of the Warfare of Gortimer, 98 

Of the Wonders of Britain, 112 

Of the Wonders of Manann, 118 

Of the Cruithnians, or Picts 120 

Ancient historical Poem on the Origin of the Cruithnians 126 

Of the Origin of the Cruithnians the Irish Version of the Chronicon Pictorum, . .154 

The History of Britain, abridged from Bede, 168 


I. Of the Miracles of Cairnech, 178 

II. Of the Wonders of Ireland, according to the Book of Glendaloch, 192 

III. The Duan Eireannach ; an ancient historical Poem on the Milesian Invasion of Ire- 

land, by Maelmura of Fathain, 220 

IV. The Duan Albanach ; an ancient historical Poem on the History of the Kings of 

Scotland 270 



No. Page. 
I. Comparative View of the Names of the British Cities in the Irish and Latin 

Nennius, iii 

II. Etymology of the Name of Cruithnians v 

III. The Isle of Man vi 

IV. The first Colonization of Ireland under Partholan viii 

V. The Firbolgian and Tuatha de Danann Colonies, ix 

VI. The Scots, x 

VII. Meaning of the Phrase " Seeds of Battle," xi 

VIII. The Legend of King Lucius, xiii 

IX. The Reign of Maximus xv 

X. The Limits of Britanny, xvii 

XI. Leatha or Letavia, xix 

XII. Severus the Second xx 

XIII. The Miracles of St. German, xxi 

XIV. Auspication of Cities by human Sacrifices, xxiv 

XV. Magh Ellite, or Campus Electi in the Region of Glewysing xxv 

XVI. Gortigern, son of Guatal xxviii 

XVII. The History of the Picts xxix 

XVIII. Irish Documents illustrative of the legendary History of the Picts, viz. : 

1. A Tract on the History of the Picts from the Book of Lecan, .... Ixv 

2. The Story of the Wives given to the Picts by the Milesians of Ireland, 

from the Book of Lecan, Ixxi 

3. Story of the Battle of Ardleamhnacta, from the Book of Leinster, . Ixxiii 

4. Irish Version of the Chronicon Pictorum, from a MS. in the Bodleian 

Library, Ixxv 

XIX. Macbeth, son of Finleg, Ixxviii 

XX. Variations in the Section " On the Origin of the Cruithnians," as it occurs 

in the Books of Ballymote and Lecan, xci 

XXI. Additional Remarks on the Etymology of the Name Scoti, xev 

XXII. Documents illustrative of the History of the Personages mentioned in the 

Legend of St. Cairnech, ci 

XXIII. Giraldus Cambrensis on the Picts and Scots, cxii 

XXIV. Addenda et Corrigenda cx ; v 

INDEX, . cxvii 


)HE Irish MS. of which a translation is here given 
professes to be, and after a fashion is, translated 
from the Historia Britonum by Nennius. Little is 
known of that author (if not rather, editor), and, 
as usual, the less we know the more we are ob- 
liged to say; for knowledge soon tells its tale. 
That the Historia Britonum sometimes bears the name of Gildas, 
may be sufficiently accoxmted for by these circumstances: that the first 
genuine tractate of St. Gildas, concerning the Britons, was commonly 
called his Historia ; and that a fabulous history of the Britons was 
formerly extant under that name. But it can be further explained 
by the nature of that title, for name indeed it is not, but an Irish 
title, so liberally bestowed upon the religious and learned, that Dr. 
C. O'Conor said there were not less than 1000 persons adorned 
with it. Script. Rerum Hib. i, 198. Therefore, when AVC have 
shewn its original author to be closely connected with Ireland, we 
shall have removed any wonder at his being entitled Gildas. Its 
total dissimilitude to the works of St. Gildas of Ruiz is apparent; 
IRISH ARCH. soc. NO. 1 6. B arid 

and it also differs in its contents*, and in some portion of its spirit, 
from that other fabulous history which is cited with admiration in 
Geoffrey of Monmouth by the name of Gildas. Its printed editions 
are by T. Gale, Oxon, 1691; by C. Bertram, jointly with St. Gildas, 
and a production given by him to the world under the name of Ri- 
cardus Corinaeus, Copenhagen, 1757, in the title, and 1758 in the 
colophon; by the same, with 1758 in the title, and without colophon, 
which edition I have never seen; by W. Gunn, B. D., London, 1819; 
and by Jos. Stevenson, London, 1838. 

The Historia Britomnn b had two or more publishers in succession. 
That is to say, transcribers of it made more or less of change and 
addition ; and sometimes took no pains to inform the world that they 
were mere transcribers, and not the authors. The edition rendered 
into Irish is that by Nennius, styling himself a disciple of St. Elbod or 
Elbodug, and styling the priest Beulan his master. Some copies have 
a long Prologus, which declares that he published his work "in A. D. 
858, being the twenty-fourth year of Mervyn, King of the Britons." 
Mervyn Vrych or the Speckled, King of Man in his own right, 
and of Wales in that of Essyllt his queen, reigned over the latter 
country from 818 to his death in 843. See Powell's Cambria, 


a As to its contents, the matters cited Geoffrey, a free translator, or by his ori- 

by Geoffrey were there related satis pro- jrinal. In i. cap. 17, the Welch copy 

lire; therefore they were no casual para- called Tysilio omits the reference, p. 116. 

graphs, missing out of our MSS. Galfrid. But in ii. cap. 17, it quotes Gildas by 

lib. i. cap. 17, ii. cap. 17. And as to name, p. 139. Neither can we say with 

its spirit, it evidently sought to magnify entire certainty in what language it was; 

the Britons at the expense of the Romans, but probably in Latin, 

from which temper our Historia is nearly ' The Archdeacon of Huntingdon in 

exempt; iv. cap. 3. It is not cited by one place cites it as guu/am author, and 

name in cap. 4, but the identity of the in another as Gildas Ilistoriographus. 

sources is pretty obvious. I know not Henr. Hunt. p. 301-13, in Script, post 

whether the references to Gildas are by Bedam., Franc. 1601. 

pp. 24-8; Warrington, i, pp. 205-10; Brut y Tywysogion, pp. 47 5-8. 
He alone of that name was Rex Britonum; though Mervyn, third son 
of RodriMawr, held Powys from 873 to 87 f. The year 858 fell fif- 
teen years after his death ; which argument would prove the forgery 
of the Prologus, were it not for the ignorance, then so prevalent, 
of the current year of our Lord. It is, however, a mere swelling out 
and amplification of the shorter prologue, in a bombastic phraseology 
which Nennius did not employ, and it is not credible that both are 
genuine. But the shorter prologue, or Apologia, is to be received as 
genuine. It begins, as in the Irish version, " Ego Nennius Sancti 
Elbodi discipulus aliqua excerpta scribere curavi," &c.; but it is in- 
terpolated from the longer prologue, and otherwise altered, in that 
version. It is to be received, first, from the absence of internal evi- 
dence to its prejudice; secondly, from the absence of internal evi- 
dence. And I wonder that Mr. Stevenson should urge, for such, that 
it occurs not in MSS. anterior to the twelfth century; when from 
his own shewing we collect, that there exists only one MS. anterior 
to circiter 1150; one, not two, for the MS. of Marcus Anachoreta 
could not contain it, and is not strictly to the purpose. The document 
cannot suffer from the silence of MSS. that do not exist. Thirdly, 
there is no motive for the forgery. Great or even well-known names 
have been assumed, in order to give currency to fictions ; such as 
Orpheus, Berosus, Ovid, Tully, Ossian, and (if you please) Gildas. 
But Nennius was nobody at all, his name does not exist elsewhere, 
and no other works belong to him. What was to be gained by in- 
venting his name ? The fabricator of a work may invent an ideal 
author for it. But here we must suppose, that the genuine work of 
some other man was by forgery ascribed to a Nobody, to an unknown 
person, claiming no rank or distinction, and made to avow his modern 


c Brut y Ty wysog, p. 48 1 -2. Others give other years ; but the question is not relevant. 


date. The rejection of this document would therefore appear to 
me uncritical, and needlessly destructive of fact and document. 
Falsehood is most usually built upon a basis of truth; and the Apolo- 
gia or lesser prologue was the substratum upon which the larger one 
was erected. That fiction was, however, partly founded upon the 
contents of the book itself, which, in cap. xi. Gale, p. 1 4, Stevenson, 
purports to be published in A. D. 437 -(- 418 + 3 858; and in the 
same chapter makes mention, though irrelevantly to that date, of 
King Mervyn, and of the fourth year (not the twenty- fourth) of his 
reign. Such are the sources of the false Prologus. 

The name, which Geoffrey, Archdeacon of Monmouth, writes 
Nennius, is Nynniaw or Nynyaw in all the Welch copies of the 
chronicles. But it is not a name, whereof the etymon or significancy 
appears. Those chronicles have a legend, that one Nennius was 
brother of Cassivellaunus, fought against Cresar, and took his sword 
from him, slew Labienus, but died himself of his wounds in fifteen 
days after. Galfrid. Monumet. iv. cap. 3-4; Brut Tysilio. &c., p. 
173-6. To connect those statements with our historians would have 
exceeded all effrontery, but that of John Bale. That eenturiator 
maintains, that Nennius, brother of Cassivellaunus, wrote a beautiful 
history of the origin and progress of the Britons, which another 
Nennius, Abbot of Bangor, translated into Latin and continued. Cent. 
i, fol. 13, fol. 36, 7th ed. 1 1548. Mr. Gunn's observation, that Nennius 
is described by Geoffrey, i. cap. 1 7, iv., cap. 3 and 4, and by Tysilio, Coll. 
Cambr. pp. 30 and 75, as a British historian, was made inadvertently, 
being at variance with the fact. Gunn's Preface, p. 1 9. Geoffrey's au- 
thor makes no allusion to Nennius the historiographer; though he has 
borrowed things, either from the Historia, or from sources common 
to both. This name (written Ninnius and Ninius in some copies) is 
in all probability the same as that of Ninia, the Apostle of the South 
Picts, and founder of the Church of Candida Casa, so called by 


William of Malmesbury, and Nynia by Alcuin and Beda. Vide Ussher, 
Brit. Eccles. p. 161, or ed. ii. p. 137. Ninianus has been his com- 
mon appellation among subsequent writers. He had a brother, St. 
Plebeias. Johan. Tinmuth, ap. Ussher addenda, p. 1059, or ed. ii. 
p. 506. Two kings were said in the Welch mythologies to have 
formerly reigned over part of South Wales, and to have been trans- 
formed into oxen for their sins. Their names were Nynniaw and 
Peibiaw. See Mabinogi of Kilhwch, p. 281; note, p. 351. Some 
genealogies of King Arthur include the name of this Nynniaw. From 
Nynniaw and Peibiaw, John of Tinmouth, or those to whom he was 
indebted, probably derived the idea of the brother saints Nynniaw and 
Plebiaw. St. Finnian of Maghbile was sent in his youth to a place 
in Britain called Magnum Monasterium, by John of Tinmouth, 
Rosnat, Alba, and Monasterium Albium, in Colgan. A. SS. i, pp. 
438-9, and civitas qua? dicitur Candida in Colgan, ib. 634. Its ab- 
bot is styled Monennus, Monennius, Nennius, and Nennio. Colg. ib. 
Ussher, p. 954 or 494. But Finnian's instructor at Candida is called 
by his biographer, and in ancient hymns, Mugentius. Colg ib. 634. 
In the life of St. Eugenius he is called Nennio, qui Mancenus dicitur, 
de Rosnatensi monasterio. Colg. ib. p. 430. num. 4. Dr. Lanigan 
concluded that Mo-nennius or Nennio was no other than Ninia, the 
founder of Candida Casa, who was confounded with the existing 
abbot, by reason of its being called his monastery. See Lanigan' s 
Eccles. Hist, i, 437, ed. ii The address of Alcuin's epistle was, Ad 
FratresS. Ninianide Candida Cam. Besides the coincidence of can- 
dido, and alba, it might have been added that the Gaelic name Rosnat, 
promontory of learning, agrees with the Whithern or Whithorn, 
candidum cornu, of the Northumbrians. Of the various Irish saints 
named Ninnidh or Nainnidh, and sometimes Latinized into Neimius, 
I take no account, as they belong to another nation ; and it is un- 
certain if it be the same name, the more so as the Gaelic appellation 


of St. Ninia is Ringcn or Ringan. Ussher, p. 66 1 ; Chalmers's 
Caledonia, i. 135. Nor do the Irish copies of the Historia seem to 
recognize the name of Nennius, as having a known equivalent; for 
they give it, Numnus, Nenmus, Nemnius, Neimnus, Nemonus, and 
Nenamnis. I do not know if the name in question hath any his- 
torical instances, besides those of the Apostle of the Picts and our 

His discipleship unto St. Elbod now demands consideration. 
The four chronicles annexed to that of the kings of Britain do not 
clearly define Elbod's date. He is said to have flourished in 755 
and 770. Brut y Tywysog. p. 473^.391. Warrington fixes his 
appointment to the primacy of North Wales (seated at Bangor) 
about A. D. 762. The Bonedd y Saint, p. 42, says that he was son 
ofCowlwyd, and bishop [ofCaergybi d orllolyhead] in 773. He died 
in 800, according to the Brut y Tywysog. p. 392, and John Brechva, 
p. 474; and in 809 according to the Brut y Saeson, p. 474; Brut y 
Tywysog. ibid. The Annals of St. David's, carried down to 1285, 
say, anno 770, Pascha mutatur apiul Britones einendante Elbodu homine 
Dei; and A. D. 811, Ettodu (sic) episcopus Venedotice obiit. Anglia 
Sacra, 1 1, p. 648. The date of 755 related to North Wales, and this 
of 770 perhaps relates to South Wales; another South- Welchman, 
leuan Brechva, quotes it. Elbodu (whence Elvodugus) is no doubt 
Elbod Ddu, i. e. Elbod the Black, meaning either swarthy or black- 
haired. Godwin, in his book de Prajsulibus, has not numbered him 
among the bishops of Bangor, which he might have done, lie seems, 
by these accounts, to have been in activity towards the middle of 
the eighth century, and to have departed this life in the first, or 
ninth, or at latest eleventh year of the ninth century. But the book 


d H. Llwyd, in his Commentariolum, his birthplace, and erroneously described 
p. 85, note, observes that Caergybi was as his see. 

of Nennius exhibits the date of A. D. 858, in its eleventh chapter, as 
being the third year of the existing cycle of nineteen years or forty- 
fifth cycle from the Nativity, and the actually current year. His 
professed acquaintance with the Roman annalists and chronographers, 
and with those of the Angli, which must include Beda himself, and 
his computation of it by the Paschal cycles, give to his statement of 
the annus Domini a credit, which is wanting to quotations of that 
sera by other editors of the Historia Britonum; and in the same 
sentence he correctly states, that St. Patrick visited Ireland in the 
twenty-third cycle 6 . Therefore I believe him not to have been far, if 
at all wrong; and to have written in the reign of Rodri Mawr. 
Nennius was also an author not far advanced in years, for his niagis- 
ter or teacher, Beulan, was not only living, but still actively influencing 
his conduct. Therefore there appears a disparity of date between 
Elbod and his disciple. 

But I do not deduce from his words, that Nennius did learn un- 
der Elbod or Elbodu, or even that he was born when that person 
died. Mere individuals can have only personal disciples ; but 
founders of a rule, like Benedict, or of a doctrine, like Arius, arc' 
said to have disciples in those who espouse their systems. Now St. 
Elbod was the aiithor of the greatest revolution known in the 
Welch Church between the fifth and sixteenth centuries. By his in- 
fluence and authority the churches of Wales were first led into con- 
formity with the Latin communion ; and the celebrated Paschal 
schism, after 350 years of duration, began to be abandoned But 


e I would not take his words (xxiii. jnration of the cycle, but rather as the fact 

cycli decemnovennales usque ad adve/itum is. For if he had been as ignorant as the 

S. Patricii in Hiberniam, et ipsi anni ef- other British chronologists, he would 

ficiunt numerum 437 annoruni) so rigidly, probably have missed the true cycle, 
as that Patrick came in 437, at the ex- 


this change (which, contrary to the order of events in Ireland, began 
in the north and was most resisted in the south) was not suddenly 
completed, nor without violent dissensions among the clergy and 
people; to which cause may be ascribed the various years in which 
this affair is said, either generally, or with distinction of north and 
south, to have been decided, viz.: 755, 768, 770, 777. Yet though 
" in A. D. 777, Easter was changed in South Wales" (Brut y Tywys. 
p. 474), that change was not as yet realized there in 802. See 
Ussher, Index Chronol. And the death of Elbod, in 809, is said to 
have been a signal for fresh disputes on the subject. Brut y Tywys. 
p. 475. Between f 842 and 847, it was still a topic of private discus- 
sion, though perhaps no longer of national contention. The memory 
of their old ritual was long cherished among the Welch; who er- 
roneously imagined that their discipline had been that of St. John 
and the Seven Churches of Asia, and therefore paid a peculiar 
honour to that apostle, and sometimes called their religious peculiari- 
ties the ordinance* of John. See Beda, Hist. Eccl. iii. cap. 25; Pro- 
bert's Triads, p. 79 ; Triodd Doethineb Beirdd, num. 219^1.314; 
Llewelyn Vardd, Cairn y Gadvan, v. 5, ab ult. In the spurious pro- 
logus, Ncnnius is made to entitle himself Dei t/ratid, S. Elbodi disci- 
pulus, and I think its writer understood Nennius as I do ; not 
meaning to thank God for giving him, personally, so learned a tutor; 
but to profess, that by God's grace he was reunited to the catholic 
communion of the west, which the Paschal differences had disturbed 
for several centuries. lie was not a disciple of John, but a disciple 
of Elbod. It is observable that Nennius (as distinct from Marcus) 
computes his own date by the decemnovennal or Latin cycle, as that 


f Vita S. Johan. Chrysostomi, cit. Rice scene of those discussions, appears from 
Rees on Welch Saints, p. 66, note. That the date. For even lona had then con- 
Britain, not Ireland or Scotland, was the formed 130 years. 

established in his country when he wrote ; and we verify thereby the 
fact, that he was an Elbodian. 

It is commonly said, that Nennius was a monk or even abbot of 
Bangor is y Coed, studied under the celebrated Dunawd Gwr or 
Dionotus, and was one of those who escaped from the massacre of 
the monks by Ethelfrid, King of Northumbria, in 607. There is not 
a single date in any of the various copies of the Historia, which lays 
claim to an earlier century than the ninth. And the chief motive for 
revertino- to this obsolete idea is to observe, that the entire notion 
of his belonging to Bangor, and his title of Nennius Bannochorensis, 
was probably a mere delusion, founded upon his being a disciple of 
Elbod, who was styled Archbishop of Gwynedd, and was Bishop of 
Bangor Vawr in Arvon, a place remote from the abbey of Bangor is 
y Coed in Cheshire, or, more correctly speaking, in Flintshire. I 
have detected no indications of his town or province. 

He had for instructor a priest by name Beular, or rather Beulan B , 
of whom a little more has been said than he merits. "I omitted 
(saith Nennius) the Saxon h genealogies, cum inutiles magistro meo, 
id est Beulario presbytero, visas sunt." Cap. 65. Some have called 
him Samuel Beulan ; but others will have it, that Beulan had, by his 
wife Lseta, a son Samuel, who wrote commentaries upon Nennius. 
Gale repeatedly speaks of this Samuel as an interpolator ; Mr. Ber- 
tram of Copenhagen becomes quite impassioned on the subject; while 
the oracles from Mr. Pinkerton's tripod pronounce that both Nen- 
nius and Samuel are equally vile. But neither father nor son have 
any historical existence, other than what the former owes to the 


8 Peu llan, regio ecclesice, or regio culta. that, being then in existence, the Saxon 
h That omission is supplied in some genealogies were not received by him into 
MSS. at considerable length. We are pro- his compilation ; at least, they appear to 
bably not to understand that they were me to mention no person subsequent to 
composed subsequently to Nennius ; but the eighth century. 
IRISH ARCH. SOC. 1 6. * C 


above text of Nennius, and both of them to notes in prose and verse 
appended to one or two of the MSS. The principal record of Sa- 
muel is in the following production, contained in a Cambridge MS. of 
about the beginning of the thirteenth century, marked Ff. i. 27, p. 20; 
which Mr. Stephenson (Pref. p. xxvi.) has printed in a form meant 
to be explanatory, but rather needing explanation. I believe I have 
restored them to the form in which the document exhibits them. 

" Versus Nennini ad Samuelem filium magistri sui Beulani presbytcri, viri reli- 
giosi, ad quern historiam suam scripserat. 

" Adjutor bcnignus caris doctor effabilis fonis', 

.i. Samueli 

" Gaudium honoris isti katholica lege magni, 
" Nos omnes precamur, qui ros sit tutus utatur. 

.i. Beulani 

" Xpiste 1 tribuisti patri Samuelem, leta matre. 

.i. mater .1. Samuel 

" Ymnizat hajc semper tibi longoevus Ben servus tui. 
" Zona indue salutis istum pluribus annis". 

" Versus ejusdem Nennii. 
" Fornifer qui digitis scripsit ex ordine trinis 
Incolumis obtalmis sitque omnibus membris. 
En vocatur Ben notis litteris nominis quini." 

Then follows the false statement about the twenty -fourth year of 
Mervyn Vrych, extracted from the spurious Prologus. The initials 
of the words in the first three lines, from adjutor to utatur, go 
through the alphabet to U, and the initials of the last three lines go 
on to Z ; the change occurring at the sacred initial X. How to construe 
them ; what fornifer can mean ; what Ben jj means, who is so called, 
and why ; and what the nomen t/uinum is ; are mysteries. The only 
thing plain from them is the origin of Samuel's mother Lceta, in verse 4; 


' Fonis for the Greek ^wvaif. thought he had closed the preceding one 

' Sic. The p in Xpiste is the Greek with istum salu Mr. Stevenson has 

Klio. erroneously printed Amen, for annis. 
" This verse stands thus in the MS., >> Gualtherus in his Alexandreis lib. iv. 

Zona indue salutisistum tis pluribus annis. says, " Successit Ben Num Moisi post 

The tis begins a line, and the writer bella sepulto." 

1 1 

Icetd matre, his mother being glad! In spite of these obscure sayings 
it is not apparent to me, that Samuel, son of Beulan and Lceta, is a 
different person from Nennius himself. For the words added to cap. 3 
in one of Gale's MSS., wherein Samuel's name occurs (and wherein 
alone it occurs, so far as I am made aware, with the exception of 
those verses) are these : " I, the Samuel, that is to say the child, of my 
master, that is to say of Beulan the priest, wrote it in this page, yet 
this genealogy was not written in any volume of Britain, but was in the 

writing of writer." Gale, p. 119. Bertram, p. 187: "Samuel, 

id est infans, magistri mei, id est Beulani presbyteri, in ista pagina 
scripsi," c. Here we see, that Samuel is only a figurative phrase 
for one dedicated to divine studies from his tender years. " And 
the child Samuel ministered to the Lord before Eli." But there is 
an obvious delicacy in not saying " Eli mei" instead of " magistri 
mei," for the priest and kind patron of Samuel was a feeble and im- 
perfect character. The youth of Nennius, and his not having passed 
the inferior orders, may also be inferred from this passage; as well 
as from cap. 65. Therefore the writer of the verses could not 
mean Nennius, but might mean Beulan, by longamis Ben. If these 
things be so (and I see them no otherwise) we shall be quit" of Sa- 
muel Beulanus, Samuel Beulani filius, Samuel Britannus, &c. ; and 
Beulan himself remains, only known for his contempt of Saxon 

But another man besides Nennius, and before him, had published 
the Historia Britonum, Marcus the Anachoret. To him that His- 
toria is ascribed in the famous MS. of the tenth century, published 
by Mr. Gunn. It was penned in A. D. 946, being the fifth and last 
year of Edmund, King of England; pp. 45, 62, 80. The frequent 


k See Bale, Cent. fol. 37, ., 38, a. Med. et. Inf. Latin, vi. p. 417, in Ximutel. 
Leland de Script. Brit, cap. 48. Fabricii Pitseus cit. ibid. 


repetition of this date, and some changes in the catalogue of cities, 
shew the writer to have been an Englishman or Anglo-Saxon. Mr. 
Gunn, in his title page, says it was edited by Mark in the tenth cen- 
tury. But Mark flourished early in the ninth; and it is only his 
transcriber, who gives us his own date in the tenth. Marcus was a 
Briton born, and educated in Ireland, where he was for a long time 
a bishop, but he settled in France, where (for aught that appears) he 
ended his days. Heric of Auxerre (in a prose Life' of Germanus, 
which mentions an event of A. D. 873, but was certainly published 
before October, 877) reports, that he and divers other persons had 
formerly heard, from the lips of Marcus, a narrative concerning Ger- 
manus; which Heric retails, with as little variation 1 " from the same 
narrative in the Historia Britonum (Marcus, pp. 62-5 ; Nennius, 
cap. 30-4), as could be expected in such oral repetitions. Therefore 
the heading of the Petavian MS. derives potent confirmation, from 
the fact that Marcus could repeat the substance of it by heart. Mr. 
Stevenson's adverse supposition is not an absurd one, that the tran- 
scriber of A. D. 946, having read Hericus de Miraculis Germani, 
and seen there the substance of this story, thence inferred that Mar- 
cus wrote the Historia, and so asserted it. It may be replied that, if 
he did read Hericus he would have seen that he quoted no book, but 
only conversations; and that Marcus himself in those conversations, 


1 Heric also formed, out of the most natio JJritonum for the phrase, so strange 

ancient Life of Germanus, by his coteni- to his ears, of regio Poicysorum. The 

porary Constantius Monachus, a poem main discrepance is the expulsion of the 

which entitles him to a high rank among tyrant, instead of the burning him with 

modern Latin versifiers ; upon the strength fire from heaven. It is astonishing that 

of which Mr. Stevenson has dubbed him Gale should annotate " Vide Ericum in 

Constantius Hericus. Prsef. p. xiii. Vita Germani, quern hsec ex Nennio sump- 

m Nothing is more natural, than for sisse constat," when the contrary is de- 

Heric, after many years, to substitute clared in such very express terms. 


referred to no such historical work, but to the original sources of it. 
" The aforesaid bishop, whose probity whosoever hath experienced 
will by no means hesitate to believe his words, assured me, with the 
addition of an oath, that these things were contained in Catkolicis 
litteris in Britannia." But the words litterce Catholicce do not apply 
to such a compilation as this; but to the acta or gesta of their saints, 
which were preserved in particular churches 

However, there are broader reasons to be considered, than the 
mere assertion of the MS. The Historia is the work of a Briton. 
None other is likely to have been in possession of so many British 
traditions; and the Irish, in particular, seem to have held" opposite 
traditions. Besides, he plainly signifies himself such, in a phrase 
which the Anglo-Saxon scribe cannot have introduced, where he 
quotes British legends " ex traditione nostrorum veterum" Marcus, 
p. 53. Yet the work of this British man is that of an Irish author, ad- 
dressing himself peculiarly to the Irish people, and exclusively Irish 
in the religious part of his feelings. This appears in his notices of 
Irish history; in his copious notice of St. Patrick; but chiefly and 
most demonstratively in the fifty-third page of Marcus . There the 
epochs of Patrick, Bridget, and Columkille, the three patrons of all 
Ireland, are commemorated; whereas the whole work does not con- 
tain the name of David, Iltutus, Dubricius, or any British saint 
whatsoever. Nothing can be more certain than the author's close 
connexion with Ireland. This truth was appreciated, or perhaps 
was known, by those transcribers' 5 who assigned the Historia to 
Gildas Hibernicus ; for its author, though not an Irishman, was 
really an Hibernian Gildas, or man of religion and learning, lint 


n For they derived the Britons from Cap. n, Gale; 16, Stevenson. 
Britan Maol, son of Fergus Eed-side, son p See Casimir Oudin, Script. Eccl. ii. 
of Nemedius. p. 73. 


all the premises are true of Marcus, who was natione BritcP, educatus 
vero in Hibernid, and had been an Irish bishop. For though Heric's 
words, " ejusdem gentis episcopus" are equivocal, the doubt is solved 
by those of the Ekkehards or Eccards of St. Gallen r : "Marcus Scot- 
tiaena episcopus Gallum tanquam compatriotam suum Roma rediens 
visitat." So that if we determine to reject Marcus, the alleged 
author of this production, it will only be to seek for some other man 
precisely corresponding in circumstances. Nennius, on the other 
hand, is neither recorded, nor doth he seem, to have had connexion 
with Ireland; he was not an Irish religionist, but an Elbodi discipulus; 
and he refers to the scripta Scotorum Anglorumque as to things 
equally foreign to himself. 

We have now to compare the date of Marcus with that of the 
Historia. After mentioning Britannia man/a, Ileric proceeds to 
mention the holy old man Marcus, a bishop of the same nation, who 
was by birth a Briton, but was educated in Ireland, and, after a long 
exercise of episcopal sanctity, imposed upon himself a voluntary 
pilgrimage, and having so passed into France, and being invited by 
the munificence of the pious King Charles, spent an anachoretic life 
at the convent of Saints Medard and Sebastian; a remarkable philoso- 
pher in our days, and of peculiar sanctity. Eccard Junior explains 
to us that his pilgrimage was to Koine, and that on his return from 
thence he visited the Abbey of St. Gall. His sister's son, Moengal, 
accompanied him, whom they afterwards named Marcellus, as a di- 
minutive from Marcus. At the request of Grimaldus the Abbot of 
St. Gallon, and at the persuasion of his nephew, he consented to 


'' Hericus do Mirac. Germ, ap Laliliu, nicaruiii, tom. i. p. 12. In Ekkehardi 

Bilil. Manuscr. I, p. 555. Minimi Vita Notkeri, cap. 7, ibid. p. 230, 

r Ekkehardus Junior decasibusMonast. tin-re are similar words. 
Sangallensis ap. Goldnsti Rerum Alaman- 


tarry there, which raised a mutiny among their servants, who desired 
to return home. But they pacified their retinue by distributing 
among them the bishop's money, mules, and horses. The com- 
mencement of this sojourn fell between A. D. 841 and the June of 
872", such being the limits of Grimald's abbacy. After a time 
Marcellus was made master of the abbey school, and of the boys who 
were training up to the monastic life, including Notkerus, who was 
afterwards called Balbulus, in which situation he distinguished him- 
self in music and other sciences. But Marcus afterwards seceded 
to the abbey of St. Medard at Soissons. At the time, between 473 
and 477, when Heric was Avriting this, Marcus was no more; for 
Labbe's reading, exercebat vitam, though changed by the Bollandists 
to e.cercet, is confirmed by " multis coram referre xolitm erat," by the 
phrase nostro tempore, and by the description of him as having then 
been " sanctus senex" But his entire sojourn at St. Gallon succeeded 
his sojourn at Rome. And his journey to Rome was undertaken 
" post longa pontificalis sanctitatis exercitia;" the commencement of 
which exercitia could not, canonically, have preceded the completion 
of his thirtieth year; but cannot, according to the laws of probability, 
be fixed to its earliest possible epoch. From all which circumstances, 
it is by no means improbable, that the birth of Marcus ascended into 
the eighth century. 


5 Ratpertus de Monast. S. Gallensi, pp. boy of fifteen when Marcellus took him 
6-9, ibid. Notker the Lisper was placed in hand, the latter was master of the ab- 
under Marcellus, when a boy. But Not- bey school in 847. If Notker died at 85, 
ker died in 91 2, nimia fetate ingravescente, 84, 83, &c., we shall draw so much nearer 
and in senecta bond plenus dierum leato to 841, our chronological limit. But he 
fine deficiens, consoling himself with the could scarcely be appointed, before his 
reflection that " man's days at the most uncle and he had made some considerable 
are an hundred years." Ecclus. xviii. 9. sojourn at the abbey. See Ekkehardi 
Therefore I place his birth at least eighty Minimi Vita Notkeri, cap. 32. 
years before, or in 832; and if he was a 


Such being the chronology of Marcus himself, we require the date 
of the book ascribed to him. Here it must be observed, that during 
and before the first half of the ninth century, the sera of Christ' was 
recently introduced and ill understood, among the British and Irish ; 
whereat we need not complain, seeing how imperfectly it was worked 
out by Beda himself. " The Christian aara (saith Mr. Carte) was 
not then, at its first coming into use, so well understood as it hath 
been since." Their use of the two Christian asras or years of redemp- 
tion, viz. the Nativity and the Passion, sometimes one, sometimes 
the other, and sometimes both, increased the confusion of their 
Dominical dates. But the plain root of the evil was, that they did 
not know, and could not tell, what year of our Lord the current 
year was. If the Christian sera were now of recent introduction, 
seldom mentioned, and not to be found in one book out of a thousand, 
few of us could tell what year thereof it is. It would be a fact of 
learned and not obvious attainment; and was more so to those 
whose learning was scanty. They knew how many years the reign- 
ing prince had reigned; but they did not know what year of Christ 
that was. So the English transcriber of Marcus gives us his date 
sufficiently, viz., the t/uintux Eadmundi regis Anylorum, but absurdly 
adds that it was A. D. P. 946 and A. D. N. 976 ; and twice again 
states, that it was 547 years after A. D. P. 447, which makes" A. D. N. 
1024. Yet this imbecility does not affect the date, which is con- 
sistently given. Marcus nowhere gives an express date, that we can 
convert into the Annm Domini But we have his assertion that, 

" from 

1 Upon this subject see the learned pre- nexed to Moses Williams's edition of 

lace to the Ogygia, and O'Conor in Script. Lhwyd's Commentariolum. 

Rer. Hib. xi. p. 20. And, for specimens " According to his computation, which 

of absurd anachronism in that a'ra, see allows only thirty years between the Na- 

Gale's second appendix to Nenuius, p. 1 18, tivity and Passion, 
and the -dirte Cambro-Britannicse an- 

1 7 

" from the time when the Saxons came into Britain, unto the fourth 
year of King Mervyn, 428 years are computed;" being in truth about 
fifty-one years too many. Now the fourth year of Mervyn Vrych, or 
822, was no epocha, cither in general or local history; and no motive 
can be conjectured for his computation stopping at that year of the 
reign, except that it was the then current year. We must, there- 
fore, dismiss entirely his miserable attempts at Christian chronology, 
and take the plain fact, that he was writing quarto Mermeni [Mervini, 
Nenn.] regis. p. 53. Therefore the book was in progress of composition 
in the year 822, which agrees sufficiently well with what we know 
of Marcus. It equally agrees with the date v of 820 ct deincqxf, 
assigned to Gildas Ilibernicus. The Historia seems to have been 
originally composed, whilst a certain Fernmael, son of Tudor, was 
Lord of Buellt and Guortigerniawn ; from which passage and others, 
I conjecture the author to have come from those parts of Wales, and 
to have had some acquaintance or connexion with that descendant of 
Vortigern. All copies agree that Fernmael was eleventh in descent 
from Pascent, youngest son of Vortigern. Therefore if we suppose 
Pascent's son, Briacat, to be born at the time of Vortigern's death, 
which Owen calls 481, and Blair 484, and we may call 480, then 
Ferumael's birth, at thirty years to the generation, will fall upon 780, 
and the forty-second year of his life will coincide with 822. There- 
fore this date, which our ignorance when Fernmael lived and died 
deprives of any direct utility, seems at least to be consistent with the 
quartus Mervini regis, or 822. It is remarkable, that while Nennius 
retains the assertion that Fernmael was actually reigning (regit rnodo) 
the text of Marcus exhibits regnavit. p. 78. Neunius, cap. 52. But 
that is the handy work of the scribe of 946, who was particularly 
tenacious of his own date, and would not have Fernmael for his 

* Cave de Script. Eccles. ii, p. 1 6, ed. 1 745. 


contemporary. The year 822 is, therefore, the lowest date of the 
original Historia. But it is also the highest, unless we are disposed 
to look for some other nameless Brito-IIibernian, anterior to Marcus, 
as a tortoise for the elephant. That such a one may have existed is, 
of course, possible; but perhaps criticism, having found exactly what 
it wants, will do better to acquiesce. 

It results, that Marcus compiled this credulous book of British 
traditions, for the edification of the Irish, circ. A. D. 822; and one 
Nennius, a Briton of the Latin communion, republished it with addi- 
tions and changes, circ. A.I). 858. We should, however, keep in mind, 
that we have not the text of Marcus upon which Nennius worked, 
but a text which was tampered with about ninety years after Nen- 
nius wrote; and, therefore, the Marcian text of the Petavian MS. is 
not, in every trifling instance where they differ, the oldest of the 

But another edition or revisal of the llistoria succeeded that of 
Nennius; and its author has introduced his own date with precision, 
yet with an utter ignorance of the Christian icra. What more he 
introduced besides the date does not appear, but perhaps nothing of 
moment. It occurs in the enumeration of the six ages of the world, 
that precede the British history. "From the Passion of Christ 800 
years have elapsed, but from his Incarnation 832, down to the thirtieth 
year of Anarawd, King of Mona, who now rules the region of Vene- 
dotia or Gwynedd"." In truth Anarawd or llonoratus, son of Rodri 
Mawr, reigned over Gwynedd from 876 to 913, and the thirtieth 
year of his reign was the year 906, and the same in which that 
scribe was writing; being just seventy-four years out of his reckon- 
ing. Brut y Tywys. p. 482-5. And as he republished with an in- 

w " Wenedocioe rcgiouis, id est Guer- bridge manuscript, Ff. i. 27, it is Guer- 
tiiet," apud Gale, male. In the Cam- net. 


terpolated date the Nennian edition, so (we have seen) did another 
person, in A. D. 946, send forth again the older Marcian edition. 

It will strike every reader, that this work was peculiarly dealt 
with. It was treated as a sort of common land, upon which any 
goose might graze. Mere transcribers seem to have played the edi- 
tor, if not the author. The dates thrice introduced by the Petavian 
scribe are not annexed in the way of colophon, but are interwoven 
into the solid text, in complicated sentences, and with elaborate mis- 
calculation. Nennius himself no where states, that he was republish- 
in" with a limited amount of change and addition, the Historia of 

o" o ' 

the Brito-Irish compiler. It seems to have been regarded as the 
album or common-place book of Britannia, to which any one might 
laudably add such passages as he knew of; and elucidate or obscure, 
according to his ability, what he found already there. It was no 
rule to expunge what the predecessors had stated, even when stating 
the contrary; from which cause inconsistencies disfigure the text. 
So Marcus having stated that St. Patrick went to Ireland in A. D. 
405, Nennius has faithfully republished it; but almost in the next 
sentence of the same chapter he states, that there were twenty-three 
decemnovennal cycles unto St. Patrick's advent, in a true sense, I 
believe, but certainly in one utterly discordant with the previous 
text. In like manner, Fernmael, son of Tudor, continued to be 
living and reigning in 858, and in the thirtieth of Anarawd, or 906, 
and was not killed off till 946. This common-place book of Britain 
seems rather analogous to the histories about St. Patrick, which 
Tirechan has strung together under the name of Annotationes. The 
Historia Britonum merits such a title equally well, and the like of it 
is signified by its writers in their phrase of Experimenta, cap. i, 3, 
and 12, Gale; pp. 48, 53, Gunn. This state of the case tends to ab- 
solve Nennius from the charge of imposture in appropriating the 
labours of another; for the mode of proceeding with this book seems 

D 2 to 


to have been understood. In his Apology he speaks of his own 
work or publication, as being one, " quod multi doctores atque libra- 
rii scribere tentaverint," authors and transcribers classed together; 
and complains, that " ncscio quo pacto difficilius rcliquerint," each 
transcribing doctor leaving it less intelligible than he found it; which 
misfortune he ascribes to frequent wars and pestilences, instead of 
the more proximate cause, viz.: the accumulated blunders of ill- 
instructed men. He apologizes for presuming " post tantos haec tanta 
scribere," and he can scarcely apply the words " post tantos" gene- 
rally to the historians of Britain, for he had complained that there were 
next to none; but the "/<o?c tanta" is to be taken literally for the very 
book in hand. In his concluding chapter he mentions his omission 
(at Beulan's suggestion) to write the Saxon genealogies, seemingly of 
earlier date than his own, " nolui ea scribere," adding, " but I have 
written of the cities and remarkable things of Britain, as other writers 
wrote before me." The same observations apply to this passage. 
Lastly, when he says of a Trojan genealogy", "hscc genealogia non 
est scripta in aliquo volnnnw> Britannia?, sed in scriptione . . scrip- 
toris fait," he clearly means " in any previous copy or edition of this 
hook of Britain;' and in fact it is absent from the text of Marcus. 
The Irish version now published, is actually entitled, in the Books of 
Lecan and Hy-Many, " Leabhar Breathnach," i. e. Volumen Britanni- 
cum, or Book of Britain. The vast avidity with which Geoffrey of 
Monmouth was received by the world prevents our wondering that 
transcripts of this book had been multiplied within about thirty-six 
years, as seems to have been the case. 

This condition of affairs offers a great excuse for our Irish trans- 
lator, if he be found to introduce many things illustrative of British 
history, that were not in any transcript of the Latin book from 

* Cod. Bened. in Gale, Var. Lect. p. 119. 


which he professes to take his own, or as Nennius hath it, "in aliquo 
volumine Britannia." It were indeed more hard to excuse him, for 
o-ivin- expressly "as recorded by Nennius" certain details of Insr 
history which Nennius did not record, but for the great likelihood 
that the same thing happened in Ireland as in Britain, viz.: that tile- 
successive editorial transcribers of the Irish Nennius inserted words 
of their own. In which case, that false heading may not have been 
the work of any man who knew it to be false. There is some reason 
to think, that the Irish translation was made by a certain Guanach, 
and that the text, as now printed, was revised by a later hand. For 
after a translation of considerable closeness and fidelity from Nennius, 
it is written, " it was in this way that our noble elder Guanach de- 
duced the pedigree of the Britons, from the chronicles of the Romans.' 
Infra, p. 37. But a work, actually commencing with the words " 
Nemnius [Nennius] Elvodugi discipulus," could never mean to rob that 
author of his matter, and falsely ascribe it to a certain Guanach. 
is, therefore, apparent that Guanach was either the Irish translator, 
or an editor of the translation; and that this annotation proceeds 
from an editor of junior date and calling him his elder 5 '. The " chro- 
nicles of the Romans," employed by Guanach, are nothing more than 
the Latin copies of the Historia Britonum ; which is stated by Nen- 
nius himself (in the Irish translation, as well as in the original, of his 
Apologia) to be partly collected from the Annals of the Romans and 
the Chronicles of the Saints. The earliest MS. of the Irish Nennius, 
so far as is known to its editor, is of the twelfth century. But the 


> According to O'Reilly (Irish writers, later. This would furnish increased evi- 

p 120) there is a memorandum prefixed dcncc to the employment , 

to the copy of the Leabhar Breatlmacli, in and succession of hands. 

the Book of Hy-Many, which says that Ily-Many has passed into the hands 

Nennius was the author, and Giolla some private collector, and 

Caoimhghin (who died in 1072) the trans- accessible. (T.) 


epoch of the translation does not seem to transpire from any internal 

A. H. 

P. S. A partial elucidation of the very obscure verses in page i o 
is due to the kindness and ingenuity of the Rev. S. R. Maitland, who 
observes that the last line, if we read it " En vocatur Ben notis litteris 
nominis quinis" not qidn'i'-, will apply to the name Benlanus (though 
not to Beulanus), which spelling is mentioned in Fabricius, and that 
of Benlanius in Pitseus. For Benlanus, understanding (notis, i. e. 
subintellectis) the other five letters, lanus, will leave Ben ; or, by 
changing notis to motis, i. e. removed, tlie sense becomes more ex- 
plicit. Indeed the MS., which has Beulani plainly written in red 
ink, has another u written above in black ink, and the red u scored 
under with black; which shows that attention had been attracted to 
the first syllable of the name. Benllan signifies Caput Ecclesias. Mr. 
Maitland thinks that magni in the second line had its origin in magri, 
the contraction of magistri. And also that the inexplicable word 
fornifer should be formiter, i. e. " recte, secundum formam vel legem." 
Du Cange. Upon the whole, a more obscure and enigmatical com- 
position will scarcely be met vith. 

A. H. 

i 1 

' It is written in the MS. qni ; and trinis, tnis. 

bReadmach QNNSO sis. 

Leabhan bReadwach QNNSO sis. 

qua ejrceppca pcpipepe cupauai 

Dipcipulup nli- 
.1. po oeichmjep 

jo pa pjjpibaino apaile DO lamapca, -j me Nenam- 
mp Dip^ibail GluDaig, ^015 po oepmaio heap -\ aimeajna in 


the chronicles of the holy Fathers [that 
is, Jerome, Eusebius, Isidore, Prosper, in- 
terpol. in some MSS.], and from the wri- 
tings of the Scots and Angles, and from 
the traditions of our own ancestors (ve- 
tcnnn); which thing (quod) many doctors 
and scribes have attempted to write, but 
have left more difficult ; I know not 
wherefore, unless it be on account of the 
frequent mortalities and continual disas- 
ters of war. I beg that every reader, who 
reads this book, will forgive me, that I 
have ventured to write such considerable 
things as these after such considerable per- 
sons, like a chattering bird, or like some 
incompetent judge (invalidits arbiter). I 
defer to him, who may know more in this 
branch of knowledge than I do." That 

a Liber Brittanicus. ^eabap ftpernac, 
" the British Book;" this title is given to 
the following work in the Books of Lccan 
and Hy-Many. The initial words, r^o 
Nemniup Gloougi, are a fac-simile from 
the Book of Lecan (7'.) 

'' Ego Nennius, <J-c. Numnus, D., NVim- 
nus, B., Nemonus, D., a secimda manu. 
(T.) The following are the true words 
of the Apologia Nennii : "I Nennius, a 
disciple of St. Elbod, have taken the 
pains to write certain extracts, which the 
dulness of the British nation had cast 
aside, because the doctors of the island 
Britannia had no skill, and did not place 
any commemoration in books. But I have 
collected all that I could find, as well out 
of the Annals of the Romans, as out of 


GO Nemnius" Elvodugi c discipulus, aliqua" excerp- 
ta e scribere curavi, i. e. I have taken pains f to write 
certain fragments, and I am Nenamnis E a disciple 
of Eludach h , because the folly and ignorance' of 
the nation of Britannia have given to oblivion the 
history and origin of its first people, so that they 

veterum means ancients or ancestors, not 
aged men, appears from cap. 13, Gale and 
Bertram, 1 7 Stevenson. I conceive inva- 
lidus arbiter to mean a judge, acting with- 
out the limits of his jurisdiction (77.) 

Ekodugi Elodugi L. See the In- 
troductory Remarks, p. 6 (T.) 

d Aliqua dilia, D., for alia ; Irish 
scribes frequently write Latin words in 
conformity with the rule of Irish ortho- 
graphy called Caol le caol, agu^ leacan 
le learan ; of this we have another ex- 
ample here in the word cupauai for 
curavi. (T.) 

*Excerpta Oipcepca, L., t)ipceppra, 


f 7 have taken pains. tDeicionijiupa, 
B., Oeichecoijepa, L., from Oeirioe, 
care, diligence. (T.) 

8 Nenamnis Nemnuy, B. The Book 

of Lecan does not give the name in thi.s 
place (T.) 

h Eludach, or Eludag. Gulooaj, B. 
Depabul aile pooaij, L. (T.) 

' Folly and ignorance 6eap ajuf aenec, 
B., where aenec is probably for cunpeich 
or ameolac, ignorance. 6ap ajup ejna, 
the habit and knowledge, D. The Latin 
copies read " quae hebetude gentis Brit- 
tannias," &c. The reading in the text is 
from L._ (T.) 



ceneoil bpeacaima peancapa -\ bunaoana na cecbame cona pilic 
[i popaicme] a pgpibanoaib nac a lebpaib. TTleppe imoppo, po 
comcinoilipa na pencapa puapapa in analcaib na T?oman, ap na 
cponicib na ppuiche noeb .1. Qppmoip -| Cipme -| Gapebn, in anal- 
caib Sajcan ~\ ^aeoil, -| ma puapap o cmnocol ap n-appa pein. 

II. bpicoma inpola a bpicinia pilio Ipocon oicca epc .1. o 
bpican pacep imp bpecan, no acbepaio apaile gomao o'n ci ap 
bpucap no pacea .1. an ceo conpal po bai a l?omancaib. Qlbion 
imoppo po b'e ceo amm inbpi bpeacan. Ochc cet> mile cement) poc 
inopi bpeacan. Oa cet> mile cemino ma lecec. Ochc ppim-cach- 
paca .pp. inoce, -| ace anopo a n-anmant>a [DO peip eolach bpecan]. 


J Commemorated. Q popmchmeach, 
L. Omitted in D. " Ncquc ullam coiu- 
memorationem in libris posuerunt.'' (T.) 

k Brought together Comchintol, L., 

Coimcinoiliup, B., " coacervavi." (7'.) 

1 Isidore. Tho Irish always corrupted 
foreign names. Thus Isidore is GfUiDip, 
L., Cfpumip, B. Jerome is Cipene, L., 
Cipine, B. (the C having probably been 
aspirated to represent HieronymMs), Euse- 
bius is Gbpeuiup, L., Gupebiup, B. The 
readings of I) are given in the text. The 
Latin adds Prog])er, who is not mentioned 
in any of the Irish copies (7'.) 

m Gaels It is worthy of note that the La- 
tin word Scoti or Scotti, is uniformly trans- 
lated J) ae 6il', Gadclii or Gaels, throughout 
this work, ^a*^ 1 ^ is the name by which 
the Irish and Highlanders of Scotland de- 
signate themselves to the present day. 
The Welch also call themselves Gwydhil, 
and their country Tir Gwydhil (T.) 

" Tradition The word nonocol is 

here evidently used to represent the Latin 
" ex traditione veterum nostrorum." It 
signifies, conveyance, handing down from 
one to another, tradition ; the verb ciob- 
nacaim, to deliver, is in use in modern 
Irish. Q h-analcaib ^aeioel puapup o 
chionocol h-e inp n-appanoaib, L. Ocup 
inn puapup o rionacul ap n-appuca, B. 

Britonia insola. This section is re- 
peated twice in L. first at the beginning, 
and again near the end ; the readings of the 
former of these copies will be denoted by 
L'. those of the second by L 2 . The second 
alone contains the list of cities. (T.) 

p A Britinia Omitted L 1 . ; a 6perone, 

L 2 . ; a 6picone, B (T.) 

q Dicta est. t)acanca, 1)., the Irish 
equivalent word put instead of the Latin. 

1 Or some say .... named. Omitted, 

are not commemorated j in writings nor in books. But I have 
brought together" the histories that I found in the Annals of the 
Romans, out of the chronicles of the learned saints, viz.: Isidore 1 , 
and Jerome, and Euscbius, in the Annals of the Saxons and Gaels, 
and what I discovered from the tradition" of our own old men. 

II. Britonia insola a Britinia" filio Isocon dicta est q , i. e. the 
island of Britain is named from Britan, or some say that it was from 
one Brutus it was named r , i. e. the first consul 5 that was of the Ro- 
mans; but Albion' was the first name of the island of Britain. Eight 
hundred thousand paces is the length" of the island of Britain. Two 
hundred thousand paces is its breadth. Eight and twenty principal 
caers [or cities] are in it; and these following 7 are their names, ac- 

cording to the learned of Britain" : 

B. L 2 . No uobepcuo apoile ip o 6picup 
po h-ammnijeat), L'. The name of 
Britain is here derived from Brutus the 
first Roman consul; but in another part 
of this work it is said to have been de- 
rived from Brutus, son of Silvius, son of 

Ascanius, son of ./Eneas (2'.) 

8 The first consul First is omitted in 
all the Latin copies, and rightly. For L. 
Junius Brutus is not here alluded to ; and 
consul is said, in a general way, for a per- 
son of power and dignity. See Mr. Gunn's 
note vi. p. 94, &c. ; Du Cange in Consul and 
Consulatus; Galfrid. Monumet. i. cap. 13, 
x. cap. 4, &c. Marcus Anachoreta, p. 80. 
Tywysawg appears to be the British equi- 
valent; Bruttus Tywysawg o Ruvein; 
Hanes Grufudd ab Cynan, p. 584. The 
fable of Brute the Trojan was not devoid 
of a slight foundation in the Eoman tra- 


ditions ; for Junius Brutus was descended 
from a Trojan who accompanied ^Eneas; 
but the name Junius, rather than the 
surname Brutus, was Trojan. See Dion. 
Hal. Ant. iv. cap. 68. (//.) 

' Albion This name does not occur in 
any of the Latin editions. It is not of 
Latin origin, and has no reference to the 
Latin word albus ; nor is its origin and 
meaning known. It does not appear that 
the Greek geographers gave any explana- 
tion of their word 'Ahovtav. (//.) 

u Eight hundred the length. 

Omitted, B. L-. Cemeno omitted B. L 1 . L-. 

T These following lp mo po pip, B. L*. 

w According to the learned of Britain. 
This clause occurs only in L 2 . B. adds 
here, cecup (T.) 

E 2 


Caep ^opcigeprm. Caep ^purup. Caep TTlencepc. Caep 
Luill. Caep TTleDjuiD. Caep Colun. Caep ^upoipr. Caep 
Qbpog. Caep Capaooj. Caep bpur. Caep TTlacoo. Caep Cu- 
namo. Caep Oen. Caep Ipangm. Caep pheup. Caep Oon. Caep 
Lonmopepuipc. Caep ^pujan. Caep Sane. Caep Lejun. Caep 
^niDiuo. Caep bpeacan. Caep Leipinoin. Caep penopa. Caep 
Opuichjolgoo. Caep Luicicoir. Caep Upnochc. Caep Gilimon. 

III. Ipic imoa a cachpaca jenmoca pin, [oiapmeoe a para 
1 a caipcel cumacca]. Ceichpi ceinela aiccpeabaio imp bpearari, 
.1. J5aeoil ~\ Cpuichnig -\ bpeacnaij ~\ Bahrain. Inopi 5 ura I 1ia 
aneap, Gbonia amap erappu -| 6ipe .1. TTlanaino, -] inopi Opcc 
pia acuaio. [Ctpcnaio h-6pe peac imp bpeacan piap oeap co 

x Caer-Gortigern. The names of the 
cities are given in B. thus : C. Guirthir- 
girnd. C. Gutais, C. Luaill, C. Meguaid, 
C. Colon, C. Gustint, C. Abroc, C. Cara- 
toc, C. Graat, C. Machuit, C. Ludain, C. 
Ceisi, C. Giraigon, C. Pheus, C. Miucip, 
C. Leoinarphuisc, C. Grucon, C. Sent, C. 
Leigion, C. Guent, C. Breatan, C. Lerion, 
C. Punsa, C. Gluteolcoit, C. Luitcoit, C. 
Urtaeh, C. Celhneno. The names, as 
given in L J , are C. Gorthigearnd, C. 
Gutais, C. Luaill, C. Meaenaid, C. Cholou, 
C. Gustaint, C. Abrog, C. Charadoc, C. 
Graad, C. Macaid, C. Lugain, C. Cose, C. 
Girangon, C. Peus, C. Minchip, C. Lco- 
anaird puisc, C. Grugoin, C. Sent, C. 
Legion, C. Guhent, C. Bretan, C. Ler- 
gum, C. Pennsa, C. Druithecolcoit, Luite- 
oit, C. Urtocht, C. Ceilimon. Most of 
these variations are doubtless attributable 
to error or ignorance in the transcribers, 


but they are worth preserving, as it is 
possible sometimes, even from a blunder, to 
obtain a clue to the true orthography ( 7".) 
The twenty-eight caers do not occur 
till the close of the Latin Xennius ; 
but, in the corresponding place of the 
MS. of 945, from Marcus, the names 
of thirty-three cities occur, p. 46. As 
Nennius gives one name, Verulam, which 
is not in that copy, the latter must 
have given six which Nennius did not 
receive; but the confusion of texts pre- 
vents my saying which they were. Caer 
Gurcoc and Caer Teim (Thanie?) were 
two of them. Archbishop Ussher has 
commented upon this catalogue in his 
Primordia, pp. 59, 65, or 33-5 of edit. 2, 
(Works, vol. v. p. 82). The Irish trans- 
lator has, in some cases, left it difficult to 
identify his names ; and, on the other 
haud, many of the explanations by Llwyd, 

2 9 

Caer-Gortigern*. Caer-Grutus. Caer-Mencest. Caer-Luill. Caer- 
Medguid. Caer-Colun. Caer-Gusdirt. Caer-Abrog. Caer-Caradog. 
Caer-Brut. Caer-Machod. Caer-Lunaind. Caer-Oen. Caer-Irangin. 
Caer-Pheus. Caer-Loninoperuisc. Caer-Grugan. Caer-Sant. Caer- 
Legun. Caer-Gnidiud. CaerrBfeatan. Caer-Leiridoin. Caer-Pendsa. 
Caer-Druithgolgod. Caer-Luiticoit. Caer-Urnocht. Caer-Eilimon. 

III. Numerous are y itscaers [or cities] besides these; innumerable 
its raths [or forts'] and its fortified castles 2 . Four races inhabit 
the island of Britain, viz.: the Gaels, the Cruithnachs 1 [Plots'], the 
Britons, and the Saxons. The island Guta" is to the south of it; 
Abonia c , i. e. Manaind, is on the west between them and Eri [Ireland] ; 
and the islands of Orck are to the north of it. Eri extends beyond 


is sometimes used to denote a mound or 
hill, and therefore may have signified also 
a fort of the ordinary kind. See I)u 
Cange, in voce ( T.) 

a The Cruitlmachs The well-known 

Irish name for the Picts or ancient in- 
habitants of Scotland. Duald Mac Firbis 
considers the word as synonymous with 
the Latin Pictus. See Additional Xotus, 

Camden, Ussher, and earlier authors, are 

light and vague conjectures (77.) See 

Additional Notes, No. I. 

' Numerous are. Ipic (or Ipao, B. L*.), 
a synthetic union of the assertive verb, 
if, it is, and iao or lac, they. See O'Dono- 
van's Irish Grammar, p. 161 (T.) 

z Innumerable castles. This 

clause is inserted from B. L 2 . L 2 . reads 
ocup po bo oiaipmichi a pacha, &c. The 
Latin reads: "In ea sunt viginti octo ci- 
vitates et innumerabilia promontoria, cum 
innumeris castellis ex lapidibus ct latere 
fabricatis." It is evident, therefore, that 
the Irish translator understood promon- 
toria to mean raths or forts ; for nothing 
was more common than to convert a pro- 
montory into a fort, by casting up an in- 
trenchment across the narrow neck that 
united it to the main land. The remains 
of many such are still to be seen in Ire- 
land. The word promontorium, however, 

No. II. (T.} 

b Guta. 

(T.) Guta is the Isle of Wight, in La- 
tin Vectis or Vecta, in Welch Gwyth. The 
Latin Nennius says, "Gueid vel Guith, 
quod Latine divortium dici potest." How- 
ever Ynys Gwyth is simply the Channel 
Island. " Three principal islands are 
united to Ynys Prydain, Ore, Manaw, and 
Gwyth." Triads, 3rd series, No. 67. (//.) 

Abonia. 6bon Hlania, B. 6boniu, 
L. The Isle of Man (T.) See Additional 
Notes, No. III. 


poca. benaio imoppo imp bperan peac h-Gpinn paep-cuaitt co 


Oiaipmire [ono] a locha [ajup a ppoca.] Da ppim-ppurh inoci 
.1. Uamup i SabpainO; ip poppa-paioein peolaio lonja -] bapca 
inpi bpearan [co peoaib ) 50 mainib mope bpeacan uile]. 

17o linpac bpeacam in n-inpi uile ap cup tia clanaib, o muip 
n-lchc co muip n-Opc [-) po allaO -| aippoepcop.] 

IV. lap n-t>ilmt> cpa Da panoao in ooman a cpi [it>ip rpi 


d But the island north east. This 

passage is inserted from B. L. The verb 
benaio signifies to draw out, to prolong. 
O'Reilly (Diet. v. becmaim) quotes a pas- 
sage from the Leabhar Mac Partholain, 
in which the word is applied to drawing 
a sword. (T.) 

e And its rivers Inserted from B. L. 
as is also the expletive particle bno, vero, 
autem (T.) 

f Sabraind The Sabrina or Severn. 
King Locrine (saith the Galfridian Chron- 
icle) deserting his wife Gwenddolen, took 
a concubine, Estrildis, by whom he had 
a daughter, Sabrina. But Gwenddolen, 
levying war against her husband, slew 
him, and flung the two ladies into the 
river; the younger of whom bequeath- 
ed to it her name. Lib. ii. cap. 5. But 
Havren (the name of Sabrina and of the 
Severn) signifies harlot ; and therefore 
cannot refer to the innocent daughter, 
but relates to Estrildis herself. This 
renders it probable (as Mr. Carte suspect- 

cd) that the fable, in its existing shape, 
was composed in Armorica ; where the 
word havren does not seem to be known. 

The real etymology of the Sabriana or 
Sabrina, Celtice Havren, is, no doubt, from 
hav, (Irish, parh or r-ariipa) summer; 
part of the adjoining country being 
called the Gwlad yr I lav, or Land of 
the Summer, Anglice Summersetshire. 
This passage of the Historia is taken 
from the words of Gildas in cap. I, in- 
cluding that melancholy word which is 
omitted in the Irish, " per qua; olim rates 
vehebantur," &c.(H.) 

8 Upon them Ip FPP u -r iDeln > B. lp 

popo-paioe, L. " It is upon these very 
rivers." The emphatic pence in or poem, 
gives an additional force, " upon the self- 
fame rivers." The word is not be to found 
in the common dictionaries, but it is the 
ancient form of pean or pan. Poppa-pioein 
would be written, in the modern Irish 
language, oppa-pan. (T.) 

h With the jewels Britain. 

This clause is added from B. L. The word 
uile occurs only in L. The Latin copies 
read " per qua? olim rates vehebantur ad 
portandas divitias pro causa navigations. " 

3 1 

the island of Britain far to the south-west. But the island of Britain 
extends beyond Eri far to the north-east 11 . 

Innumerable are its lochs and its rivers e . Two principal rivers 
are in it, viz. : Tamus and Sabraind f ; it is upon them g that the ships 
and barks of the island of Britain sail, with the jewels and wealth of 
the whole island of Britain 11 . 

The Britons at first filled the whole island with their children, 
from the sea of Icht 1 to the sea of Orck, both with glory and excel- 

IV. Now after the deluge the world was divided" into three 

parts ; 

1 From the sea of Icht, Sfc. Understand 
from tlio British channel, or sea of the 
Portus Iccius or Itius, to that of Orkney. 
" Dathi went afterwards, with the men of 
Erin, across Muir n-Icht (sea of Icht) to- 
wards Leatha (Britanny)," &c.. Gene- 
alogies, fyc. of Ily-Fiachrach, p. 19. So in 
the Duan Albanach, verse 10, (Pinker- 
ton's Inquiry, ii. 321), "Britus tar mhuir 
n'Icht." Where Adamnan speaks of St. 
Germann's crossing the Sinus Vallicus 
(Channel of Gaul) to visit Britain, he 
gives a Latin equivalent. Vita Columb. 
ii. cap. 34. The Portus Iccius has been 
confounded with Calais and Boulogne; 
but is now conjectured to be the same as 
Vissent or Witsant, a neighbouring vil- 
lage. Some of the Latin copies have it, 
" from Totness to Caithness," but others 
have no termini assigned. (H.) 

J With glory and excellency. This pas- 
sage is inserted from L (T.) 

k Was divided. Ro panoab, B. L. In 
the text oa or DO, as it is often spelt, 

is used for po (T.) This chapter is 
made up from chapters 13 and 14 of the 
old Latin editions, at pp. 53-4, of the 
Marcian. The three sons of Alanus are, 
Hisicion, Armenon, and Neugio or Neg- 
no. The former is probably Tuiscon, 
father of Mannus, from whom all the 
Germans derived themselves. Tacit. Germ, 
cap. 2. For he is said to be father of 
Francus and Alamannus ; for which latter 
our translator has improperly put Albaims. 
Armenon relates to Armenia; Negno or 
Neugio (here Negua), from whom he de- 
rives the Saxons, to I know not what. 
It is scarcely worth while to mention the 
Rugii. Cibidus or Cebidus (here Cebetus) 
to the Gepidffi. Walagothus (here Uile- 
gotus) either to the Balti or Amali (Vi- 
sigoths or Ostrogoths), but nothing indi- 
cates to which. In the genealogy from 
Alanus to Lamech, inclusively, the Latin 
copies give twenty names, and the Irish 
only sixteen ; but it is useless to supply 
such mere gibberish. (//.) 

3 2 

maccu Nae] .1. Gopaip -| Qpppaic -] Qppia. Sem an n-Qpia. Cam 
an Qppjiaic. laperh an Ojiaip. Ipe cec peap Do pil lapech caimc 
[ap cup] in n-6opaip .1. Qlanuip co n-a cpi macaib .1. Ipacon -| 
[^ochup no] Qpmion ~\ Negua. Ceichpi meic 05 Ipacon .1. Ppan- 
cup, Pomanup, bpicup, Qlbanup. Ctpmon [umoppo] .u. meic laip, 
^ocup, Uilejocup, Cebecup, bupganDup, Lon^obapDup. -Cpi 
meic Negua, Uanoalup, Sa^o, [boapup. Sa^o mac Nejua ip uaoa 
acaio Sa^rain]. bpicup, imoppo, ip uaD bpeacam, mac paiDein 
Ipacoin, [mic Qlani], mic pecliuip, mic Ogamain, mic Uai, mic 
buiob, mic Semoib, mic Qracc, mic Qoch, mic Qbaip, mic Roa, 
mic Qppa, mic lobaich, [mic loban], mic laperh, mic Nae, [mic 
Laimiach] Ip amlaio pin ac piaoap a peancapaib bpearan. 

V. Innipoap imoppo a n-analcaib na Romanach. Cteniap 
mac Qnacip DO ciachcam lap co jail Cpai co h-6acail, i cnjapoaip 


1 Beticeen (ifNoe. Inserted from 

B. I,. (?'.) 

m At the beginning. Inserted from L 1 . 
where the words are in a different order : 
Ceo peup chanic in n-Gopaip ap cup t>o 
pil lapeo. In B. the clause ap cup t>o pil 
lupeo is omitted. There are two copies 
of this section in L., both very corrupt. 

n Got/tus or Arm/on. The words J^o- 
cluip no are inserted from L'. CIpmenon, 
B. Qpmen, L 1 . Qpmeon, L'-. (T.) 

Noic. Umoppo, inserted from B. 
L 1 . IA (T.) 

P Burgantus 6up^anoup, B. L'. L 2 . 
Pungandtus in D. is evidently an error of 
the scribe for Burgandtus. The Latin 
copies of Nennius ?v&&.Burgoandus (T.) 

q Bnarus descended. This 

clause is inserted from B. L 1 . LV Its 
omission in I), is an evident error of the 
scribe. ( 7'.) 

' He is the son of Isacon Saibem 

is for pin or 6 pen, which signifies he. 
The insertions between brackets in the 
Irish text are from B. and L. loban, 
son of Japheth, occurs in B. L'. and L 2 ., 
but Jobaith is omitted. In the Latin 
copies Semoib is called Simeon, and Mair 
is inserted between him and Aurthach, 
who is evidently the same as Athact (or 
Ethacht, B. L 1 . or Echtacht, L 2 ) in the 
Irish copies, whose name is written Etka 
in some MSS. of the Latin. Between 
Asra, or Ezra, and lobaath, the Latin 
copies insert Izrau and Baath, which are 
most probably corrupt repetitions of Ezra 
and Jobaath. (T.) 


parts; between the three sons of Noe 1 , viz.: Eoraip, Affraic, and 
Asia. Sem was in Asia; Cam in Affraic; Jafeth in Eoraip. The 
first man of the race of Jafeth that came into Eoraip at the beginning" 1 
was Alanius, with his three sons; viz.: Isacon, Gothus or Armion", 
and Negua. Isacon had four sons, Francus, Romanus, Britus, Al- 
banus. Now Armion had five sons, Gotas, Uilegotas, Cebetus, 
Burgandus", Longobardus. Negua had three sons, Vandalus, Saxo, 
Boarus. It is from Saxo, son of Negua, that the Saxons are de- 
scended* ; but it is from Britus the Britons come. He is the son of 
Isacon r , the son of Alanius, the son of Fethuir, the son of Ogaman, 
the son of Tai, son of Boidhbh, son of Semoibh, son of Athacht, son 
of Aoth, son of Abar, son of Raa, son of Asra, son of lobaith, son of 
loban, son of Japeth, son of Noe, son of Laimiach. Thus it is re- 
corded in the histories of Britain 8 . 

V. Furthermore' it is related in the Annals of the Romans", that 
Aenias the son of Anacis arrived in Italy after the destruction of 
Troy, and took to wife Lavina the daughter of Ladin, son of Pan, son 


6 The histories of Britain. In the Latin, u Annals of the Romans The whole of 

" Hanc peritiam [/. genealogiam] inveni this and the next two chapters occur twice 

ex traditione veterum, qui incolas in primo in the Book of Lecan ; the readings of the 

fuerunt Brittanniae." (T.) two copies shall be referred to as L 1 . and 

1 Furthermore Here we revert to the L 2 . In B. and L'. the reference to the 

third chapter of Nennius, from which British histories is separated from the 

chaps, v., vi., vii., above are translated. foregoing chapter, and united to this ; L 2 . 

Essarc is Assaracus, and Airic or Airic- reads: Cib cpa uche ip amlaio peo uc- 

tondus is Erichthonius. Britan exosus piaoup Sencup 6peacan a n-anoalaib nu 

is that same son of Silvius (viz. Brutus), Roma. The reading of D., which is fol- 

who, as the Druid had prophesied, would lowed in the text, agrees with the Latin 

be " exosus omnibus hominibus." The copies, in which the history of ^Eneas is 

account in Marcus, pp. 48, 50, is dif- begun thus : " In annalibus autern Ko- 

ferent, and a more obscure composition manorum sic scriptum est. ./Eneas post 

(H.) Trojanum bellum," &c (T.) 

IRISH ARCH. SOC. > 7 O. l6. F 


Lauina injean Laom mic Puin mic PIC mic SaDuipnD -)c. lap 
mapbaD UuipnD ~\ lap n-ej Laoin in pig po gab Qemap piji 
LaoianDai, -] po cumDaigeD in cachpaig Qlbalonja la h-Qpcan 
mac Gemapa, -\ cujapoap peicig, "| pujjapoaip mac DO .1. Siluiup, 
[po cecoip]. 

Siluiup lapDain cugapoaip peicij, -| po ba coppach, -| aopec 
DO Qpcan bean a meic [DO beic coppach, i.] alachca, -| po paiD 
ceachca co [a] mac co po paiDiD a DpuiD Do cabaipc apDmepa 
ap a mnai co peapaD in po ba mac, no'n po ba h-in^ean po ceachc. 
Oo COID in DpuiD, i aobepc [lap ciaccian] in DpuiD pe h-Qpcan 
conao mac DO bai 'na bpoinD; -| aDbepc comao cpen, -] co muip- 
peao a achaip i a machaip, -j comao mipjneach la each. TTlapb 
cpa a machaip Dia bpeich. 17o h-ainmmgeaD pom .1. bpicip, -| po 
h-aileD lapoain. 

VI. 6picup [om] mac Silui mic Qpcam mic Qeniapa mic 
Qnacip, mic Caipen, mic Gppcqic, mic Upoip, mic h-Qipic, mic 
knip, mic Oapoam, mic lob, mic SapDam, mic Ceil, mic polloip, 
mic c\opapcpeip, mic TTleppaim, mic Cairn, mic Mae, piln male- 

Dicci piDenceip pacpem, mic Nae. 


T Shortly after Added from B.; L 2 . which is manifestly the true reading. In 

reads (instead of pujapocip nmc DO .1. L'. and D., the word used to denote preg- 

Siluiup), inoipceap cop b'l machuip Sell- nant is alucra, wliipli in B. is given as 

biup po cheooip (T.) an explanation of coppac. (T.) 

w It iras told B. L'. and L 9 . read (in- y Druid. Ncnnius says, cup. 3, " ut 

stead of aopec) innipcep. (T.) mitteret magum suum. (T.) 

x Was pregnant. The words oo beic * After liis return. Added from B. L 1 . 

roppach, .1. are added from B. and L 2 . L'. (T.) 

The Latin copies read here " nunciatum a That it leas a son. Cop bo mac po 

est ^Eea?, quod nurus sua gra%ada es- bai ma bpomo, L 1 . L 8 . Ro boi mac po 

set;" but one of the MSS. collated by Mr. boi in a bpoin, B (T.) 
Stevenson has Ascanio instead of JEnece, " Hated by all. Nennius says, " et erit 

in conformity with the Irish version ; exosus omnibus hominibus." (T.) 


of Pic, son of Saturn, &c. After having slain Turn, and after the 
death of Ladin the king, Aenias took the kingdom of Ladianda; and 
the city of Alba-longa was founded by Ascan, son of Aenias, and he 
married a wife, and she bare him a son, viz. Silvius, shortly after v . 

. Silvius afterwards married a wife, and she became pregnant, and 
it was told w to Ascan that his son's wife was pregnant* ; and he sent 
a messenger to his son to say that he would send his Druid y to give 
an opinion on his wife, to know whether it was a son, or whether it 
was a daughter she was about to bring forth. The Druid went, and 
after his return 2 the Druid said to Ascan, that it was a son a that was 
in her womb; and said that he would be powerful, and that he 
would kill his father and his mother, and that he would be hated by 
all b . In fact his mother died in giving him birth. He received a 
name, viz. Britus, and afterwards he was nursed . 

VI. Now d Britus was the son of Silvius, son of Ascan, son of 
Aenias, son of Anacis, son of Caipen, 'son of Essarc e , son of Tros, 
son of Airic, son of Idus, son of Dardain, son of Jove, son of Sardain, 
son of Ceil, son of Polloir, son of Zororastres, son of Mesraim, son 
of Cam (filii maledicti ridentis patrem), son of Noe f . 


c He was nursed. The Latin is, " ct copies differ from each other and from tlu- 

nutritus est filius, et vocatum cst nomen Latin. They agree, however, in tracing 

ejus Bruto." (T.) the pedigree to Cham or Ham, and not to 

A Now t)m inserted from L'. t)na, B. Japhet, as in the Latin copies. L 1 . gives 

t)no, L 2 . (T.) the pedigree thus, mic Oipoip, mic Gp- 

e Son of Caipen, son of Essarc These echconiup, mic t)apoain, mic loib, mic 

two generations, inserted between An- Shabappn, mic Ceil, mic pulloip, mic 

chises and Tros in all the Irish copies, do ^o^cp^o^^a^, mic TTleppaim, mic 

not occur in the Latin. Essarc, is evi- Cairn epcono mic Naei (i.e. the accursed 

dently Assarracus, and is written Qpapcc, son of Noe), mic 6aimiach. L 2 . thus: 

B. Qpaipi5, L 1 . CIpaips, L 2 (T.) mic Chpoip, mic Gpeccoiniup, mic Dap- 

f Son of Noe In the remainder of the omn, mic loib, mic Shaouipn, mic pheil, 

genealogy from Tros to Noah, the Irish mic phulloip, mic 9vopapoipcpeap, mi 

F 2 

[imoppo] mac Ctipicconoup Da mac laip .1. Ilium -| 
Gpapcup; ip leip po cumOaigeo Ilium .1. Upoi; ip oo po ba mac 
Laimiooin, achaip Ppiaim. Qpapc imoppo achaip Capen, Caipen 
achaip Qnacip, Gnacip achaip Geniapa, Geniap achaip Gp- 
cain pen, achaip bpicain e;ropi .1. bpicain mip^nech. Ip amlaiD 
pin cu^apoaip ap penoip-ne uapal .1. 5 uariac h> geimlach bpeacan 

a cpomcib na 17omanac. 


TTIeappaun, rnic Cairn eapcoinct, po 
club im a achaip, .1. im Nae mac tai- 
miach (i. e. Cam the accursed, who 
laughed at his father, i. e. at Noe, son of 
Lamech.) B. gives it thus, mic Chopip, 
mic Gpeccom, mic t)apoam, mic loib, 
mic Sacmpb, mic pulloip, mic Sopap- 
cpep, mic nieppaim, mic Cam ejxoinci 
po bich imm [a] achaip, .1. im Noe, 
mic ^aimpiuch ypl. \Vliere the de- 
scription of Cam is the same as in L 2 . for 
bich is an evident error of the scribe 
for chib. 

In D., instead of the clause describing 
the curse of Ham, which in the other 
copies is given in Irish, the same thing is 
given in Latin as in the text. The words 
mic Nae are repeated unnecessarily, and 
are therefore omitted in the translation. 
Mr. Stevenson mentions three MSS. of the 
Latin, which have a genealogy of Brutus 
and of Tros in the margin, and in which 
the genealogy of Brutus is made to end 
thus : " filii Jupiter de genere Cain 
[Cam?], filii maledicti videntis et riden- 
tis patrem Noe." 

The Latin copies make Tros the son of 
Dardanus, son of Flise, son of Juvan, son 

of Japhet. It will be seen, however, that 
the Irish version is more nearly authentic, 
for classical authorities make Tros the son 
of Erichthonius, son of Dardanus, son of 
Jupiter, son of Saturn, son of Cffilus. It 
would seem probable also that the text 
was corrupted by British transcribers, 
anxious, for the honour of their country, 
to deduce the ancestry of Brutus from the 
race of Japhet rather than from the ac- 
cursed Ham. Pallor, the father of Ceil 
(who is evidently Coe.ius) is probably a 
corruption derived from the genitive case 
ofTellus. ('/'.) 

8 Moreover Imoppo, added from B., 

L'.and IA_(7'.) 

h Airic-tondiiSi i.e. Erichthonius; mac 
rpecrami, B. ; mac Qipicconmp, L'. I, 1 , 
omits this name. (T.) 

' Asam/s, i.e. Assaracus; Qpaipic, L. 
Qpapc, B. Homer gives Tros three sons; 
(Iliad, v. 230). 

'I'ouia $' 'Epix0o"'OC TtKiro TpwfffJii' UVIIKTIC 
Tpwof <V ait rp(?t' vatfitj a/ii'fiovii; IZfyivovrn, 
'IXoe T', ' AaaapciKoe rt, k-ai dvTi'Osog ravvfin^lt- 

D. reads corruptly Ham, both as the name 
of the son of Tros and of the city. B., 
L'., and L 2 . read Ilium in both places, 


Moreover 8 , Tros, son of Airictondus", had two sons ; viz., Ilium 
[Ilus] and Asarcus'; it was by him [i e. by Ilus] was founded 
Ilium, i. e. Troy j ; he had a son, Laimidoin, the father of Priam. As- 
sarc, moreover, teas the father of Capen, Capen was the father of 
Anacis, Anacis the father of Aenias k , Aenias the father of Ascan, the 
grandfather of Britan exosus, i e. of Britan the abhorred 1 . It was in 
this way that our noble elder Guanach m deduced the pedigree of the 
Britons, from the Chronicles of the Romans. 

but IA instead of ir> leip po cumomgeo, 
reads n-il ip e po cumoaij. (T.) 

i Troy __ Cpop, H. Cpoi, B. L 1 . dpo- 
chachaip na Cpe, L 2 . (T.) 

k Aenias. Homer makes ^Eneas give 
this genealogy thus : 

T IXo f)' av TKi9' viov afivfiova Afiofi^ovra' 
AaofjLeSiitv d'apa TiQwvuv rtKtro, Hpiap.6v rt' 
AdjuTrov re, KXimoj/ ff, 'iKtraova r', oov "A- 

Si Kcnrvv 


\vrdp ip.' 'A 

II. v. 

, sq.- '( 

1 The abhorred. Seun-uruip 6pin e,x- 
oppi in c-Qpccin pin, .1. 6piccm mipcnech, 
B., which may be translated thus: "the 
grandfather of Britus exosus, i. e. of Bri- 
tain the abhorred, was that Ascan." (T.) 

m Our noble elder Gnanach __ In B. andL. 
this reference to Guanach, and the Chro- 
nicles of the Romans, is written so as to re- 
late to what follows, not to what precedes ; 
but the words ip amlaio pin and the sense 
of the whole passage are inconsistent with 
this supposition, and therefore D. has been 
followed. Guanach is not mentioned in the 
Latin copies of Nennius ; and therefore, as 
well as from his being called " our noble 


elder," we may perhaps conclude that he 
was an Irish historiographer ; but no such 
Irish writer is known, nor is the name 
Irish ; unless we suppose it to be the same 
as Cuan or Guana (in the genitive case 
Cuanach), which was a common name 
among the ancient Irish. An historio- 
grapher of this name is frequently cited in 
the Annals of Ulster ; thus "sic in libro 
Cuanach inveni," at A. D. 467, 468, 471, 
475' 55 2 ' 6> 602, 628; or "sic est in 
libro Cuanach, 1 ' A. D. 610; or " ut Cuana 
scripsit," A. D. 482, 489 ; " ut Cuana 
docet," A. D. 598 ; " secundum librum 
Cuanach," A. D. 543. As no reference to 
Cuana occurs in these annals after the year 
628, Ware supposes the writer so named 
to have flourished about that date ; and 
Colgan doubtingly identifies him with 
S. Cuanna, Abbot of Lismoro; Ware's 
Writers, by Harris, p. 26; Colgan, Acta 
SS. ad 4 Feb., p. 251. All this, however, 
is simple conjecture; for we know no- 
thing of the writer quoted in the Annals 
of Ulster except his name, unless he be 
the same as the Cuana, who is called 
" Scriba Treoit," or of Drogheda, and 

VII. lap n-il bliaDnaib laptmm, DO peip papDine in t)|ina6, Do 
pala DO bpicup beich 05 paigoeopachc a piaonaipi in pig .1. a 
achaip, co panig in c-paigeD uaDa a coll apach in pig, ~\ gop 
mapb in pig po cecoip ainnpin .1. a achaip pein, -\ co po h-inoapbat* 
pon [o'n] h-Gacail lapcoin pop inDpib mapa Uoppian, -] inDapbam 
<5p e '5 li-e apnah-mopib a g-cmaio Uuipnn Do mapbao DO Ctemap. 
Uanig a Ppancaib mpoain, [ocup] po cumDaigeD leip Uopinip, [-] 
nip puilngeao anopin h-e], ~] canig mpoain a n-inip bpeacan, copo 
gab a pigi, i copo h-ainnimgeD in imp [uab], ~\ 50 pop lin Dia clainD 
1 Dia cineD pom. [Qgup conaD h-epin] copach a rpebe, Do peip 
na Roman. 

t>e rai^ais RomaN [QNOSOJ. 

VIII. lanup .1. Ian pig na n-GpepDa, ipe ceo pig [po gab] T?o- 
manchu, [agup] ip uao ammnigep mi enaip. SaDupnD lapoain. 
loib lapDain. DapDan mac loib lapDain. piccup mac loib [mp- 
Dain]. Punup [mac piccup] n. [bliaDan]. LaDin a mac .1. 
[bliabon]. Qemap a. in. Ctpcan a. .xixini. Siluiup in. cona po 


whose death is recorded A. D. 738 (An- to be, 7 ni po an lap co po mapb, &c., 

i/als of Ulster), 739 (Tighernach). (T.) "and he stopped not (was not restrained) 

" His father For .1. a achaip, B. and until he had killed his father." (71) 

L'. read .1. Silui. IA adds after a achaip, q By Aenias. L'. adds here, ajup i 

.1. Silump. (7'.) pean-chocac jpec ajup Cpoiann pein; 

The temple Uollapach, the hollow and L 2 . adds, ocup ip e cocao jpec ocup 

of the temple, in front of the ear (T.) Cpoianoach co pin anuap. (T.) 

P Died his oicn father. The reading r Torinit. Coip-inip, B. Cachaip .1. 

here followed is that of B. D. reads Copmip, L*. The city of Tours is intended, 

a^up ni apaenlop gop mapb in c-achaip (7'.) 

annpin. L 1 . reads ajup ni poenlup co po s He teas not suffered to remain there 

mapb a achaip annpin. And L 2 . ajup This clause is added from L 1 . and L'' (T.) 

nip aenlop cop mapb a achaip annpin. ( Here Qn&po is added from B. and L 1 . 

The meaning of all these readings seems (7 1 .) The first paragraph of this chap- 


VII. After many years subsequently, according to the prophecy 
of the Druid, it happened to Britus to be shooting arrows in pre- 
sence of the king, i. e. his father", and an arrow from him pierced the 
temple of the king, and the king died immediately there, i. e. 
his own father p ; and afterwards he was driven out of Italy, to the 
islands of the Torrian [Mediterranean] sea, and the Greeks expelled 
him out of the Islands in revenge for Turnn, who had been killed by 
Aenias q . After this he came to France, and Torinis r was founded 
by him, and he was not suffered to remain there 5 , but came after- 
wards into the island of Britain, where he took possession of the 
kingdom, and the island was named from him, and became full of his 
children and his descendants. And thus was it first peopled, ac- 
cording to the Romans. 


VIII. Janus, i. e. Jan, King of Eperda", was the first king that 
took possession of the Roman territory; and it is from him was 
named the month of January". Saturn after him. Joib [Jove] after 
him. Dardan, son of Joib, after him. Piccus, son of Joib, after him. 
Faunus, son of Piccus, reigned twenty years". Latin, his son, fifty 
years. Aenias, three years. Ascan thirty-four years. Silvius twelve, 


ter, down to "son of Aenias," does not po jab, are inserted from B. L 1 . IA 

appear totidem verbis in any part of the from L 1 . L 4 . (T.) 

original. The residue is gleaned from the w Twenty years. L 1 . and L 2 . read qiicu 

fourth, fifth, tenth, and twenty-eighth bliaoan, i. e. thirty years. The insertions 

chapters of Nennius __ (H.) between brackets in this passage are 

'"Eperda. Gppepoa, IA Hesperiawas from B., L 1 ., and L 2 . Instead of Gemap 

an ancient name of Italy. Hor. Od. lib. a. [i. e. annos] in. Qpcan a. ;cj:;ciiii. ; the 

iii. 6, v. 7; lib. iv. 5, v. 38 (T.) other copies read Cteniap m. bliaoan, 

T January __ TTlic lanuaip, IA ; the Qpcan, ;cx;cini. Other variations in or- 

other copies all read mi enaip. The words thography are not worth noting. (T.) 

mapb a mac, n. bpicup, [amail po paiopeamap]. Siluiup amtm 
gach pig o pom [ille], co ropachc l?omal mac poem T?ea Siluiae 
ingeme Numicaip, mic Ppoic Silun, mic Quencine Silun, mic Qp- 
annulipi Silun, mic Ggpaippae Silnn, mic Uibepne Silun mic Ql- 
bam Silun, mic Clpcain Silun, mic popcaime Silun ; bpachaip pice 
1 bpicipoa mac Silun mic Gpcain mic Qeniapa me. 

Popcomup a pijgi l?oman jrprprijc. bpicap a piji [inopi] bpeacan 
FFJC. bliaoam. popcomiop a bpachaip a pigi 17oman uc oijcimup. 
heile pagapc ba plaich mac n-lppachel, -j ip'na comaip pugao 
int) aipc ipm baipe, -\ cugao po ceDoip. 

O 50 bail jjpiraip 50 gabail Cpuirhneach a n-mopib Opcc 
o. cccc. [bliaban] ; -| po gabpacap in cpian cuaipcgeapcach 


* As ice have said. Added from B. 
L'. L 2 . (T.) 

' Of every king from that time. In cec 
pi, B. ; but the other MSS. all read jacli 
or cue juj. Ille is added from L* (T.) 

* Numito-r, sonofProc Sylcius Neim- 
ruip. Nuitiicuip, B. L 1 . L 2 . J'ror, for 
Procas; it will be observed that in the 
Irish form of the proper names the termi- 
nations as, es, us, are uniformly omitted. 
L 1 . reads PIC here, and L'-. P'cc, instead 
of Ppoic, which, however, is evidently 
the true reading. The list of the Silvii 
which follows appears to have been taken 
from the Chronicon of Eusebius, although 
with some variations and inaccuracies. 
The genealogy, as given by Eusebius, is 
as follows: Numitor, son of Procas Syl- 
vius, son of Aventinus Sylvius, son of 
Aremulus S., son of Agrippa S., son of 
Tiberinus S., sou of Carpentus S., son of 

Capis S., son of Athys or Egyptius S., son 
of Alba S., son of .^Eneas S., son of Pos- 
thumus S., brother of Ascanius and son 
of jEneas. See also Dion. Hal. and Livy. 
Our Irish author has omitted three gene- 
rations between Tiberinus and Alba; and 
it is probable that Ascan Sylvius, whom 
he makes the son of Posthumus, is a mis- 
take of the scribe (although it occurs in 
all the MSS.) for JEneus. He also makes 
Sylvius Posthumus the grandson, instead 
of the brother, of Ascanius, for which 
there is no authority ; although Livy 
makes Posthumus the son, not the bro- 
ther, of Ascanius. (T.) 

11 Thirty-nine years. Probably a mis- 
take for twenty-nine, which is the number 
of years assigned to the reign of Posthu- 
mus by the Chronicon of Eusebius. Lr. 
reads cpicha bliaoun aile, thirty other 
years, but omits the next clause contain- 

until his son, viz., Britus, killed him, as we have said x . Silvius was 
the name of every king from that time 1 until the coming of Romul, 
himself the son of Kea Silvia, daughter of Numitor, son of Proc 
Silvius 2 , son of Aventine Silvius, son of Aramulus Silvius, son of 
Agrippa Silvius, son of Tibern Silvius, son of Alban Silvius, son of 
Ascan Silvius, son of Postam Silvius ; he and Britus were brothers, 
and they were the two sons of Silvius, son of Ascan, son of Aenias. 

Postomus was sovereign of the Romans, thirty-nine years 3 '. Britus 
was sovereign of the island" of Britain thirty years. Postomios his 
brother, was sovereign of the Romans as we have said. Heli, the 
priest, was prince of the children of Israel ; and it was in his pre- 
sence the ark was taken into captivity", and was brought back soon 

From the conquest of Britus to the conquest of thePicts in the 
islands of Orc e , were nine hundred years, and they took the northern' 


iug the length of the reign of Britus, so 
that there is reason to suspect that a line 
may have been overlooked by the scribe, and 
that the thirty other years really belonged 
to the omitted reign of Britus (T.) 

* Island. Inopi is added from B (T.) 

c Children of Israel. plaich mac n- 
ap& Ippael, B. plaich pop macaib h- 
Ippael, L 1 . lomap pn h-uapul pacapc 
pop macaib Ippael, L 2 -(T.) 

A Into captivity. This clause relating to 

the captivity of the ark is omitted in all 
the MSS. except D., but it occurs in the 
Latin : " quando rcgnabat Bruto in Brit- 
tannia, Heli sacerdos judicabat in Israel, 
et tune archa Testamenti ab alienigenis 
possidebatur ;" and these words seem taken 
from the Chronicon of Eusebius, where 

the capture of the ark is thus recorded : 
"Mortuo Heli saccrdote archa testamen- 
ti ab alienigenis possidetur." (T.) 

e Ore. epcono, L'. Opcac, L-. Opc- 
cac, B. (7'.) 

f Northern. -In the, Latin "in sinistrali 
plaga Britannia." Anciently the north 
was considered to be on the left hand side, 
and the south on the right, looking east, 
as the ancient Christians did in prayer. 
And the same language is still used in 
Irish, for cuaio is properly the left hand, 
as well as the north ; and beup signifies the 
right hand and the south. See Usshcr, 
Primordia, pp. 80, 1021 (T.) Likewise 
in British go-gledd, quasi-sinistralis, the 
north ; and deheu-barth, pars dextra, the 
south. (//.) 


mDpi bnectccm ap egin o bpeacnaib, i aiccpeabaic ann cop 

^aeoil mpoain po jjabpac in panD cecna na Cpuichneach, -\ 
Do ponpac aencaij pe Cpuichnib a n-ajaio bpeacan. 

Sa;rain po gabpac iapt>ain imp bpeacan a n-aimpip TTlap- 
ciain in pij. J^opcigeapnn [ona] ba pig bpeacan ann .1. Luchc rpi 
lonj cangacap ap in^eapniam nn Da bparliaip .1. Opp ~\ Qijeapc 
50 po Dicuippeac bpeacnu in-nnlib na li-inDpi. 


amair, iNt>isis 

IX. Ceio peap DO gab GipinD .1. pappralon cum mile hoin- 
imbup .1. mile icip pipp -| mna, "| po popbpiclieap a 'n-6ipi na n-il 
mileaoaib, copap mapb a n-aen c-peachcmam DO cam, [a n-Dijail 
na pinjaili Do poinDi pop a pachcnp ajup pop a machaip]. 


8 Martian the king, i. e. .tin: emperor 
Marcinn, A.D. 450-457. The Latin rends 
" Regnante Gratiano secundo Equautio, 
Saxones a Guorthigirno suscepti sunt;" 
but some MSS. read, "Regnante Martiano 
secundo quando Saxones," &c. (T.) 

h The crew of three ships __ The story is 
thus told in the Latin, " Interea venerunt 
t.res ciula; a Germania exjiulsa: in exilio, 
in quibus erant Hors et Ilengist, qui et 
ipsi fratres erant."- (T.) 

1 Isli.iHil. Na clipioch, L". The re- 
petition in the Book of Lecan ends here. 

J The first man, ^r See Additional 
Notes, No. IV. 

k With a thousand men Cfjup mile 
muille ppip, B. L. Keating quotes Nen- 

nius, out of the Psalter of Casliel (whieh, 
very probably, contained a eopy of this 
work), as his authority for the number 
of Partholan's companions. After giving 
the names of Partholan's wife and three 
sons, he says that there came with him 
an army of a thousand men, mile DO 
plua i muille pit), DO peip Nenniup, 
umcul leu^rop a Ppulcuip Chaipil, "ac- 
cording to Nennius, as we read in the 
Psalter of Cashel." Mr. Dermot O'Conor, 
in his translation of this passage, has 

tranformed Nennius into A'inus (T.) 

1 They multiplied. poipbpecipcup, B. 

poipbpeuoup, L (?'.) 

, m In one week This event, as Keating 
tells us, from the Psalter of Cashel, took 
place 300 years after the arrival of Par- 


third part of the island of Britain by force from the Britons, and 
they dwell there unto this day. 

Afterwards the Gaels took the same division occupied by the 
Picts; and they made a treaty with the Picts against the Britains. 

The Saxons afterwards took the island of Britain in the time of 
Marcian the King g . But Gortigearn was then King of Britain, i. e. 
the crew of three ships" came out of Germany under two brothers, 
viz., Ors and Aigeast, so that they drove the Britons into the 
borders of the island 1 . 


IX. The first man 1 that took Eri was Parrtalon, with a thou- 
sand men k , i. e. a thousand between men and women; and they mul- 
tiplied 1 in Eri, into many thousands, until they died of a plague in 
one week, in judgment for the murder that he committed on his 
father and on his mother". 


tliolan ; sec also the Annals of the Four 
Masters, who give A. M. 2820 as the date 
of this plague, and 2520 as the date of Par- 
tholan's arrival. Keating fixes the arrival 
of Partholan in the twenty-second year 
before the birth of Abraham, on the au- 
thority of an ancient poem, or 300 years 
after the Deluge. It never seems to have 
occurred to these ancient historians to ex- 
plain how all this minute knowledge about 
Partholan and his followers could have 
been preserved, if they had all perished in 
the plague. O'Flaherty (Ogygia, p. 65) 
places the birth of Abraham in A.M. 1949, 
and the arrival of Partholan in A. M. 
1969, on the authority of the Annals of 


Clonmacnois, and Giolla Coemhan's poem 
beginning Gpe apo, of which there is ii 
copy in the Leabhar Gabhala (T.) 

" In judgment I/is mother. This 

clause is added from L. The double par- 
ricide of Partholan is not mentioned in 
the Latin copies. Keating speaks of it 
thus: Gp i cmpumma b-cumijt; pupclia- 
lon a ii-Gpmn cpe map DO rhupb' pe a 
aruip, a^up a muraip, ag lappuio pi^e 
b'a b'puraip, 50 o-caimg ap ceiciob a 
pionjaile, 50 puimg Gipe, gonaD aipe 
pin Do cuip (Jiu plui ap a pliocc, pep 
mapbab nuoi mile pe h-aom peuccmum 
oiob, a m-6emn Goaip. " The cause 
why Partholan came into Eri was because 


Nemeao ictpoain pop ^ab [pen in Gipmt>]. TTlac pamem ajiaile 
Ggnomain; po arcpeob a pil pe pe cian [in Gipint>], co n-t>eacat>ap 
co h-Gapbain, pop ceiceao [in cippa] na TThiipiDe .1. na pomopac. 
Uipi bullopurn .1. pipbols mpoain -] Uipi Qpmopum, .1. pip 
, -] Lhpi Oominioputn .1. Ppi Domnann, pil Nemio annpin. 
T?o jab in n-Gipino lapoain plebep Oeoputn .1. Uuara oe Oa- 


lie had killed his father and mother, in or- 
der to obtain the kingdom from his bro- 
ther, after which murder he departed, and 
came to Eri; but on this account God sent 
a plague on his race, by which were killed 
nine thousand men of them in one week, 
ut Ben Hedar;" now Howth. The Four 
Masters, ad A. M. 2820, place this event 
"at the old plain of Moynalta, on the 
Hillot'Edar," or Howth; fop pen muij 
Gulca Gbaip ; and they add, that a 
monument in memory of it was erected 
at Tallaght, near Dublin, thence called 
Caiiileuchc mumcipe pupchalun, the 
Tamhleacht, or plague monument of the 
posterity of Partholan. (T.) 

Eri. The words pen in 6ipniu are 
added from L. The arrival of Nemed is 
dated by the Four Masters, A. M. 2850; 
and by O'Flaherty (Ogygia, p. 65) A.M. 
2029. 5 Q k) when followed by a preposi- 
tion, has a neuter signification (7'.) 

P In Eri Added from B. L (T.) 

11 The tribute.- Added from B. L. For 
an account of the Irish traditions about 
the Nemedians, their contests with the 
Fomorians or mariners, and the op- 
pressive tribute imposed upon them, see 

Keating's History of Ireland. O'Flaherty 
dates the flight of the Nemedians, A. M. 
2245. 1" Fomorians were "men of 
the sea," for so the name signifies, i. e. 
they were pirate*. Keating says : Ctp 
uipe oo yipci poihopui^ 6iob, .1. o 
na m-beir ujj oeunarh pojlu ap muip. 
Pomopai^, .1. po rmnpib. " For this 
reason they are called Fomorians, because 
they used to commit robbery on the sea. 
FotHor/ans, i. e. on the seas." (T.) 

r \ ii'i Hutttrrum Uipno, in D., is a 

manifest error of the scribe for Uipi. D. 
is the only one of the three MSS. that 
gives the Latin names here. liuUum, in 
the Latinity of the middle ages, signified, 
according to Du Gauge, liacidum pas- 
tor is ; which suggests a derivation of the 
name Fir-Bolg, that the Editor has not 
seen noticed. Keating derives it from 
bolj;, a leathern bag, or pouch ; and others 
think that this colony were Belga\ See 
O'Brien's Diet, in voce bolg, and O'Fla- 
herty (Ogygia, p. 73), who fixes the date 
of the arrival of the Fir-Bolg, A. M. 2657. 
The Four Masters place this event under 
A. M. 3266. (2'.) See Ad. Notes, No.V. 

s Were the race of Nemed. Viri Ar- 


Nemed afterwards inhabited Eri. He was the son of one Ag- 
noman; his race dwelt long in Eri p until they went into Spain, 
flying from the tribute" imposed on them by the Muiridi, i. e. the 

The Viri Bullorum r , i. e. the Firbolg, afterwards, and the Viri 
Armorum, i. e. the Fir-Gaileoin, and the Viri Dominiorum, i. e. the 
Fir Domnann: these were the race of Nemed 8 . 

Afterwards the Plebes Deorum, i. e. the Tuatha De Danann', took 


morum is a literal translation of Fir- 
Gaileoin, for jaiUian signifies a dart or 
spear. (See O'Brien in voce). The Fir- 
Domnann are supposed to be the same as 
the Damnonii or Dawnomi, and the fan- 
ciful derivation of their name given by 
Keating, is far less probable than that 
suggested by our author; although both 
are, most probably, wrong. Keating's ac- 
count of these tribes of the Fir-Bolg is as 
follows. After noticing the five leaders 
of the Fir-Bolg, he says: Gp Do na 
caoipiocnib pe 50 na b-poipnib j^aipriop 
pip 6ol, pip Dhoviinann, ajup^aileom. 
pip ftolg, imoppo, o na boljaib leartnp 
DO biob aca pan n^peij, ag lomcop 
inpe, Da cop pop leacaib loma, jijo n- 
oeunoaoip moije mion-pgocacu po blar 
biob. pip tDliorhnann o na Doirhne Do 
coclaiDip an uip pe na h-iomchop o'pea- 
paib 6015. ^aileom tpa o na jaib po 
h-ainmmea6 IQD, DO b;u^ jjupab IQD Do 
BIOD a n-apm 05 copnarh caic an can 
DO biDip a^ Deunam a bpea&ma, ajup o 
na ^aib, no o na plea^aib pa h-uipm 
Doib, po h-ammntjiob IOD. " It was 

these chieftains, with their followers, who 
were called the Fir-Bolg, Fir Dhomh- 
nann, and Gaileoin. Fir Bolg, from the 
leathern bags that they had with them in 
Greece, for carrying mould, to lay it on 
the flat-surfaced rocks, so as to convert 
them into flowery plains. Fir Dhomhnann, 
from the deep pits (doimhne) they used to 
dig to obtain the mould to be carried by 
the Fir-bolgs. And the Gaileoin were 
so called from their spears; because they 
used to be under arms to protect them 
all when they were performing their 
task; and it was from the spears (yaibh), 
or from the lances (sleayltaibk) which they 
used as arms, that they were so called." 
See also the Poem beginning Gpe apap na 
n-iop^al, by O'Mulconry of Cruaehain, 
in the Leabhar Gabhala (O'Clery's copy, 
Royal Irish Academy, p. 34), which was 
most probably Keating's authority ( T.) 
1 Plebes Deorum, i. c. Tuatha De Dan- 
aan The name Tuatha De Danann sig- 
nifies " the people of the Gods of Da- 
naan." Danann, daughter of Dalbaoit, 
(whose genealogy, in thirteen descents up 


nann ip oib ]io babaji na pnim elaftnaig. Goon Luchcenup Qp- 
cipe;r. Cpeoenup pigalup. Oianup TTleioicup. Gaoan [ona] pilia 
eiup .1. muimi na piliD. ^oibnen pabep. Lug mac Giuhnega 
jiabatiap na h-uil-oana. Oagoa [mop] (mac Galaoan mic Deal- 
baich) in pig. Ogtna bpachaip in pig, ap e a panig licpi na Sgoc. 
I] 1 iat> na pip peo po bpipear each mop pop na muipeaoaib .1. 
pop na pomoncaib, -\ cop raecpaoap pompa ina cop .1. Dun fio 


to Nemcd, is given by Keating), is fabled 
to have had three sons, Brian, luchar, 
and Ineharba, famous for their sorceries 
and necromantic power, who were there- 
fore called I)e Danann, or the Gods of 
Danann ; and from them the people who 
venerated them received the name of 
Tuatha De Danann. See Keating. O'Fla- 
herty dates the invasion of the Tuatha De 
Danann, A. M. 2737. The Four Masters, 
A. M. 3303. (T.) 

u Coi/iiten, fuber In 15. and L. the 
trades or arts practised by these " chief 
men of science" of the Tuatha Ue Danann, 
are given in Irish, not in Latin as in the 
text; aud their names are also somewhat 
varied, tuccuno pnep. OpeDne ceupo. 
t)iuncecc liui. Ccati, Dna, u h-m^eni 
piDe .1. bunne nu pileuo. ^oibneno 
^olia, 15. 6uclipa in paep, ajup Cpeione 
in cecipo, "jup Oianceachc in IKII^, 
u^up6ut>anDariu a inpjean pin, .1. muime 
nu pileo, ajup ^oibneann in obu. L. 
i. e. " Luchtan (or Luchra), the carpen- 
ter (or mechanic); Credne, the artist; 
Dianceacht, the leech (or physician) ; 
Etan (or Edaudana) teas his daughter, 

\'v/.. the nurse of the poets; Goibnenn, 
the smith." These personages (with the 
exception of Etan " the nurse of poets") 
are all mentioned by Keating. Etan 
is thus noticed by O'Flaherty, " Eta- 
na poetria, filia Diankecht, filii Asaraci, 
tilii Nedii, Lugadii regis amita, et soror 
Armediu medico;, fuit mater Dalbocthii 
regis," &c Oyyyia, iii. c. 14, p. 179. See 
also theLoabhar Gabhala (O'Clery's copy, 
K. I. A.) where she is thus mentioned, p. 
45: 6(irccm bumeccep mi;en Oiuncbecc 
mic Gapcupjj 6pic, mic Neicc; and 
again, p. 49 : fcucun .1. an bampile, macaip 
Coipppi. CIipmeD an Bamliaij 01 in^in 
C>!ancechc laiopibe. (7'.) 

v \\~itli ichiiiti, i.e. who had a knowledge 
of all the arts Occui po baou", B. ip uici po buoap, L. This Lugh 
was Lugh Lainli-fhada, or the Long- 
handed, who instituted the games at 
Taillten, now Telltown, in East Meath. 
Keating makes him the son ofCian, son of 
Diancccht, &c. See also Leabhar Gabhala, 
p. 48 ; and O'Flaherty's Ogygia, part iii. 
ch. 13, p. i 71 .(T.) 

w Son of Deatliaet/i. This short gene- 


Ireland; it was of them were the chief men of science; as Luchtenus, 
artifex; Credenus, figulus; Dianus, medicus; also Eadon, his daugh- 
ter, viz. the nurse of the poets; Goibnen, faber". Lug, son of Eithne, 
with whom v were all the arts. Dagda the Great (son of Ealadan, 
son of Dealbaith") the king. Ogma, brother of the king; it was 
from him came the letters of the Scots*. 

It was these men that defeated in a great battle 7 the mariners, 
i. e. the Fomorians, so that they fled 2 from them into their tower*, i. e. 


alogy does not occur in L. or B. TTIop is 
added from L. The genealogy of these 
chieftains is thus given in the Leabhar 
Gabhala (p. 48): eochaib Ollacap, biap 
bo h-amm an Oajoa, mac Galacam, 
mic Oealbaoic, mic Nee, mic lonoaoi, 
ceirpe ficic&liaoan. " Eochaidh Ollathar, 
who had the name of the Dagda, son of 
Ealathan, son of Dealbaoth, son of Net, 
son of londaoi (reigned) fourscore years." 
Oealbuoic mac O^ma ^pianoinn, mic 
Galacam, mictDealbuoic, micNeicc, mic 
lonnom, oeic m-bliaoan. " Dealbaeth, 
son of Ogma Grianoinu, son of Ealatlian, 
son of Dealbaet, son of Ned, son of londai, 
(reigned) ten years. See also O'Flaherty, 
Ogyg. iii. c. 13, p. i 79 .(T.) 

x The letters of the Scots. The ancient 
occult methods of writing were called 
Ogham. Ogma was surnamed ^piam-eijip, 
the resplendent poet, which O'Flaherty 
Latinizes into Ogma Griananus (Ogyg. iii. 
c. 14, p. 179) (T.) 

''Defeated in ayreat battle Lit. "broke 

a great battle upon the mariners." In- 
stead of each mop, L. reads each tTluiji 

Uuipeao, but the Irish traditions re- 
present the battle of Moy Tuireadh as 
having been fought between the Tuutha 
De Danann, and the Firbolg ; so that this 
reading is probably an error of some 
scribe. (2'.) 

z They fled. Caecpac, H. Oiuec-- 
peao, B. Cheichpeuoap, L. (T.) 

a Into their tower, fyc. -This is stated as 
of the Milesians by Nennius ; and the 
tower is said to have been of glass. The 
legends of glass towers, houses, ships, &c., 
are capable of two solutions : the one 
natural, and referring to a time when 
glass windows were a great rarity; and 
the other mystical, and analogous to 
Merlin's prison of air, whereof the walls, 
though invisible and transparent, were 
for ever impassable. See Roman de Mer- 
lin, cvvviii. On that principle, every 
magic circle described by a wand of power 
is a tower of glass; and a circle of triliths 
or of stones, though it be a half-open 
enclosure (a point harped upon in almost 
every combination of British words), is a 
perfect and inviolable structure. From the 


pop muip. Co n-Deachaoaji pip Gpenn ma n-oajait) co 
imnp, copo cachaispeac ppiu co pop poppo oo glaepeac in muip 
uile ace luchc aen luinge, op gabaoap in n-inip lapoain. No co- 
mau mn clann Neimio im peapgup leib-oeapg mac Neimm oo 
rojailpear; in cop, -jc. 

X. Uainig mpoain Dam ocliraip, cona och[c] lonjaib, ip co po 
aircpeabpar a n-Gipinn, ~\ co po ^ab pariO mop De. 

pp bolg imoppo po gabpac TTlanaino -) apaile innpi apceana, 
Qpa i Hi i l?achpa. 

Clanoa ^aileoin, imoppo, mic Gapcail po jjabpac inopi ope .1. 


Preidcleu Anmvvn (Spoils, or Herds, of the the north coast of Ireland now called 
Abyss) wo may cite this passage: "I Copinip, i. e. Tower Island, corrupted in- 
shall not win the multitude. [Under] a to Tory island. After the destruction of 

the Foinorians, another body of pirates 
commanded by Move, son of Dela, with 

veil [is] the leader of hosts. Through 
the enclosure of glass (caer wydyr) they 
discerned not the stature (or length, 

a fleet of thirty (some copies of Keating 

gicrltyrl) of Arthur. Threescore bards read sixty) ships from Africa, again oc- 

(c-anwr) stood upon the wall. It was cupied the island, and were again attacked 

difficult to parley with its sentinel." 1\ by the Nemcdians; but the tide coming 

29-32. The name of Bangor Wydrin or upon them unperceived during the battle, 

Glaston, belongs to this notion of vitreous 
castles or sanctuaries, whatever be its 
true origin. (//.) 

b Closed upon them. Cop ur-oib popcnb 
in muip, L. Cop pap pop siucluino in 
muip, B (T.) 

/)>._6mpce, L. (T.) 

A Or according to others The second 
account of this event is found only in U. 
and is more in accordance with the Irish 
traditions. See Keating, and the Leabhar 
Gabhala. The tower, called Conaing's 
Tower, from Conaing, son of Faobhar, 
is said to have been on the island on 

the Nemedians were all drowned, except, 
the crew of one boat. Xennius, as has 
been said, attributes this exploit to the 
Milesians. It would seem as if two or 
three diU'erent stories had been confound- 
ed together in the accounts of it that 
now remain. See O'Flaherty, Ogygia, iii. 
c. 7, p. i"O. ('/'.) Fergus Leithdearg 
was one of the four sons of Nemed, and 
father of Britan, from whom the Irish 
deduced the name of Britain and the 
pedigree of St. Patrick (//.) 

e A company of eight Oarh ochraip, 

so written in D. and L. B. reads t)a- 


a very strong fortress on the sea. The men of Eri went against 
them to the sea, so that they fought with them until the sea closed" 
upon them all, except the crew of one ship ; and thus they \tlie Irish] 
took the island afterwards. Or, according to others' 1 , it was the de- 
scendants of Nemed, with Fergus Leith-dearg [the red sided], son 
of Nemed, that destroyed the tower, &c. 

X. Afterwards came a company of eight 6 , with eight ships, and 
dwelt in Eri, and took possession of a great portion of it. 

But the Eirbolg seized upon Mann, and certain islands in like 
manner, Ara, Hi, and Rachra f . 

The children of Galeoin g , also, the son of Ercal [Hercules], seized 


riiocrop, as if it were intended for Da- 
mochtor, a proper name, as in the Latin 
copies; but the verb canjaoap, which is 
the third person plural, shews that in this 
MS. also the words meant a company of 
eight. L. and B. read only cona lon^eap 
or gona lonjip, with their ships, omitting 
ochc. Some of the Latin copies read 
Clam Hector, Clan Hoctor, and some mere- 
ly Hoctor; a word which in Irish signifies 
eight men. (T.) 

f Ara, Hi, and Rachra Qpa 7 Ha 

7 Recca, B. Qpa 7 He 7 TCucca, L. 
The islands of Ara, Ha or Islay, and 
Kachlin or Rathlin, are intended. In 
the Latin we read " Builc autem cum 
suis tenuit Euboniam insulam, et alias 
circiter." Eubonia is the Isle of Man, 
and Builc is most probably a corruption 
of 6015 or F'P 6olj; (T.) 

g The children of Galeoin, Sfc That is 
to say the Fir-Galeoin before mentioned; 
being that tribe of the Firbolg who ob- 


tained Leinster. The original merely 
says, that Istoreth, son of Istorin, occu- 
pied Dalrieda, i.e. Argyle, Lorn, and their 
vicinage ; and has nothing about the Ork- 
neys. The translator, in this instance, 
has only heaped confusion. For the name 
of Agathirir, grandfather of Istorin, means 
Agathirsus, i. e. Pictus ; yet he is made a 
Ferbolg, arid distinguished from the race 
of Cruithnich or Picts, in which occurs 
another Istoreth. I suppose the name 
Istorinus of Nennius to be the Irish 
name Starn, which occurs in the brother 
of Partholan (Ogygia, part i. p. 4) and the 
father of Simon Brec (Keating, p. 37); 
and which has been derived from stair, 
history. See Wood's Primitive Inhabitants, 
pp. 14, 1 1 8. The name Ilistoreth of Nen- 
nius, transferred by our translator to the 
Picts, is quoted as son of Agnamhan, but 
Starn, father of Simon Brec, was grandson 
of Agnamhan, which has been interpreted 
Song. See Wood, ibid, p. 1 3. (H.) 


Ipcoperh mac Ipcoipine mic digine mic Qgachipip po pjailpeac 

apip a h-mt>pib Opcc .1. oo cuaio Cpuichne mac Inju mic Cuiche 

mic paipce mic Ipcopech mic ajnamain mic buain mic TTlaip 

mic paicheachc mic lauao mic lapech ; conat) po jab cuapceapc 

mnp bpeacan, -| co pombpeac a pecc macu a peapann a peace 

pannaib, -| ape amm cacha pip t>ib aca pop a peapann. 

Seacc meic Cpuichmj .1. Pib, pioach, Poclam, popcpfnn, 

Cac, Ce, Cipij. [Uc oi;ric Colam cilli 

TTIoippeipeap Do Cpuichne claint* 
T?oint>pet> Qlbain a peaclir paint) 
Cair, Ce, Cipeach cecach clano, 
pib, piDach, pocla, poipcpeanD.] 

Q^up co po jab Qenbeajan mac Caicc micCpuichm apDpije na 

pecc pano. pinacca ba plair n-Gipenn ip in pe pin, [agup] po 

jabpac giall Cpnichneacli. 

Do cuaoap coicpeap imoppo, oo Cpuchancuachib a h-mt>pib 

11 Son of Agathirir. RipcoipenD mac 

lliptopin, mic Qjom, mic Qgarluppi, B. 

InipcoipeanD mac Iproipmi, mic G- 

numna, mic Qjjachaippi, L. The Latin 

roads, " Istorith, Istorini tilius, tcnuit 

Dalrieta cum suis." It will lie observed 

that the Fir-Galeoin, who a little before 

were supposed to have derived their name 

from jalian, a spear, and who were there- 

fore called v/ri armornm, are here derived 

from Galian, the name of a man. These 
inconsistencies at least prove that the 
present work was compiled from various 
ancient sources, which were copied blindly 
by the compiler, without any attempt to 
make them hang together consistently 

' Again Qpipioi, L. t)opioipi, B.-(7'.) 

k Cmit/me. Cruithne is here made to 
be a man's name ; his genealogy is thus 
given in L. : Cpuichne mac lnj;e, mic 
f,uchta, nnc Papchalon, mic Cfjjnon, 
mic 6uam, mic IDuip, mic phachecc, 
mic lauao, mic lachpech, mic Nae : in 
B. thus: Cpuichne mac Cinje, mic 
f,uccui, mic papcui, mic Plipcopech ; 
and it will be seen that in another part of 
15. the genealogy is given in another form 
more nearly agreeing with L._ (2 1 .) 

' To his own jxyriion Literally, " and 
it is the name of each man of them that 
is on his land." This clause is omitted in 
this place in B (T.) 

m As Cdumbkittesaid. This short poem 

the islands of Ore, i. e. Istoreth, son of Istorine, son of Aigin, son of 
Agathirir 11 , were dispersed again' from the islands of Ore, and then came 
Cruithne", son of Inge, son of Luithe, son of Pairte, son of Istoreth, 
son of Agnaman, son of Buan, son of Mar, son of Fatheacht, son of 
Javad, son of Japheth ; so that he seized the northern part of the 
island of Britain, and his seven sons divided his territory into seven 
divisions, and each of them gave his name to his own portion 1 . 

The seven sons of Cruithne are Fib, Fidach, Fotlaid, Fortrean, 
Cat, Ce, Cirig. As Columbcille said m . 

Seven of the children of Cruithne 

Divided Alban into seven portions ; 

Cait, Ce, Cireach of the hundred children, 

Fib, Fidach, Fotla, Foirtreann. 

And Aenbeagan", son of Cat, son of Cruithne, took the sovereignty of 
the seven divisions. Finacta was Prince of Eri at that time, and p 
took hostages of the Cruithnians. 

Now five men q of the . northern Cruithnians, i. e. five brothers of 


is inserted from L. and from B. (where it plaich n-Gpenn, &c., as in the text, with 
occurs in another place). B. in this place only some trivial variations. (T.) 
agrees almost exactly with D. Immediately n Aenleagan. Onbecan, L. B. (T.) 
after the genealogy of Cruithne, L. adds : Ip Finacta. This must be Finacta, son 
h-e achaip Cpuichnecli ajup cec blia- of Ollam Fodla, who became king of Ire- 
bam ippijje. SeachcmeicCpuidine mopo land on the death of his father, A.M. 3276 
. i . PI&, cijuppmach, ujup Pocla, ajup according to O'Flaherty; 3923 according 
Popcpeann, Caic, ajjup Ce, ajup Cipic, to the Four Masters; and 3112 according 
ur oi;cic, &c., as in the text. After Co- to Keating. (T.) 

lumbkille's verses follows, Co po point)- P And. Ctjup, added from L (T.) 

peac i pecc pannaib in peupann, ajjup ip i Five men. Coiccap, D. Coijeap, B. 

e ainm each pip fiib pil pop a peapuno, Coicpeap, which is the reading of L., 

uc epc pib, Ce, Caic, Jc. ;ciii pi con shews the true etymology of this class of 

jobpao Oib poppo, ajjup gabaip Onbe- personal numerals. See O'Donovan's Irish 

can mac Caic tnic Cpuichne aipbpiji net Grammar, p. 125. (T.) 
peccpenn pin. Then follows pinoaccapa 


5 2 

opcc .1. cuic bpachpi achap Cpuirne co Ppancaib 50 po cuinDaij- 
peao cachaip ann .1. picccarup no Inpiccup, o na pinncaib ainm- 
nijeap ; ~\ co cangaoap oopip Docum na h-innpi .1. oocum na h-Gpenn, 
co pabaoap pe cian arm, 50 pap oicuippeac 5 aeD1 ^ ca P Tnuip to 
cum a m-bpachap. 

Clanna Liaramnnic Gapcail po^abpau peapann Oieimcopum -| 

co [ a ] macaiba bpearnaib. 

t>e nncechcai6 ^aeDeac. QNNSO sis. 
XI. IS amlam peo nnoppo arpiaoaic na h-eolam na n-gaeoeal 


u Sons of Lialkan This is a literal 
version of Nennius : " Filii autem Lie- 
than obtinuerunt in regione Demetorum, 
et in aliis regionibus, i. e. Guir et Cet- 
gueli, donee expulsi sunt a Cuneda, et 
a filiis ejus, ab omnibus Britannicis re- 
gionibus." (7'.) The names, Liathan 
and Ereal, variously disfigured in the 
Latin, are, perhaps, corrected here. On 
the other hand the names of Denetia 
or Dyved, i. e. Pembrokeshire, Gwyr or 
Gower, in Glamorgan, and Cydweli or 
Kidwelly, in Caermarthen, as well as that 
of king Cynedda, are further corrupted. 
See Humph. Llwyd Commentariolum, 
p. 100. (//.) 

v Dieimptorum and Gxer and Guigelk. 
t)iemcopum ojup Cuhep ajup Cujeilli, 
L. TDiamcopuo ojup <5 ue P a 5 u r 5 U ~ 
jelll, B._ (7'.) 

w Cohenda Cuanna, L. Cuanoa, B. 

x Expelled. Innapb, H. Inbapbapcap, 
B. Innapbpaoap, L. (T.) 

y As follows So much of this Gadelian 

r Pictatm or Inpictus Or perhaps we 
should translate, " Pictatus or the Pic- 
tus." L. reads piccabip, and B. picra- 
uip, without the second name. The city 
of Augustoritum, or Poictiers, capital of 
Pictavia, or Poictou, in France, is evi- 
dently the city meant. The fable is in- 
vented to suit the similitude of names. 
Keating, ([noting the authority of the 
Psalter of Cashel, makes the Cruithneans 
a people of Thrace, and supposes them to 
have founded Pictavium in the course of 
their migrations, before their arrival in the 
British isles. See Keating, at the reign 
of Heremon. (7".) 

5 From the pick-axes. Instead of o na 
pinnraib ammnigeaji, B. and L. read 
simply a h-amm. (T.) 

c To their brethren. The substance of 
this section, with some additional matter 
(the length of the reigns, for example, of 
the sons of Cruithne, and the cities where 
they reigned), is given in another copy, 
near the beginning of this Tract, in both 
B. and L. (T.) 


their father Cruithne, went from the islands of Ore, to the Franks, 
and founded a city there, viz., Pictatus or Inpictus r , so called from 
the pick-axes 5 ; and they came again to this island, i. e. to Eri, where 
they were for a long time, until the Gaedil drove them across the 
sea to their brethren'. 

The sons of Liathan", son of Ercal, seized the country Dieimpto- 
rum, and Guer, and Guigelle v , until Cohenda and his sons expelled" 
them out of Britain. 

XI. The learned of the Gaels 2 

or Milesian story, as belongs to Nennius, 
is culled from his ninth and seventh chap- 
ters. The Altars of the Philistines are the 
Aree Philffinorum, between Leptis Magna 
and Barce, 

" Qua celebre invicti nomen posuere Pliilseni," 
two Carthaginian brothers, whose patrio- 
tic self-devotion is recorded in many 
writers, especially in Sallust's Jugurtha, 
p. 126. Delphin. 1674. The Lacus Sa- 
linarum (here Salmara) must signify the 
salt-marshes near the Syrtis Major, called 
in maps Salinas Immense ; and not the 
lake anciently called Salinas Nubonenses 
in the Mauritania Sitifensis ; for other- 
wise the Gaels would be retrograding east- 
wards to Rusicada. The city of Rusicada 
(here Ruiseagda;) was near the modern 
Stora, to the west of Bona, and had a 
Donatist bishop Victor, and a Catholic 
bishop Faustinian. See Optatus a Dupin, 
p. 14, p. 369. Antwerp. The Montes 
Azarae (here Mount lasdaire) are the 

give the following account of the 


Mons Aurasius, stretching S.W. of Rusi- 
cada. The River Malva is now the Enza, 
at or near the division of the Algerian 
and Maroquin states. The Mediterranean 
Sea is the Mare Terrenum, or Land Sea, 
of Marcus, pp. 52 and 49, and of Tire- 
chan in his Annot. p. xix. Wherever (as 
in Nennius, cap. ix. Galfrid. Monumet. i, 
c. 12, and in the Lives of St. Patrick) the 
Tyrrhenum cequor is spoken of by writers 
of these islands, it is a corruption of 
Terrenum, and means the Terranean or 
Medi-Terranean. It is worthy of obser- 
vation, that learning, neither inaccurate 
nor very common, has found its way into 
this geography of the Historia Britonum. 
It has been copied, in an ignorant man- 
ner, by the Archdeacon of Monmouth, 
or by the original author whom he ren- 
dered. Galfrid. Monumet. i, cap. 1 1, 12. 

*The learned of the Gaels." Sic mihi 
peritissimi Scottorum nunciaverunt. 


imceachca a n-appaiDe coipeac. Ro bai apaile peap poceanolach 
pop loingeap i n-Gigipc, lap na h-mtmpba a piji Sgeichia, in n- 
inbam cangaDap meic Ippachel cpe TTluip RuaiD, -] po baiDeao 
popanD cona pluaj. In pliiag cepna ap $an baoat), po h-innapbpac 
a h-Gigipc in loingpec [poicenelach] UD, ap ba clmmain pium Do 
popant) to baioeao ann .1. popann Cfncpip. 

T?o apcnaoap mpum in SjeicheagDai co na clann ip a n-Qpppaij, 
co h-alcopaib na peilipDinach co cuinb Salmapa, ] eicip na l?uip- 
eagoaib -] pliab lapDaipe, -] cap ppuch mbailb cpep in pec 
muipiOe co colamnaib Gpcail cap muncinn ^amiooin coh-6appain; 
1 po aiccpeabaio [in Gppain] lapDam, co cangaDap meic TTlileao 
Gappame co h-6ijnnD co cpichaic cuile, co rpicha lanamain each 
cul, a cino Da bliaDan ap mile lap m-baoao popainD [im muip 

Re;r haucem eopum meppup epc .1. po baioeaD in pig .1. Oonn 05 

ci 5 

Quando venerunt per mare Eubrum filii 
Israel," &c Nennim. See Additional 
Notes, No. VI. Two copies of this sec- 
tion are to be found in different parts of 
the Book of Lecan (T.) 

* Noble Soiceneluch added from B. 
L'. L 2 . (T.) 

b i. e. Forann Cincris. These words 
occur only in D. In the Chronicon of 
Eusebius we read, " Iste est Pharao Chen- 
cres qui contradixit per Mosen Deo, atque 
mari rubro obrutus est." (T.) 

c The wells of Salmara. Sctlmapum, 
B. L 1 . Salmapmm, L 2 . In the Latin 
" per lacum Salinarum, or "Palmaruin," 
as some MSS. of Nennius read erro- 
neously. (T.) 

d The Ruiscaijdtv. Na T?uprect>u, L'. 
na Roipcicoa, L'-. nu Ropcicoa, B. In 
all the Irish copies this word seems given 
in a plural form as the name of a people. 
The Latin reads, " ad Rusicadam." (T.) 

e Mount lasdaire Slebe 6apraip, L 2 . 

Slebe Qj-cape, B. L 1 . The Latin reads, 
" Montes Azariai ;" but some copies read 
" Syria?," and Gale's edition reads Ararat. 

f The River Mlall D. reads cap pliab 

mbalb i. ppur, where the words i. fpuc, 
are manifestly the correction of pliab, and 
introduced by the ignorance of the copyist 
into the text. B. and L*. read ppuch 
niaille. L'. reads j-pucli ITIuilb. The 
Latin is " per flumeu Mai vain." (T.) 


adventures of their ancient chiefs. There was a certain nobleman in 
exile in Egypt, after he had been banished out of the kingdom of 
Scythia, at the time when the children of Israel passed through the 
Red Sea, and Forann [ Pharoali] , with his host, was drowned. The 
army that escaped without being drowned, banished out of Egypt 
the aforesaid noble a exile, because he was the son-in-law of the Forann 
that was drowned there ; i. e. Forann Cincris 5 . 

Afterwards the Scythians went, with their children, into Africa, 
to the altars of the Philistines, to the wells of Salmara c , and between 
the Ruiseagdae d , and Mount lasdaire 6 , and across the River Mbalb f , 
through the Mediterranean Sea g to the pillars of Hercules, beyond 
the sea of Gadidon" to Spain ; and they dwelt in Spain' afterwards, 
until the sons of Miled (Milesius) of Spain" came to Eri, with thirty 
boats, with thirty couples in each boat, at the end of a thousand and 
two years after Forann was drowned in the Red Sea 1 . 

Rex autem eorum mersus est, i. e. the king, viz., Donn, was 


B The Mediterranean Sea. Sec mui- t h oug h he refers to this passage, lias 

pioe, literally semita marina, the sea path entirely misunderstood it. (T.) 

or way, which must here signify the Me- i InSpain. Addedfrom B.L 1 . L" (T.) 

diterranean. The Latin is " transierunt k m i ed O f Spain. -This occurs in uno- 

per maritima." (T.) ther part of the Latin copies, " Et postea 

h The sea of Gadidon. This is not venerunt tres filii cujusdam militis Ilis- 

mentioned in the Latin. ITluincino C(c- panias" (ITlileaD Cappame, where the 

eoan, B. (the aspirated 5 omitted.) mum- proper name, Miled or Milesius, appears 

cino 5 aiD1DonDa > L. The word mum- to stand for miles), " cum triginta ciulis 

cino or mumcinn, signifies the top or apud illos, et cum triginta conjugibus in 

surface ; the level plain (here of the sea). unaquaque ciula." The word cuil or 

In the Leabhar Gabhala (p. 3), it is ex- cul, (cubed, L.) is evidently cognate with 

plained in a gloss by uaccap, surface. the Anglo-Saxon ceol, a long boat, the 

Op mumcinn [.i. uaccap] mapa maip root of our present English word keel. 

Caipp ; " Over the surface of the Caspian See Du Cange v. Ceola, Ciula. (T.) 

Sea." O'Reilly, in his Dictionary, al- ' In the Red Sea. Added from L. L). 


cij Duint>. <Cpi banoe in n-inbcnO pin a plaiciup Gpenn, polla, ] 
banba, -| Sine, copo moiDeaOap cpi cacha poppo pe macaib 
TTIileab. Copo gabaoap meic TTlileao pigi lapoain. 

Concenpio magna pacca epr .1. po pap copnam [mop] ecep Da 
mac IDileat) imon pige co po pibipcap a m-bpeicham lac .1. Gmaip- 
gein [glun jeal mac TTlileD, ]] ba piliO eipioen t>na; -| ip e in 
pib Oo poinoe .1. painD Gpenn a n-oo, -] pogab Gbep [in leach] 
reap, -] 6ipemon [pa leach] cuaig; -\ [po] aiccpeabaio a clanna 
an n-mopi [peo cup anoiu.] 

XII. bpeacam cpa po gabpacap in n-inpi peo ip in cpeap 


reads lap m-aoao for tap m-baoao, omit- 
ting the eclipsed initial letter, a very com- 
mon omission in that MS (T.) 

m Tigh-Duinn, Heber Donn, one of the 
eight commanders of the Milesians, was 
shipwrecked at Teach Duinn, i. e. the 
House of Donn, in Kerry. Ogygia iii. 
cap. 1 6, p. 182. This is the name still 
given by the peasantry of the neighbour- 
hood to one of the three islands commonly 
called the Bull, the Cow, and the Calf, 
oft' Dursey island, at the south entrance 
of Kenmare Bay. Keating speaks of 
Teach Duinn as being near sand banks, 
Ctp an po bairoib 100 ajj na Duihacaib, 
pe paicciop Ceac t)umn, i n-iaprap 
ITIuman, ajup ip o t)honn, mac TDileuD, 
DO bacab ann, jaipriop Ceac tDhuinn 
oe. " The place where they were drowned 
was at the sand banks which is called 
Donn's House, in the west of Munster ; 
and it is from Donn, son of Milesius, who 
was drowned there, that they are called 

Donn's House." He also cites the fol- 
lowing verses from a poem by Eochy 
O'Flynn : 

tDonn, ip 6ile, ip 6uan a bean, 
t)il, ip Qipeac, mac PDileaa, 
6uap, &peap, ip &uuijne 50 m-bloib, 
tDo bacub uj nu t)uriiucoiB. 

'* Donn, ami Uile, and Buan his wife, 
Pil, and Aireac, son of Milead, 
liuas anil Ureas, and Huaighne renowned, 
Were drowned at the sand banks." (T.) 

" Ihree goddesses That is to say, three 

princesses of the Tuatha De Danann, for 
that tribe were called the Gods. They 
were the wives of the three grandsons of 
the Daghda (77.) 

Folia, Banba, and Eire. Porto, B. 
L'. L 2 . Her name is commonly spelt 
Fobla. See the story in Keating (T.) 

P The kingdom Cpi pi^i pope, L., i. e. 
the three kingdoms of Fodhla, Banba, and 
Eri. T?ije poppo pope, B. The Latin 


drowned at Tigh-Duinn. Three goddesses" at that time held the 
sovereignty of Eri, namely, Folia, and Banba, and Eire , until three 
battles were gained over them by the sons of Milead, so that the sons 
of Milead afterwards took the kingdom 15 . 

Contentio magna q facta est, i. e. there grew up r a great dispute be- 
tween the two sons of Milead, concerning the kingdom, until their 
Brehon 5 pacified them, viz. Amergin of the white knee, son of Milead ; 
and he was their poet'. And this is the peace which he made", viz., 
to divide Eri into two parts, and Eber T took the northern half, He- 
rimon the southern half, and their descendants inhabit this island to 
the present day. 

XII. Now the Britons took possession of this island" in the third 

words, or abbreviations for them, et, vero, 
sed, post, often occur in Irish MSS., but 
they were always read by their Irish equi- 
valents, just as we read the contraction 
" &" and, although it is really an abbre- 
viated mode of writing the letters et. (T). 

q Contentio magna, fyc. The Latin 
words at the beginning of this paragraph 
appear to intimate that our Irish com- 
piler was copying from some Latin ori- 
ginal. They occur only in D. There is 
nothing corresponding in the Latin copies 
of Nennius. (T.) 

' Grew up Ro dp, D. B. for po pap, 

omitting the aspirated initial. Cop pop 
cocao mop, L 2 . Copnam mop, B. L 1 . 

s Their Brehon. D. reads co po pioaij- 
peac a m-bpeichimain, " until their Bre- 
hons pacified them :" but this, being in- 
consistent with what follows, is an evident 
mistake, and the reading of L'. L 2 . and B. 



has therefore been followed. The words 
inserted between brackets after Amergin's 
name in the Irish text, are added from 

L 1 . and L* (T.) 

f Their poet. The word pileb implied 
much more than a poet. See O'Flaherty, 
Ogyg. iii. c. 1 6. p. 1 83, who says, " Amer- 
ginus sub fratribus suis supremus vates 
fuit. Quo nomine (Filedh, quasi Philo- 
sopho) non poeta; tantum, sed etiam aliis 
scientiis apprime versati audiebant." (T.) 
u He made. Instead of the words ujup 
ip e in pib DO point>e (which are inserted 
from L 1 .) D. reads ip pe m, leaving the 
sense imperfect. B. reads tigup ip e in 
pi6. L 1 . reads ipe in pich. (T.) 

v Eber. mibep, D. The insertions 
between brackets in the text are from L'-'. 
D. reads clcmn instead of clanria. In 
inopi cup anbiu, B. In inopi peo cup 
aniu, L 2 . In n-mpi co pi6, L 1 . (T.) 
w This island. Here our Author, trans- 

aimpeap in Domain. 1pm ceacpamao aimpeap in Domain imoppo 
po gabpac ^aeDil Gpinn ; ip in aimpip cenna po gabpacap Cpu- 
ichnig cuapceapc inDpi bpeacan; ip in cpeipeO aimpeap imoppo 
cangaDap Dal-piaDa co po gabpac painD na Cpuicneach, -| ip an 
ampip pin po gabpac Sa;cain a paino a bpeacnaib. 

lap n-il aimpeapaib cpa po gabpac ftomam apD plachup in Do- 
main, n no paeDreac ceachcaipe co h-imp bpeacan Do cuingiD 

* I I I I ' 

giall i eicipe, amail cugpac ap jac cip [n-aile]. Do cuaoap imoppo 
na ceachca [co] DimDach jan jiall; po peapgaiDeao in pig imoppo 
.1. lull Cepaip pe bpeacnu, -\ camg co be. cuile co h-mDbeap ppo- 
cha Camaip. beallinop imoppo ba pig bpeacan in n-mbaiD pin. 
Do cuaiD imoppo Dolabeallup aip conpul pig bpeacan a com- 
Dail luil [Ceapaip], -| po ceapgDa milm in pig ; ipm ampip pin 
po bpip Donino i anpao a longa, -| Do pachcuip in pig gan cop- 

lating a British authority, probably Nen- 
nius, uses the words this island, to sig- 
nify Britain. Nennius (cap. 10,) says, 
" Brittones venerunt in tertia a;tate 
mundi ad Brittanniam. Scotti autem 
in quarta obtinuerunt Hibernian!." The 
six ages of the world are given in the 
various editions of the Historia (and with 
some difference in Taliesin's Divregwawd, 
p. 96), but are omitted by this transla- 
tor. The third age was from Abraham 
to David, the fourth was from David to 
Daniel ; and the sixth is from John Baptist 
to Doomsday. Some anachronisms of Nen- 
nius are corrected in this passage. (//.) 

* Age, XIep, L 2 . dip, B. L 1 . (T.) 

y Sixth age. In ceipeo aimpip, D. in 
pepeao aip, L'. in pepeao ampip, L 1 . 

' The Romans Here we pass to the 
fourteenth chapter of Nennius, " Romani 
autem dum acceperunt dominium totius 
mundi, ad Britannos miserunt legates," 

a Other. n-aile added from L'. L*. 

b Displeased tDimjach, D. Co oim- 
oach, L'. L'-. ^o 01 mooch, B. (T.) 

c Sixty ships. Co pel ciule, D. Vj:. cu- 
baile, L". l,r. ciuile, B. L'. "Tune 

Julius Ca;snr iratus est valde, 

et venit ad Brittaniam, cum sexaginta 
ciulis, et tenuit in ostium Tamesis," &c. 
Nennius. (T.) 

d Tames. B. reads 50 h-inbep ipora- 
mep, which is evidently a mistake for 
ppora Camep. (T.) 

* Procoiisul. Qip conpain, D., an evi- 


age of the world. But it was in the fourth age* of the world that 
the Gaels seized upon Eri. In the same age the Cruithnians took 
the northern quarter of the island of Britain. But it was in the sixth 
age 7 that the Dalriada came, and took the district of the Cruithnians, 
and it was at that time also that the Saxons took their portion of the 
island from the Britons. 

But after many ages the Romans 2 took the sovereignty of the 
world, and they sent an ambassador to the island of Britain, to de- 
mand hostages and pledges, such as they had taken from every 
other* country. The ambassadors, however, went away displeased b 
without hostages ; and the king, viz., Julius Cassar, was enraged witli 
the Britons, and came with sixty ships to the mouth of the river 
Tames". Now Bellinus was king of the island of Britain at that 
time. And Dolabellus, pro-consul 6 of the King of Britain, went to 
meet Julius Ca;sar f , and the soldiers of the king were cut down ; in 
the mean time 8 tempestuous weather and storm broke his ships, and 


dent mistake. Spoonful, B. L 1 . Gpo- though he was clearly dead, being father 

chonpot, IA This last reading would to Cassivellaunus. Galfrid. iii. cap. 20. 

signify chief consul ; but the Latin calls But Beli Maur was a sort of patron hero 

Dolobellus " proconsul regi Brittanico." to Britannia, which was called his island. 

Some take " Dolobellum" in the Latin Taliesin, Dirge of Pendragon, p. 73. Per- 

to be the name of a town, an interpreta- haps the passage may be restored in this 

tion which has the authority of Geoffrey manner, which brings into play both the 

of Monmouth ; it will be seen, however, apud and the contra: " pugnabat apud 

that our Irish author considered it as Dolo["n] contra [Cassi]bell[anjum, qui 

the name of a man (T.) Nennius has erat proconsul regi Britannico, qui et 

contra Dolobellum, and Marcus, apud ipse rex Belinus vocabatur, et filius erat 

Dolobellum. Camden quotes it, ad Dole Minocani." (H.) 

bellum, " a battle at Deal ;" but neither f Ccesar. Added from L 2 . (T.) 

states where he found it, nor how the g In the mean time. TJo cepccu rnilib 

rest is to be construed. In this passage p'j ip mo amup pin, B. 12o ceapjoa 

of the Historia, Beli Maur ap Manogan mile, D. 12o cecoa milij mo pij in 

is represented as still king of Britain ; n-oamup pin L'. Ro cepcaoan milij 



5iip t>m cip. Uanij imoppo apip a cinn rpi m-bliaoan co rpi 
.c. long cop in -infcbeap cetma ; po puiOigipoap imoppo Oolobel- 
lup beapa mpaino in n-acha na h-abann apa cmo in carha, co 
ropcpanap na mileao pomanach cpep in n-enjnam neamaicpioe 
pin .1. epep na jpainib cacha. 

Co po cineoilio o luil, -] co capoao each ip in peapann t>ia- 
nab amm dnuannpum, co pemam poime in car pin -] 50 po jab 
piji na h-int>pi .un. m-bliarma. pel. pe gem Cpipc, ab inicio mumt>i 
ii. jirj7.ii. 

XIII. linl ona in ceo pij Roman po gab imp bpearan po map- 


in pij iy a n-inbao pin, Lr. Cepcra is 
the old form of the passive participle, 

Notes, No. VII. Cethilou, Cetilou, Ca- 
thiloii, Cathelcu, Cechilou, Cethilo, Cethi- 

ra being the termination, which in the locium, for in all these forms it is found 

modern Irish is 06 (T.) 

h Without victory Can jiall, without 

hostages. L-. (T.) 

' Three hundred. -Cpichao, D. Cpi . c. 
L. ccc, B. " Cum magno oxercitu, tre- 
centisque ciulis." Nennius.(T.) 

i Seeds of battle. This passage is very 
obscure, and the Irish text in all the MSS. 
corrupt. The Latin (Stevenson's text) is 
as follows : " Et ibi inicrunt bellum, et, 
multi cecidernnt dc equis et militilms 
snis, quia supradictus proconsul posuerat 
sudes ferreas et semen bellicosum, id est, 

in the MSS. of Nennius, seems to have 
been a British word, identical in signifi- 
tion with semen bellicosum. Cpep in n-ai 
cenatcpioe,IA "Through invisible know- 
ledge," translating ars inv/sibilis. B. is 
altogether corrupt, cpep in n-aj ner 
mac pioi. L 1 . reads cpi pin n-aj neatn- 
aicpioe. D. has najpioe, where n is 
probably a contraction for neam. (T.) 

"Seeds of battle" is literally rendered 
from " semen bellicosum." " Dictus pro- 
consul posuerat sudes ferreas et semen 
bellicosum, qua' calcitramenta, id est 


Cetilou, in vada fluminis, quod discrimen cethilocium [cethilou, cethiloii, cethil 

magnum fuit militibus Romanorum, et eathilou, cechilou, catheleu] in vada flu- 

ars invisibilis." Here it would seem that minis, etc." The only clue to this mangled 

the 5pana carha of the Irish is an at- British is the Latin translation of it, 

tempt to translate semen bettimsiim, which which shows that caltrops, or the like 

was probably a name given to the spikes thereof, were called the seed of battle, 

or caltrops cast or sown in the river for the and consequently that cad or cat, battle, 

annoyance of the enemy. See Additional is the beginning of this word, and perhaps 


the king was driven back without victory" to his country. He came 
again, however, at the end of three years, with three hundred' ships, 
to the same bay ; but Dolobellus put spikes of iron in the ford- 
ing place of the river, in preparation for the battle, so that the 
Roman soldiers fell by this invisible stratagem, i. e., by the seeds of 
battle j . 

Notwithstanding, a rally was made" by Julius, and battle was 
given in the land which is called Tinnandrum 1 , so that he broke 
that battle before him, and took the sovereignty of the island, forty- 
seven years before the birth of Christ, ab initio mundi 5035". 

XIII. Now Julius, the first king of the Romans, who took the 


fieu, sowing, its termination. Catheu is 
too short, and gives up the I in which all 
readings agree. Catol-keu is exactly " se- 
men bellicosum." It is a strange criti- 
cism that, with the Latin actually given, 
passes it over unnoticed, and invents 
things alien to it! See Owen Pughe's 
MS., apud Gunn's Nennius, p. 127. Ro- 
berts' Tysilio, p. 78 (//.) 

k A rally was made. Co n-oeapnao 
a cmol, L 1 . (T.) 

1 Tinnandrum. Cjimuabann, L s . Cpi- 
nouano, B. " Gestum est bellum tertio 
juxta locum qui dicitur Trinovantuin." 
Nennius. Copo no Cpmouonnpum, L 1 ., 
where copo seems a mere mistake (T.) 

For Tinandrum read Trinovantum (the 
Troynovant of Geoffrey), by which name 
London is denoted. I believe that name 
had its origin in a mistranslation of Oro- 
sius, " Trinobantum [gen. pl.J firmissima 
civitas .... Csesari se dedidit." vi. cap. 9. 

Csesar died B. C. 45, not 47, as stated ; 
the statement immediately following in 
cap. xiii., concerning A. D. 47, has arisen 
out of the former by some unaccountable 
confusion. In Marcus, forty -seven years 
after Christ are made the duration of 
Claudius' reign (-?/.) 

m He broke, i. e. he won the battle. 
Co po meabaio, L 1 . Co po maio, L-'. 
^u po aemiD, B. which last reading is 
evidently corrupt (T.) 

n Ab initio mundi, <fyc. This date is 
omitted in L 2 . u. m. ;cx;cu.a chiopach Do- 
main co pin in n-airnpip pin, L'. U.^^ru. 
bliaoan o copac oomam, B. " Et acce- 
pit Julius imperium Brittanica; gentis 
quadraginta septem annis ante nativita- 
tem Christi, ab initio autem mundi quin- 
que millia ducentorum quindecim." 
Stevenson's Nennius. In D. the reading- 
is u. ^jctu. as in the text, where ii. is 
for urn. (T.) 


bao ina h-aipecc h-pem, -| ip na h-amoip po h-ainmnigp eaD Pomain 
mi luil a cmt> .un. m-bliaona pi. lap n-gein Cpipc. 

.11. CluiD in pig eanaipoe po gab imp bpeacan, [a cino cheach- 
pacao bliaDan agup a ceachaip lap n-gen Cpipc], -\ DO pao ap mop 
ap bpeacnaib, -] painig imp Opcc lap cop dip a munncipe, -| lap 
mop Die a muinnnpe tapmroipeach Dianao amm Caipebeallunup ; 
cpi bliaDna Deg ] .uff. mfp a pige, co n-epbailc im TTlagnanna h-i 
LongbapDaib ag Dola Do TCoim [a] h-imp [bpeacan]. 

lap .uff. m-bliaDna. jcl. ap ceD o gem Cpipc, po paipeac in pig 
-] in papa .1. Galicuhepiup ppuiche uaiDib co n-ebiplib co Cuciup 
co pig bpearan, co po baipDicea in pig, co pigaib bpeacan ap- 

.iff. Suapeip in cpeap pig cainig a m-bpecnaib; ip leip Do po- 


In his own senate. In a oipechc pein, 
L l . O na aipeaccaiB pen, L 2 ., " by his 
own senators." The word Qipeacc, or 
Oipeacc, signifies an assembly. It was 
the common name given to the assemblies 
of the people in Ireland at which the na- 
tive Brehons administered justice ; and 
it would seem that it is in this sense our 
author applies it to the Roman senate. 
In Anglo-Irish documents of the period 
of Hen. III. to Eliz., it was commonly 
anglicised Eriott, and Iraghte : as in the 
letter of J. Alen to the Royal Commis- 
sioners (1537), "And in any wyse some 
ordre to be taken immedyately for the 
buildeing of the castell hall, where the 
lawe is kept ; for yf the same be not 
buyldeid, the majestic and estimation of 
the lawe shalle perryshe, the justices be- 
ing then enforceid to minister the lawes 

upon hylles, as it were Brehons or 
wylde Irishemen, in ther Eriottes." State 
Papers, ii. p. 501. See also Battle of 
Magh Rath, p. 92, note e . (T.) 

p Forty and four years. This clause is 
added from B. L 1 . L 2 . The Latin reads 
forty-eight. " Secundus post hunc Claudius 
imperator venit, et in Britannia impe- 
ravit, annis quadragiuta octo post adven- 
tum Christi, et stragem et bellum fecit 
magnum," &c. B. L'. and L*. read CUno 
in pij canair-ce ramie, (instead of po 
jabe) i. e. " the second king that came to 
Britain." (T.) 

q He brought. t)o par, B. L 1 . t)o 
paoao, L 2 . (T.) 

1 His people, Q milecm, L'. a-mbio- 
bao, his enemies, IA a maire ajup a 
rnileaa, his chieftains and his soldiers, 


island of Britain, was killed in his own senate ; and it was in his 
honor that the Romans gave the month of July its name, at the end 
of seven and forty years after the birth of Christ. 

ii. Cluid [Claudius] was the second king that took possession of 
Britain, at the end of forty and four years p after the birth of Christ, 
and he brought* 1 a great slaughter upon the Britons, and he pene- 
trated to the islands of Ore, after causing a slaughter of his people, 
and after a great loss of his people" by the chieftain whose name was 
Cassibellaunus. He reigned thirteen years and seven months', when 
he died in Magnantia' of the Longobards, as he was going to Rome 
from the island of Britain". 

After one hundred and forty-seven years" from the birth of 
Christ, the Emperor and the Pope, viz., Eleutherius," sent clerks 
from them with letters to Lucius King of Britain, in order that the 
king might be baptized, and the other kings of Britain in like manner. 

iii. Severus 1 was the third king that came to Britain ; and it was 


5 Seven months. Cpi bliaona oec DO w Eleutherius. Gulechepiup, B. Gu- 

ajup occ mir, B. L s . The Latin also lecpiur, L 1 . 6elecepiup, L 2 . The Latin 

reads, " regnavit autem annis tredecim, reads, " missa legatione ab imperatoribus 

mensibus octo." (T.) Rornanorum, et a papa Romano Eucha- 

1 Magnantia, For Magnantia it is Ma- risto." Mr. Stevenson mentions a MS., 
gantia in Nennius, and in Marcus, Mogun- in the margin of which is added by the 
tin, which are Latin modes of writing original scribe, " Mentitur, quia primus 
Mentz. Nennius, cap. 17. This erro- annus Evaristi fuit A. D. 79, primus 
neous statement arises from a miscon- vero annus Eleutherii, quern debuit no- 
struction of the words of Eutropius, vii. minasse, fuit A. D. 161." The Irish trans- 
cap. 1 3. " Post hunc Claudius fuit, pa- lator, therefore, seems to have corrected 

truus Caligula, Drusi qui apud Mogun- this mistake of the original (T.) For 

tiacum monumentum habet nlius." (77.) some remarks on the legend of King Lu- 

u Britain Added from L 1 . L 2 (T.) cius, see Additional Notes, No. VIII. 

v Forty-seven years. The Latin reads x Severus. Sebepiup, L s . Seuepup, 

" Post centum et sexaginta annos. (T.) L'. B. (T.) 


mo clao Sa;ran a n-agaiD na m-bapbapoa .1. Cpuichneachu Da 
ap .c. ceimenn ma pao, -| ape ainm in clam pin la bpeac- 


r achu ^uaul ; ~\ po popconjaip clao aile Do Denam in n-ajaiD >ae- 
Deal -| Cpmchneach .1. ClaD na muice, -] Do pochaippin [mppin] 
la bpeacan co n-a copeachuib. 

.1111. Capaupiup lapDain canij co cpoDu Do Dijail Seuip ap 
bpeacnaib co copcaip pij bpeacan leip, -| co po jab aeoju pij uitne 
cap Dioen in pij .1. in c-impep ; conao po mapb QUeccup copaiD 
Romanac, -\ co po jab [pioe] pije mpcain ppia pe [ciana]. 

.u. ConDpancinup mac Coripcancin moip mic Qilina po jab 
imp bpeacan, -] aobac, ~\ po acnacbc a Caippejinc .1. Tllinancia .1. 


" Guaul. The wall of Severus, from 
Tinmouth to the Solway, is stated by 
Nennius, after Orosius, to be 132 miles 
long ; but the distance given by Sparti- 
anus, in his Life of Hadrian, who first 
drew that line of defence, viz., 80 miles, 
is nearer to the truth. Camden, Britt. ii. 
189, Gibson. That which is here men- 
tioned, 2130 paces, is absurd and unac- 
countable. In Arabic numbers, we might 
have supposed the translator to have read 
213 passuum, without the millia (213 
being a transposition of Orosius'' 132), 
and to have lengthened that extremely 

minute extent by addition of the cipher. 
But as he employs a mixture of Roman 
numerals and words, "two M. xxx. and 
C." we are in a manner cut off from that 

The second wall ascribed to Severus by 
the translator, and called by him Cladh 
na Muice, must be the line of Agricola 
and Antoninus Pius, which Severus did 

not restore, but Theodosius afterwards 
did. Perhaps he was led into this inter- 
polation by mistaking propterea for prce- 

The MSS. of Nennius confound the 
wall of Severus with that of Antoninus, 
both in their original description of it, 
and in their assertion that Carausius re- 
paired it ; fcr the latter, if true of any 
wall, relates to that of Antonine, cap. xix. 
The fable of the violent death of Severus 
is given at large in Galfrid. Monurnet. 5, 
cap. 2. (//.) 

1 Cludk JKI >tn/ice, i.e. the pig's ditch, 
or the " swine's dike". It is remarkable 
that a very similar fosse and rampart, in 
the counties of Down and Armagh, which 
formed the ancient boundary between 
the territories of Oriel and Uladh or 
Ulidia, is called by the native Irish, 

or the black 
the Anglo-Irish, 

the Dane's cast." See an account of it 

" Gleann na muice 
pig's glen ; and by 


by him was made the Saxon ditch against the barbarians, i. e. the 
Cruithnians, 2 1 30 paces long, and the name of that ditch among the 
Britons was GUAUI/. And he commanded another ditch to be made 
against the Gaels and the Cruithnians, i. e. Cladh na muice 2 , and he 
was afterwards 3 killed by the Britons, with his chieftains. 

iv. Carausius afterwards came bravely b to avenge Severus on the 
Britons, so that the King of Britain fell by him, and he assumed the 
royal robes in spite of the king, i. e. of the emperor ; so that Alectus, 
the Roman champion, killed him, and he himself [viz. Alectus'] 
seized the kingdom afterwards 11 for a long e time. 

v. Constantinus, son f of Constantine the Great, son of Helena, 
took the island of Britain, and died, and was buried at Caersegeint, 
i. e. Minantia, another name for that city ; and letters on the grave- 

in Stuart's Armagh, App. iii. p. 585, and 
Circuit of Muircheartach, p. 31. There 
is a village called Swine's Dike, on the line 
of the Roman wall of Antoninus, which 
runs from the Frith of Clyde to the 
Frith of Forth. Horsley (Britannia Eo- 
mana, p. 172), speaking of this wall, says : 
"After it has crossed a brook, it leaves 
the parks and passes by a village called 
Langton, which stands about three chains 
south from it, and next by another village 
called Swine's Dike, where the track of 
the ditch is clearly discernible." (T.) 

a Afterwards. Added from IA L 2 . B. 

b Bravely Co copacc, D. Co co- 
paca, L'. (5 cupaca, B. The Latin 
reads, "in Brittaniam venit tyrannide." 

c He himself. Added from B (T.) 


d Afterwards Clparmle, B. lappn, 

L'. p. [for posted], L 2 (T.) 

e Long. Ciana, added from B (T.) 
f Constantinus, son, Sfc It should be 
" Constantius, father," &c., as in Gale's 
edition. The tomb of Constantius is said 
to have been discovered at Caer Segeint, 
close to the modern Caernarvon, in 1283. 
The discovery of a tomb in that year is 
consistent with there having been a more 
ancient tradition to the same purpose. 
But Constantius did really die at York, 

the " Caer Ebrauc alio nomine Bri- 

gantum" of Gale's Nennius, and beyond 
reasonable doubt was buried there ; not 
at Caer Segeint, as in Marcus and the 
translation. "Obiit in Britannia Eboraci," 
Eutrop. 10, cap. i. Brigantum is the 
translator's Minantia, and Marcus's Mi- 
manton. (II.) 


ainm aile Do cachpaig pin ; -\ pallpijiD licpi [i cloich] in atnacail 
a airnn, -| poppajaib epi pi la ip in n-pairce op in carpaij pin, cona 
pil pochc ip in cachpaij pin. 

.ui. TT]ai;rim ano peipeao impep DO jab bpeacam. [Ipnaaimpip 
pin po] cmDcpnab conpaileachc 05 Romnncaib, -| nip cojpaD Ce- 
papi pop pij eile o pin amach. Ip a na aimpip TTlnpcimin pobai an 
r -appeal uapaipminDeac .1. naemTTlapcam; [ooJ5ailh a la Uleicpip 

.un. TTla^imain po jab piji bpeacan, ~\ puj [ploga] bpeacam a 
l?omanncaib co copcaip laip 5p anian in c-impep, -\ po jab pein 
piji na h-6oppa ; -] [m] po leij uao na pluaij pug leip oocum a 
m-bari i a mac nach a peapann, ace DO paD peapanna imoa Doib 
[o clia in loch pil immullach Sleibe loib] co Canacuic buDeap -] 
piap co Duma OichiDen air a puil in chpop apjna, -| ip IOD pin 


pauper in ea habitaret unquam : et vooa- 
tur alio nomine Minmanton [_al, Miman- 
tum]." (T.) 

' Maxim. See Add. Notes, No. IX. 
J He teas ofGmdofUlexix This clause 
is added from L 2 ., it is not in the Latin. 
In the text, (which is from D.), St. Martin 
is called appeal, an apostle, a word which 
in Irish often signifies no more than a 
prelate ; in the other MSS. he is merely 

8 Point out his name. poillpjio licpi 
f-uippi ainm in piji; pin i cloich in aona- 
cuil, B. L'. and IA omit puipjn. The 
Latin reads, " Sepulcrum illius monstra- 
tur juxta urbem qua; vocatur Cair Sege- 
int : ut literse, qua; sunt in lapide tumuli, 
ostendunt." (T.) 

h He left three seeds. L'. and D. read 
pop ajctib [for pa^aib] cpi pila. D. adds 
ip in carpaij pin n-amce, and L', ipu 
n-airce [for n-pairce, the green or open 
space of a village, which is, no doubt, the 
correct reading] op in carpaij. B. reads 
Pop a cleib rpi pila ip in n-ai6ci uup in 
cacpaij ; and L e reads, popaclib 7 cpi 
pila ip in aiochi uap in cachpaio pin. 
The Latin is " Et ipse seminavit tria se- 
mina, id est, auri, argenti, ffirisque, in 
pavimento supradicta; civitatis, ut nullus 

called eappo^, a bishop. 6ooen is the 
old form of the emphatic pronoun pein, 
he himself ; it occurs in ancient MSS. in 
various forms, uoben, bofiein, paoein, 
pooein, from which, by aspirating, and 
then omitting the D, comes the modern 
form F eln - We find it also in the forms 
paoepin, and buoepin. See O'Donovan's 
Irish Grammar, p. 130 (T.) The words 

6 7 

stone point out his name 8 , and he left three seeds" in the green of 
that city, so that there is not a poor man in that city. 

vi. Maxim 1 was the sixth emperor that took Britain. It was at 
that time that the consulship was begun among the Romans, and 
no king was called Caasar from thenceforth. It was in the time of 
Maxim that the noble venerable prelate St. Martin flourished ; he 
was of Gaul of Ulexis j . 

vii. Maximian took the kingdom of Britain, and he led the armies* 
of Britain against the Romans, so that Gratian, the emperor, fell by 
him, and he himself took the empire of Europe ; and he did not 
suffer the armies he had brought with him to go back to their wives 
and their children, nor to their lands, but gave them many lands, 
from the place where there is the lake on the top of Mount Jove 1 , to 
Canacuic m on the south, and westward to the Mound Ochiden", a 
place where there is a celebrated cross , and these are the Britons of 


"Gaul of Ulexis" are evidently corrupt. 
The name of the river Ligeris upon which, 
or that of Luguge or Liguge (Locociagum) 
at which Martin at different times sojourn- 
ed, may be latent. If any one prefers to 
see here the name of Ulysses, he must 
have recourse to the verses of Claudian, 

u Est locus extremum pandit qua Gallia littus 
Oceani prajtentus aquis, ubi fertur Ulysses 
Sanguine libato populum movisse silentem." 

In Rufin. 1, 123 (J7.) 

" The armies. Added from L l . L 2 . The 
Latin reads, " Et ipse perrexit cum om- 
nibus militibus Brittonum a Brittannia, 
et occidit Gratianum regem Romanorum, 
et imperium tenuit totius Europe." (T.) 

1 From the place Mount Jove. 

Added from L 1 . L 2 . B. The Latin reads 

" a stagno quod est super verticeni mou- 
tis Jovis, usque ad civitatem qiue vocatur 
Cantguic." (T.) See additional Notes, 
No. X. 

m Canactiic Canchuic, L 1 . L'. Can- 

cuic, B. (T.) 

n The Mound Ochiden " Usque ad Cu- 
mulum occidentalem, id est, Cruc Ochi- 
dient." This passage settles the signifi- 
cation of the word burha, which enters 
into the composition of many topogra- 
phical names in Ireland, and which 
O'Brien, and after him O'Reilly, explain, 
" a place of gaming." Its true meaning is 
a mound, a tumulus. The word Cruc is ex- 
plained by Davies, lippus, tumulus (T.) 

Cross. D. reads inoeichnop apjna, 
which is evidently corrupt ; the reading 


[bjieccccnn Lefa] ~| capapraip reap oojjpep, -| ip aipe pin jio 
gabapoaip eachcap-cineaoa ripe t>peacan, -] po mapbcha 6pea- 
cain a n-imlib a peapaino. 

^paoian imoppo, cono bpachaip .1. Ualer.rmien a compiji .ui. 
bliaona ; ip n-ampip po bai in c-eppoc uapal i TTleoolen popceollatD 
ria cachlasoa .1. Qmbpop. 

Ualanennnen i Ueochap a complarup oclic m-bliaona , ip 
na li-aimpip po nr.eolam in pearab i Con] .1. I. ap rpi ccc. 
i>o ppucib DO Dicup ipip niaicciooin .1. oiulcao in Spipio naem ; -\ 
ip 'na amipip po bai Cipine uapal pagapc i m-6eichil [luoa] in 
r-eioipceapcai^ carlilajlia. 

^paoian ceana map oubpamap -\ Ualencen li-i piji co po pigao 
niajrmien o na mileaoaib a n-inip bpeacan, -| co n-oeacliaio rap 
inuip a Ppancaib, -| co po popuaplaijiD in pi^ J5pait>ian cpe bpach 


adopted is from L'. L 1 . und li. Then; 
is no authority in the Latin for this men- 
tion of a cross, unless we suppose the word 
cruc to have been in some way confounded 
with crux. See Mr. O'Donovan's note, 
Hy Fiaehrach, p. 413. (7'.) 

i' The Britons (if Letha. Added from 
L'. L'. B. L 2 . reads, 6peurain lefan. 
The Latin is "Hi sunt Hrittones Arnio- 
riei." (T.) See additional Notes, No. XI. 

q Prelate D. reads eappol, perhaps 

for eapjrol, apostle. Gppoc, bisl/o]/, is 
the reading of L'., L 2 ., and B. D. also 
reads Qmpop, omitting the b. The Latin 
is " et AmbrosiusMediolanensis episcopus 
clarus habebatur in Catholicorum dog- 
mate." (T.) 

r Macedon, ffc The second (Ecumeni- 
cal Council of Constantinople is here cor- 

rectly stated to have had especial refe- 
rence to the opinions of Macedonius, who 
denied the personality of the Holy Ghost. 
But the Latin copies do not make men- 
tion of that heresiarch (//.) 

5 Judah Added from L-. Ceuchr 
ceapcaij, 1). This notice of St. Jerome 
is taken almost verbatim from Prosper's 
Chronicon, ad. A. I). 386 (T.) 

1 Ax ice have said. Dojjpurnap, D., an 
evident error of the scribe. The reading 
followed is that of L'., L 2 ., and B. (T.) 

u Went Neachubap [for n-oeachu- 
oup], D. The reading of B., L'., L*., has 
been followed. (7 T .) 

v Set at liberty puaplcngeao, L'. pop- 
baiplij;e&, L ! . popunipli^eao, B. (T.) 

w Master of tlte soldiers All the Irish 
copies make Parassis the pranomen of 

6 9 

Letha p , and they remained in the south ever since, and it was for this 
reason that foreign tribes occupied the lands of the Britons, and that 
the Britons were slaughtered on the borders of their land. 

But Gratian, with his brother Valentinian, reigned conjointly six 
years. It was in his time lived the noble prelate' in Milan, a teacher 
of Catholicity, viz. Ambrose. 

Valentiuian and Theothas [Theodosius] were in joint sovereignty 
eight years. It was in their time was assembled the synod in Con- 
stantinople of three hundred and fifty clerks, to banish the heresy of 
Macedon r , viz., the denying the Holy Ghost. And it was in their 
time the noble priest Cirine [Ilieronymus] nourished at Bethlehem 
Judah s , the catholic interpreter. 

The same Gratian, as we have said', and Valentinian, reigned 
until Maximen \J\faximus\ was made king by the soldiers in the island 
of Britain, and went" across the sea to France ; and the king, Gratian, 
was set at liberty v by the treacherous counsel of the master of the 


this magister militum : the Latin, as lio triumphalis et trabeate Merobaudes, 

printed by Bertram, reads Parasius, as recordetur interitum; quorum alter, etc., 

an agnomen of Gratianus; and Mr. Ste- alteri manibus satellitum Britannomm 

phenson gives it thus: " Gratianus Parisiis, gula domi fracta, et inusta foemiiiea; mor- 

Meroblaudis magistri rnilitum proditione, tis infamia, ut scilicet maluisse vir ferri 

superatus est, et f'ugiens Lugduni captus amantissimus videretur laqueo perire, 

atque occisus est." But the Irish makes quamgladio." Drepanius Pacatlts Paneg. 

Meroblaudes treacherous towards Maxi- Tkeodosii, cap. 28. It seems to have been 

mus, not towards Gratian, which appears an affair like Piehegru's and Captain 

to have been the historical fact (?'.) Wright's, and may have happened as Paea- 

Parassis is a corruption of Parisiis, at tus intimates. But the character of Maxi- 

Paris. Merobaudes magister militum mus was not vile, and cannot be e^ti- 

was faithful to Gratian, and is said to mated from the rhetoric of Pacatus. The 

have therefore suffered death at the words of Nennius, imputing treachery to 

hands of Maximus. " Quod si cui ille the faithful Merobaudes, are copied from 

pro cseteris sceleribus suis minus crudelis those in the Chronicle of Prosper Aqui- 

fuisse videtur, vestrum is, vestrum, Ba- tane, page 637, ap. Koncalli Latinorum 

7 o 

na miliD .1. papappip TTleapoblaoip ; co po ceich 
in pis co CujDon, co po gabao ann, ~| co po mapbaD. 

TTla^imen -| a mac Uiccop a compel. TTlapcam a Uopmip in 
n-mbaiD pin. lHajcimen imoppo po paobaijpo leip na conpalu o ecju 
pigoa .1. la Ualencinen 1 la Ueochap ip in cpeap lice on cachaip 
Gi^ilia, i po camnaigeD o cinn ip in Ing pin. Do pochaip imoppo 
a mac .1. Uiccop h-i Ppancaib lap in comic oianaD amm Qpjuba. 
O cup Domain u. m. DC. jcc., [co pin, DO peip each cpoimce pin.] 

XIV. 18 amlaiD pin inbipiD apDpanca na bpeacan .1 na. uff. 
n-aipopija Do TComancaib pop bpeacan. QcbeapaiD imoppo 17o- 
manaio ip nonb'up uaiDiB pop t>peacnaib .1. in c-ochcmaD in Seuep 
canaipi, acbach 05 Dul DO l?oim a h-mip bpeacan. Conpcancm 
.;cui. bliaona i pi^i innpi bpeacan co n-epbailc. Nai m-bbaona 
cpa ap cccc. DO bpeacnaib pon cip Romanac. 17o h-mnapbpac 


Chronica. But that of Prosper Tiro, 
p. 679, correctly gives it, not "Merobaudis 
mayistri militum proditione superatus," 
hut "Mero/miH/emagistro." In his preface, 
p. xvii., xviii., Koncalli expresses himself 
sceptically upon the text of Prosper, but 
not upon the fact of Merobaudes's inno- 
cence. (//.) 

x Lugdon. c-uoon, D. ^o^son, L ! . The 
reading of L'. B. has been followed (T). 

> Stone. if in cpep bliaoam luj on 
cuchcup, L*. if in rpeap Uij on cu- 
cliaip, D. The reading of L'. and B. has 
been followed as most in accordance with 
the Latin, which is " Post multum inter- 
vallum temporis a Valentiniano et Theo- 
dosio Consulibus, in tertio ab Aquileia 
lapide spoliatus indumentis regalibus sis- 
titur, et capite damnatur." This is taken 

word for word from Prosper's Chronicle. 
See note a infra (T.) 

1 His head vas cut off. Lit. " he was 
separated from his head;" po oichecmoao, 
L'. po Diclieunca, L 1 . po oicheunnu6, 
B., all different spellings of the same 
word, he was beheaded. (T.) 

1 Aryuba Qp5ubup,L'. Gpjobop ,L*. 
Qpjubap, B. The Latin reads, " Ab 
Argobaste comite interfectus est." The 
authority is Prosper's Chronicon, where 
the fact is thus recorded, " Maximus 
Tyrannus a Valentiniano et Theodosio 
imperatoribus in tertio ab Aquileia 
lapide spoliatus indumentis regiis sis- 
titur, et capite damnatur. Cujus filius 
Victor eodem anno ab Arbogaste est 
interfectus in Gallia." Ad A. D., 389. 

7 1 

soldiers, Parassis Merobladis ; and the king fled to Lugdon x , and 
was taken there and put to death. 

Maximen and his son Victor reigned jointly. Martin was at 
Torinis at that time. But Maximen was stripped of his royal robes 
by the consuls, i. e. by Valentinen and Theothas, at the third stone y 
from the city Eigilia [Aguileia], and his head was cut off z in that 
place. His son Victor also fell in France by the hand of the count 
whose name was Arguba"; from the creation of the world are 5690'' 
years, to this event, according to all the chronicles. 

XIV. It is thus the elders of the Britons have recorded their his- 
tory, viz., that there were seven Roman emperors who had dominion 
over Britain. But the Romans say that there were nine of them over 
the Britons : that is to say, that the eighth was Severus the second", 
who died as he was going to Rome from the island of Britain. The 
ninth was Constantine, who was sixteen years in the kingdom of the 
island of Britain when he died. Four hundred and nine years 6 were 


b 5690 im. DC. pp., D. u. mile, occc., 

B. The reading of L'. and L 2 . has been 
followed, as being in accordance with seve- 
ral MSS. of the Latin. The words in pa- 
rentheses which follow are added from IA 

Seven Roman emperors, etc. It should 
be observed that this Historia, as well as 
the Galfridian Chronicles, is framed upon 
the plan of dissembling the island's per- 
manent subjection and provincial cha- 
racter, and of representing those Roman 
emperors who visited it as the only ones 
who ruled it. By this means the Britons 
of the fifth century appear as the conti- 
nuing possessors of an ancient monarchy, 
which seven (or nine) Roman intrusions 

had chequered and interrupted, not as 
revolters against a long-established domi- 
nion. I believe Constans to be the last 
emperor, not depreciated by the epithet of 

" tyranrius," who was in Britannia 


d Severus the second. See additional 
notes, No. XII. 

e Four hundred and nine years. li. und 
L 2 . read three hundred. D. reads Nui 
m-bliciona cpa ap cpi cccc., where the 
word cpi is a manifest blunder. The 
reading of L'. has been followed, as it 
coincides with the Latin "Hucusque reg- 
naverunt Roman! apud Brittones quad- 
ringentis et novem annis." (T.) 


cpa bpeacnaij lapoam neapc l?omanach -| ni capDpaD cfp na cam 
Doib, i po mapbpac na h-uile caipeachu Pomancu po baoaji a 
n-inip bpeacan. 

Gcpachc imo|ipo po ceDoip neapc Cpuicneach i ^o 606 ^ ^ap 
^poino bpeacan -] pop innapbpac cop in n-abainD Dianao [amm] 
dn. Oo cuaoap lapoain ceachca bpeacan i Romancaib co nftuba 
1 co coppi moip, co pocaib pop a ceanDaib i co peacaib imDaib 
[leo], na po DiglaDip poppo [na coipij Romanchu po] mapbao Doib. 
Cugpacap leo mpDain coipeachou -] conpalnu Pomancu -| caipn- 

co na luja DO geboaip in mam l?omanach ciama cpom. 
Do pochaoap lapoain na mileaoa Romancu -] po h-opoaijrea 
pigu pop imp bpeacan, -\ DO cooap na ploig lapDain Dia 
njib. 17o gab peapg i cop pi u bpeacnn ap cpuma in cfpa -] in 
mama Romanaij leo, co po mapbpac na coipeachu po baoap acu 
a n-mip bpeacan Don Dapa cup. Cu n-epuchc acu neapc Cpuich- 
neacli -] ^aeDel cap bpeacnn DopiDaip cop bo cpuma ma in cam 
Pornan, apoaig a n-Dicup [uile] ap a peapann po b'ail Do Cpuic- 
eancuac "| Do ^aeioilaib. 

Do cuanap lapoain bpeacnaig co rpnn^ -j co Deapramach [in 
nipeacc na Pomanach], ap amlaio ac piacap a n-t>ul [~| a] n-Dpo- 
manna pompu ap imnriipe, -| cairnj poclipaioe mop leo .1. pluag Di- 
aipnnclie Do T?omancaib, []] po gabcha cpa pigi -\ coipeac popo 


f But afterwards .... Roman poicer there beiiij; a defect of perhaps two leaves 
L 2 . omits this clause, which leaves the in the MS (T.) 
sense imperfect (T.) k Put to i/c/ttli !>// t/tcm. L'. and B 2 . 

g Name. Added from L'., L 2 ., B. The omit ooib, and read po mupbpuc (active) 
name of the river is given Din in L'., and "whom they put to death." (71) 
Inci in B. L'-. and I), read Cm (T.) ' Promised. L 1 . mjelpuo. (7*.) 

h Along with them The word leo is m Than. li. L'. unou. (T.) 
added from B., L 2 (7'.) n Uecaitse L 1 . and B. Uuip ip e 

1 Chiefs of the Romans Added from (7'.) 

L'., L 2 ., and B. Here IA abruptly stops, To the Roman Senate Added from 


the Britons under Roman tribute. But afterwards the Britons drove 
out the Roman power f , and did not pay them tax or tribute, and they 
killed all the Roman chiefs that were in the island of Britain. 

Immediately, however, the power of the Cruitlmians and of the 
Gaels advanced in the heart of Britain, and they drove them to the 
river whose name s is Tin \Tyne\. There went afterwards ambassa- 
dors from the Britons to the Romans with mourning and great grief, 
with sods on their heads, and with many costly presents along with 
them", to pray them not to take vengeance on them for the chiefs of 
the Romans' who were put to death by them". Afterwards Roman 
chiefs and consuls came back with them, and they promised' that 
they would not the less willingly receive the Roman yoke, however 
heavy it might be. 

Afterwards the Roman knights came, and were appointed princes 
and kings over the island of Britain, and the army then returned 
home. Anger and grief seized the Britons from the weight of the 
Roman yoke and oppression upon them, so that they put to death 
the chieftains that were with them in the island of Britain, the 
second time. Hence the power of the Cruitlmians and Gaels in- 
creased again over the Britons, so that it became heavier than 1 " the 
Roman tribute, because their total expulsion out of their lands was 
the object aimed at by the northern Cruitlmians and Gaels. 

After this the Britons went in sorrow and in tears to the Roman 
senate , and thus we are told they went with their backs foremost for 
shame ; and a great multitude returned with them, i. e. an innumerable 
army of Romans, and sovereignty and chieftainry was assumed 1 ' over 


L 1 . and B (T.) require coipi^euche, stcay, not caipeuc, 

f And sovereignty and chieflainry was as- a chieftain; but if \ve read jug c'ftup 

sumed over them. djup added from B. ccnpeac, the passage will signify "a 

L'. ; piji 7 caipis D. ; pig 7 caipich, L'.; king and governor was set over them." 

coipeach, B. Riji, kingdom, would (T.) 



lapoain. ba cpom cpa le bpeacnu lapoain in cip Romanac, cop 
mapbpac a piga ~| a caipiju in cpeap peachc. 

Uangaoap mpoain plaici Roman cap muip cop pemaiD each 
?>imop pompo pop bpeacnu, gop Oijailpfc anaip [a n-oaine] poppo, 
-| cop lomaipspfc imp bpeacan im a h-op -\ \m ah-aipgeao, co puj- 
pac leo a ppol -] a pipig -| a pina -] a leapoaip oip -| aipgio, co 
noeachaoap co m-buait> -| copcaip t>ia cij. 

t>e sasatais sacsan [poDeascaj QNNSO. 

XV. Oo pain cpa lappin each pampaice -| lap mapbat) na 
roipeachtiu Romanoucu ba cpi la bpeacnu lap cocaichim t>oib 
pon cip Romanach cccc. c r quaopagincinouem annop. ^opci- 
gepno mac ^uDail t>o ^abail aipDpiji bpeacan ~\ co copcpomfa 
h-e o uaman Cpuchneachu ~\ ^aeoel "] o nipc Qmpop pig ppane 
1 bpeacan leaca. 


que, et ad vindicandum, veniebant, et 
spoliata Brittannia auro argentoque, cum 
a-re et omni prcciosa veste, et melle, cum 
magno triumpho revertebantur." For 
" ad vindicandum," some MSS. read, " ad 
vindictam propinquorum," which seems 
to have; been the reading adopted by the 
Irish translator. 

Immediately after this section, B. has 
a long interpolation, containing the Le- 
gend of St. Carnech, which will be found 
in the Append ix. (T.) 

u Here foUoics. pooeapca, added from 
B. This word is often written buoupcu, 
and more commonly, in modern Irish, 
peapoa ; it signifies hereafter, hencf/ur- 
v-ard. (T.) 

v Three times by the Britons. 6a cpi, 

'' Gained Lit. " broke a very great 

battle before them upon the Britons." L'. 
reads po nioio. B. pomno. (T.) 

r Of their jii'iijiln. Added from B. and 

5 Silk. All the copies here read a pip i^ 
(ijjup u pmu, but these words both sig- 
nify silk, ppij 01- pipic being the corrupt. 
Latin, and poci the corresponding Irish 
word, added, perhaps, originally as an ex- 
planation of the other (?') 

c With victor//. L'. reads to m-bua- 
oaib, with victories; and 15. omits "vic- 
tory and triumph," and reads only ujup 
co n-oeachuoup oia caij, "and so they 
returned home." This paragraph is a 
translation of the following in Nennius : 
' Romani autem ad imperium auxilium- 


them afterwards. But again the Roman tribute became oppressive 
to the Britons, so that they slew their kings and chieftains the third 

Afterwards there came Roman chieftains across the sea, and 
gained q a very great victory over the Britons, so that they vindica- 
ted the honour of their people r upon them, and they plundered the 
island of Britain of its gold, and of its silver, and took from it its 
satin, and its silk 5 , and its vessels of gold and silver, so that they 
returned home with victory' and triumph. 


XV. Now it came to pass after the aforesaid battle, and after 
the slaughter of the Roman chieftains three times by the Britons", 
after they had been four hundred and forty-nine years" under the 
Roman tribute, that Gortigern, son of Gudal, took the chief sove- 
reignty of Britain, and he was oppressed by the fear of the Cruithnians 
and Gaels, and by the power of Ambrose, King of France* and Leta- 
vian Britain. 


D. boo rhpi, L 1 . for pa cpi, three times. Vortigern ; but Aurelius is not elsewhere 

B. reads comba pi &pecan, "that there described as having any sovereignty in 

was a king of Britain." (7 1 .) Gaul. The Latin has merely " necnon 

w Four hundred and forty-nine years et a timore Ambrosii." But even those 

ix bliaoan .;rl. ap .cccc. L. B. reads VE words are so inconsistent with what fol- 

m-bliaona .;cl. ap .ccc., and the same lows, as to make them suspicious, though 

variation between three hundred and four all copies are agreed in them. For there 

hundred, is to be found in the Latin co- are two schemes concerning Ambrose, one 

pies of Nennius. (T.) identifying him with Merlin, and another 

* King of France, etc. Aurelius Am- making them distinct persons. But Nen- 

brosius, with his brother, Uthyr Pendra- nius adopts the former (which is the bar- 

gon, are said to have taken refuge in die) scheme, and accordingly introduces 

Britanny, and to have sailed from thence the prophet Ambrose in the form of a 

to Totness, when they declared against young boy, at a period subsequent to that 


7 6 

Uarrguoap cpi cuile ap in 5 ea l imain - 1 - C P 1 bapca pop moapba 
i pabatmp na l>o bpacaip .1. Opp ~[ Gngipc o puilic Sajtrain ; ipe 
peo imoppa a njjeinealac .1. Opp -] Gngipc t>a mac ^ueccilip, 
rnic ^uigce, m\c 5 uec ^ ca1 > mic 5 uca > Inic >Oen, mic Ppealaib, 
nnc P]ieooilb, mic pinoe, mic ppeann, mic polcball, mic ^5 aeca > 
rnic Uanle, nnc Sa^i, mic Neag. 

bpirap mac Olonn o caic bpeacain in Ceacha, mic 6olonn, 


in which Vortigern is said to be in dread of a more extensive subsidiary treaty, or 

of him as a warrior. Therefore, there is we must discredit the statement, 
interpolation in all the transcripts, unless In point of fact, the statement has no 

we conclude the author not to have known other authority than what it derives from 

what he was talking about. (//.) 

an involved sentence of Gildas, which, as 

v Three ciulce. The word cftiula, or pointed in the editions (Mr. Stevenson's 

cyida, seems to be the same as keel in included), has no grammar or meaning ; 

English, German kiel, Swedish kol, Ice- but which reads thus, with a long paren- 

landic kioll or kiolr, Anglo-Saxon cfi'le. thesis : " Turn erumpens grex catulorum 

They were the boats used by the Ger- de cubili leaMia- barbaria 1 tribus nt lin- 

mans. Mr. Turner supposes each t-) have 
carried one hundred men ; and Layamon 

gua ejus e.xprimitur cyidig nostra lingua 
loiuj'us [navibus, interpolated I believe, the 

asserts their number to have been such, kiul of the low Dutch being the lloug of 
"threo hundred cnihten." History Anglo- the Britisli language. If navibus be not 
Sax. i. 245. Layamon, eit. ibid. Nen- 
nius, however, hud previously, in cap. xi. 
(vii. Gale) described a chiula as carry- 

(as I suppose) a simple interpolation, it, 
should have run thus, ' Latina vero, navi- 
bus'J, secundis veils, secundo omine atigu- 

ing but sixty persons. The three boats riisque (quibus vatieinabatur certo apud 
could evidently bring over no force, capa- eum pra;sagio, quod ter centum annis 
We of influencing the fortunes of Britan- terram, cni proras librabat, insideret, cen- 
tum vero quinquaginta, hoe est dimidio 
temporis, sajpius quoque vastaret) evectns 

nia, whose shores and northern frontiers 
were continually assailed, and of whose 

petty princes, sometimes called kings, primum in orientali parte insulae, jubente 

the number must probably have, exceeded infausto tyranno, terribiles infixit ungues, 

that. Therefore, we must either under- quasi pro patria pugnaturus, sed earn cer- 

stand that the arrival of the three cyuls tius impugnaturus." Cap. 23. If this 

was a mere personal introduction of Hen- sentence contains the statement in ques- 

gist to Vortigern, and so became the basis tion, that statement exists ; but if it be 


There came three ciula3 y out of Germany (i.e. three barks) into 
exile, in which were the two brothers, Ors and Engist z , from whom 
are the Saxons ; this is their genealogy, viz. : Ors and Engist icere 
the two sons of Guectilis, the son of Guigte, son of Guecta, son 
of Guta, son of Boden, son of Frealaif, son of Fredolf, son of Finn, 
son of Freann, son of Folcbhall, son of Gaeta, son of Vanli, son of 
Saxi, son of Neag". 

Britas, son of Olori, from whom are the Britons of Leatha", was 


riot expressed in this sentence, it hath no 
real existence, however many may have 
repeated it. The inflated phrase, " ter- 
ribiles infixit ungues," seems to speak of 
some effective force, rather than of a tri- 
ning retinue ; and, therefore, a doubt may 
exist, whether de cubili is governed by 
qrex, or whether we should not punctuate 
it "grex catulorum, de cubili leamaj bar- 
barife Iribus" (nom. case), a tribe. The 
less elegant arrangement of words is a 
minor objection, in a work of such obscure 
and rugged Latinity, and in a sentence 
which actually appears to have undergone 
some alteration. If this be not so, that 
first arrival of Hengist was merely a 
diplomatic, not a military, affair (11.) 

1 Engist 'JIT' L 1 . 1). reads f^igipc 
and 6igipc, throughout, which is evi- 
dently a transcriber's blunder (T.) 

a Neag This genealogy is given in B., 

with no variation except in the spelling of 
some of the names, thus : Ors and Engist, 
Guechtiles, Guigte, Guecta, Gutta, Uoden, 
Freolap, Freodulb, Finn, Frend, Folc- 
bhall, Getta, Vanli, Saxan, Negua. In 

L 1 . it is given thus : Hors and Eigis, 
Guectilis, Guiti, Guitechtai, Gutai, Uoden, 
Frelab, Reaulb, Finn, Freann, Bolcal], 
Gota, Uanli, Saxi, Negua. In the Latin 
copies, Frend, Vanli, Saxan, and Negua 
are omitted, and after Geta is added, " qiii 
fuit ut aiunt filius Dei. Non ipse est 
Deus Beorum, Amen, Deus exercituuni, 
sed unus est ab idolis eorum, qua? ipsi ct<- 
lebant." (T.) 

b Britas, son of Olon, from whont <//< 
the Britons of Leatha. These won!- an 
omitted in L 1 . and B., and the genealogy 
here given to Britas follows on as a con- 
tinuation of the genealogy of Or* and 
Engist ; the names are given thus in B. : 
Alan, Fethur, Ogaman, Tho, Bodhb, Se- 
inobh, Etacht, Aoth, Abir, Ivaa, Erra, 
Joban, Jonan, Jafetli, Noe. In L 1 . they 
are given thus : Alan, Fetur, Ogaman, 
Dai, Bodb, Semoth, Etacht, Athacht, 
Abir, Kaa, Esra, Joban, Jonan, Jal'elli. 
See the genealogy of Britus already given 
sec. IV, supra, where, besides some varia- 
tions of spelling, Isacon is inserted be- 
tween Alawn and Britus. (T.) Alawn, 

7 8 

mic peinuip, mic O^amam, mic Cai, no "Ceo, mic 6oib, mic Sem- 
boib, mic Qcheacr, mic Qoch, mic Cfbaip, mic 17aa, mic Gappa, 
mic loban, mic lonan, mic lapech, mic Nae. 

^oipci^epmi cpa po sabapDaip h-i pio [a Roman] neapcCpuich- 
neac, -\ t>o paD Ooib inn imp DianaD ainim Ueinerh, T?oinn imoppo 
amm bpeacnach. 5l iaDmn ~\ aec l ll ' c ] r ] 5 e T? omori an inbaio pin. 
O gem Cpipr imoppo .1. ccc.^lun. annop, -] in aimpip in pig pin .1. 
^opcijepno, rainij 5 ea P man i aem Do ppoicepc a n-imp bpeacan, 
[ajup DO pigni Oia peapca ajup mipbaile im6a ap in clepec pin 
in imp bpecan], -| po ic pochaioe -] oop pug po baichip -] cpeiDim. 

t>e peaRcai6 ^eaRmaiw QNM so sis. 

XVI. lap ciachcam Do ^eapman in n-inip bpearan Do cuaiD 
no nunao in copaD DianaD amm berili t>o ppoceapc Do. Uapap- 


thore written Alnnius, and here Olou or 
Eolonn, was a famous name among the Ar- 
morican Britons, though less used among 
those of the island. (//.) 

c Son of Eolonn. This is an erroneous 
repetition, Olou and Eolonn are obviously 
the same ( T.) 

d Now Gortiyern, etc. The Latin has 
nothing about Vortigern governing the 
Picts. But the Galfridian chronicle re- 
presents him as indebted to Pictish mer- 
cenaries for his crown, vi. cap. 7. Whence 
Gale conjectured him to have been ge- 
nere Pictus, p. 129. (H.) The words a 
Roman, are added from B (2 T .) 

e Roinn Printed also Ruoihin, Eui- 

chun, Ruoichin, Euithina, etc., etc. Mr. 
J. Lewis supposes that Thanet was called 

Inis Kuochim, from the town of Ruoeh, 
now Rich, <>r Richborough. History of 
Tenet, p. 2. (//.) B. reads, Cenec and 
TJohm. L'. Cenenech and T?opn. The 
Latin (Stevenson's text), is " et tradidit 
eis insulam, (jua; in lingua eoruin vocatur 
Tanet, Brittanico serinone Ruoihin." 
The verl), paouim, bears a remarkable 
resemblance to the Latin, trado, which 
it is here used to translate. But the 
Irish puo, pac, to y/'ce, is a simple root, 

and trrulu a compound of trans and do 


' Gnttlian and Acquit. ^pacion ajjup 
Gqmc, B. 5P ulolan u sup Bijech, L'. 
Gratianus (the first emperor of the name) 
and Equitius were consuls, A. D. 374. See 
Baron, (in anno) n. i. But the true read- 


the son of Eolonn c , son of Feithiver, son of Ogaman, son of Tai, or 
Teo, son of Bob, son of Sembob, son of Athacht, son of Aoth, son 
of Abar, son of Raa, son of Eassa, son of Joban, son of Jonan, son of 
Jafeth, son of Noe. 

Now Gortigern d held in peace, under the Romans, the govern- 
ment of the Cruithnians, and he gave up to them [i. e. to the Saxons], 
the island whose name is Teineth \Tlianef\, but Roinn e is its British 
name. Gradian and Aequit f were in the sovereignty of the Romans 
at that time. But it was from the birth of Christ, three hundred and 
forty-seven years ; and it was in the time of that king, viz., of Gor- 
tigern, that Saint German came to preach in the island of Britain, 
and God wrought 8 miracles and many wonders by this ecclesiastic 
in the island of Britain, and he healed many, and brought them 
under baptism and faith". 


XVI. After the arrival of German in the island of Britain, he 
went to the fortress of the warrior whose name was Benli' 1 . to preach 


ing of the Latin is Gratiano Secuudo, or g God wrought island of Jiritnin. 

Gratiano Secuudo ^Equantio. See Gain's This clause is added from L 1 . and B. 
Edit. c. 28, with the var. Leet., and Addi- The mission of St. German to Britain 
tional Notes, No. XII. In this manner the was undertaken for the purpose of check- 
anachronism is mitigated by 33 years. In ing the. Pelagian heresy, and is recorded 
the date which follows, L'. reads, peachc by Prosper in his Chronicle, under the 
mbliaonu ,;rl. ap. ccc., but B. reads, pecc year 430. (T.) See Additional Notes, 
m-bliaona .ccl. ap .ccc., where .ccl. is No. XIII. 

an evident mistake for .pel. Mr. Steven- h Faith. For po bairhip ajjup cpei- 

son, in the text of his edition of Nennius, oim, L 1 . reads po baichip baipDi DO 

reads 447, and mentions in the note that gpep, where baipDi seems redundant ; 

the MSS. read variously, 337, 448, 400, DO gpep signifies, always, for ever (T.) 

and 347 (T.) ' Benli. Geinoli, D (T.) 


Daip ^eapman co na ppuichib in n-oopup in DunaiD ; DO com in 
Doippiji cop in pi$ im camjjen in cleipig, po paiD in pig co na luiji 
Dia m-bech na cleipig co cenD m-bliaDna in n-Dopap in Dunaig ni 
coppio apoeach. Uainig in ooippeoip cop in ppea^pa pin Do cum 
^eapmam. Uainig ^capman o'n Dopap aniach epoch peapcaip, 
1 ni piDip conaip no paga. Uanij aen DO mojaDaib in pij ap in 
caichpis amac, -| po raiphip a piaonaipi 5eapmain, -| pop pug leip 
DO cum a boirhe co cam agup co pailio, ~\ ni poibe 0151 DO cpoD ace 
aen bo co na laej, ~\ po mapb in laej, -\ beapb, -] Do paD Do na 
cleipcib. Cfgup po paiD ^eapman na po hpipoip a cnama ; agup 
ap na maipeach cpa po maip in laej a piaDnaipi a machap. 

Do COID 5 e P man Dopup na cairpac lap na rhaipeac DO 
h-eapnaiDi agallaim in pig. Ip ann pin carn^ peap i n-a pich, -] pe 
Ian DO allap o cino co I)onD, ~\ po caipinD Do ^eapman ; acbeapc 


J At lite door of the fortress 1 n-oopup 
ttn oume, B. in nopup in Diinuio, D., omit- 
ting the eclipsed D in the word n-oopup. 
t3un, which signifies a fort or fortress, 
and which occurs in the composition of 
so many topographical names in Ireland, 
is inflected oume, and also ounaio or 
ounai^, in the genitive ; this latter form 
occurs in D. throughout, and has been 
retained in the text. B. adopts the form 
ouine. This word seems cognate with 
the English ton, or tou~n, and with the 
Welsh Din, Dinas (T.) 

k The kitty said with an oath B. omits 

the clause, po paio in pij cona luiji 
oia m-bech na cleipij, to the manifest 
loss of the sense. (T.) 

1 To German. Docum in 5 e P rnaln 
ceona, B. " To the same [or the afore- 

said] German." (?') 

m Came away B. reads Cuinic pep- 
cup nonu pen, agup nip peopabap cio no 
pujaoaip ; which is more close to the 
Latin, " Dies declinabat ad vesperum, et 
nox appropinquabat, et nescierunt quo 
irent.' ('/'.) 

n One (if the servants, etc. The word 
mo^, serfux, is generally used to denote 
a labouring man, a slave, a hewer of wood 
and drawn- of water, one of the lowest 
class ('/'.) 

Out of the fortress CIp in curpuij 
dtnucli. The Latin is, "e medio urbis." 
The Irish word caraip, which is here used 
to translate the Latin urbs, is employed 
in ancient MSS. to denote a stone fort. It 
afterwards was applied to a walled town, 
as Limerick, Waterford, Ac., and is now 


to him. German stopped with his clerics at the door of the fortress'. 
The porter went to the king with the message of the clergyman ; 
the king said, with an oath", that if the clergy were to remain until 
the end of a year at the door of the fort, they should not come in. 
The porter came with this answer to German 1 . German came away" 1 
from the door in the evening, and did not know what road he should 
go. But one of the servants" of the king came out of the fortress , 
and bowed down p before German, and brought him with him to his 
cabin kindly and cheerfully* 1 . And he had no cattle 1 but one cow with 
her calf, and he killed the calf, and boiled it, and gave it to the cler- 
gymen. And German ordered that its bones should not be broken ; 
and on the morrow the calf was alive 8 in the presence of its dam. 

On the next day German repaired to the door of the fortress 
to pray an interview' with the king. And then there came a man 


lib) means joyfully, cheerfully. The 
Latin is benigne, which is more nearly 
rendered by co cam (2'.) 

r He had no cuttle. Ni po bui accu 
DI cpuo, B. The Latin is " Et ille nihil 
habebat de omnibus geiieribus jumento- 
rum." The word cpu6 or cpob here- 
used, signifying cattle, is the origin of the 
word Cro, Croo, or Croy, in our old laws, 
denoting a fine, mulct, or satisfaction for 
murder, manslaughter, or other crimes, 
such fines having anciently been paid 
in cattle. See Du Cange in voce CRO ; 
Jamicson's Scottish Dictionary in voce; 
and Ware's Irish Antiquities, by Har- 

used to denote a city, as distinguished 
from baile, a town, or baile mop, a 
large tmcn. (T.) 

p Bowed down po caipbip in D., and 
po piece in B., to translate the Latin, 
" inclinavit se." The verb cuipbip, to 
prostrate, or bow down the body, is now 
obsolete, and is not explained in any of 
the Dictionaries; but piece, to kneel, or, 
as now written by the moderns, pleucc 
or pleucc, is still in use (T.) 

q Brought him cheerfully Rop 

pug in D., and poo puc, in B. are only 
varied spelling of the same words, and 
signify " he brought." In modern Irish, 
oo cuj. D. reads co cam puipeach. 
B. reads co pailib, which has been sub- 
stituted in the text for puipeach. Co 
pailio (in modern orthography 50 paoi- 


5 Was alive Ro bai in laej beo, B. 

c An interview. Gcallmai, B. (T.) 


in cpeiDi in naem cpinnoio. CpeiDim oppe ; pon baipD 
J5eapman ] DO jiac poic Do, -] po paio pip, eipig, anopa acbela, acaic 
aingil Oe ag c' upnaioe ; -] Do [com] paeligipin n-Dun, ~\ po mapbaD 
lap in pig ; Daig ba bep leip in pig mapbaD each oume Dia mumn- 
cip no coirceao pe copgabail gpeme DC Deanam obpe in Ouine. 

T?o caic Jleapman in la co h-aiDci a n-Dopup in OunaiD, co co- 
pacc an mog ceDna. Cfc bertpc ^eapman pip, pomna, pomna na 
poib neac DOD muinDcip ip in Dim po anochc. UugapDaip po cea- 
Doip in nonbup mac Do [bai occa] pa Dun call, ~\ pug in cleipeach 
leip Dia cig [oopipi], -| DO ponpac inle ppichaipe. Co canig ceme 
Oe DO mm po ceDoip ip in rt-oun cop loipc [lucr na cacpac] ecep 
rnnaib -| pipu, mill Duini ap peipg De ~| ^epniam ; ~) ip pap cop aniu. 

lap na maipeach imoppo, po baipDiD in mog ur co n-a macaib 
1 co luchr in cipe apceana, po beanDachc ^eapmn [e] co n-a 
clainD. Caiceal a ainm, -| baD pig [e], -] baDap piga a meic cpe 


" From head to foot. O h-ino, D. In 
modern Irish the orthography would lx-, 
o ceann 50 bonn. (T.) 

v Knelt. Slecc, B. Sec note ''. D. 
reads caipmo, whicli is perhaps a form 
of the old verb caipbip used before, un- 
less there be some error of the MS. The 
Latin is " inclinavit," and B. reads po 
r-lecr in both places (T.) 

w / believe.- D. reads here Cpeic DO, 
corruptly, and omits in before nuern Cpi- 
noic : the text is corrected from B. 15. 
reads olpe. (T.) 

x Said unto him Qcbepc ppip, B. 

y He went into the fortress. D. omits 
the essential word coio. B. reads t)o 
coib padib ip in ounao. D. has ip in nun, 
corruptly for ip in n-oun. (T.) 

7 - Was accustomed Literally, " It was a 
custom with the king." oo'n pi, B (T.) 

11 Did not coiiie. Coippeuo, B. (T.) 

b Before sunrise l?e cup^ub'uil njjpe- 
ne, B. The Latin is " ante solis ortum," 
from which it is plain that the preposi- 
tion pe is lien: used for pid or poirii, 
before. Cupjabail jpeine is a phrase 
which is now, as Mr. O' Donovan informs 
me, obsolete in every part of Ireland; but 
it was in use in Keating's time, who in 
his Treatise Gocliaip pjiur in Clipppmn, 
has, o cupjjab'uil jjpeme jjo a putmo, 
" from the rising of the sun to its set- 
ting." Keating also sometimes uses pe 
in the sense of pia, as pe n-Oilinn, " be- 
fore the deluge." (T.) 

Till night. B. reads, TCo ccur 


running, and full of sweat from head to foot" ; and he knelt 7 to Ger- 
man, and German said, " Dost thou believe in the Holy Trinity ?" 
and he replied, " I believe." And German baptized him and gave 
him a kiss : and he said unto him x , " Arise, now thou shalt die, and 
the angels of God are awaiting thee." And he went cheerfully into 
the fortress y , and was put to death by the king, for the king w r as 
accustomed 8 to put to death every one of his people that did not 
come" before sun-rise b to do the work of the palace. 

German passed the whole of that day till night at the door of 
the fortress, until the same [i. e. the first mentioned] servant came ; 
and German said to him, " Take care, take care d that none of thy 
people be in this fortress this night." He immediately brought out 
with him the nine sons he had in the fortress, and he brought the 
clergyman with him to his house again; and they all kept watch. 
And the fire of God e immediately came from heaven upon the for- 
tress, so that it burned the people of the fortress, both men and 
women, one thousand persons, through the anger of God and of Ger- 
man; and it remains a ruin to the present day. 

On the following day this servant', with his sons and the people 
of the district, in like manner were baptized ; and German blessed 
him and his children g . His name was Caiteal, and through the 


mam co h-aioci. D. has po caie 5 e P~ exactly translates the Latin, "ignis de 

mam in la con aiche, which is corrupt. coclo." Ceine De, " the fire of God," is 

The text has been corrected from both used to denote lightning, and is sometimes 

MSS (T.) written ceme Diaic, i(/nls Divinus. (T.) 

d Take care Pomnai, B., which is not f This servant. B. reads, po baipc^ep- 
repeated. The Latin is " Cave ne unus ho- mam in peap pin; "German baptized 
mo nianeat de hominibus tuis in ista nocte this man." The Latin is, " In erastino 
in arce." The words enclosed in brackets die ille vir, qui hospitalis fuit illis, crc- 
in the Irish text are all supplied from B. didit, et baptizatus est," &c. (T.) 
( T.) g Him and Ids children The pronoun 

e Fire of 'God. Uene oo mm, B., which [e] is here supplied as necessary to the 

M 2 


bpechip ^eapmain, -] a pil o pin ale, ip in peapann t)ianaD airnn 
Pojup ; uc Dicirup ip na palmain, [Supaeanp a ceppa inopem, ec 
De pcepcope epigenp paupepem.] 

XVII. Saxain imoppo in n-mip Ueinech, -] 5P CI 5 e I lriri occa 
m-biachao -| 50 n-eicuiD Sa^ain co caichaijjpec nap a cenn pe 
Cjiuirencuach. Opo imDaigibap [cpa] So;rain, popeimiDpear bpe- 
cain a m-biauhao nac a n-eir>io, ace po pogaippeac bpearnaig 
[ooib] Dulap inte. 

T?o ppeagaip [ooib immoppo] Gnjipc, peap paije popcje, cuai- 
ceall, poill, ap ac connaipc pe bpeacnu co pann gan miliDa jan 
apma, ip pea6 po pam ppip in pig ^oprigepnn DO cpunpaD : Oe- 
nam Deg comapli, najap uamo ip in n^eapmain ap ceant> mileaD 
co pabam pochaioaibe a n-a^ait) ap namao. Qcbepc <5opci- 
geaprin a n-t>ola na reachra ap cenn mileaD; [) Do coap] ; -| DO 
pochpaDap occ longa Deg [co] miboaib cogaiDe ap a ^eapmain. 
Ip in loinjeap pin rainij a in^ean co h-Gngipc, ip ipme ba caime 
DO mnaib Lochlainne uile. 

lap pin 

sense. B. omits e con-a claino, so that '' O peinuop tDiapincioa tDuinn, 
the meaning will he, in that MS., "and Plic peap^upa, ITHC Chonuill, 

German blessed tliu people of that coun- O bpeicip Ruubuin D'U roi^;, 

try." Instead of Caiceal u amm, 15. Ni paiB pi ( ^ u o-Ceariipai^." 

reads, Caicel umm in rip pin : in what 

1 " I'rom the rvign of Dennot, tlic bruwn-Amrea, 

follows [e] is supplied after pij from B., Sl)11 of F ,. rK113) son ()f (>nal1i 

and baoap instead of bcift, the reading of On aivmmt nf the WDH! [curs,'] of Kuadan to his 

1). B. omits a meic after buOap pi(, houw, 

which is evidently corrupt (T.) rhi!n was "" kill at T:lr ' 1 -" 

h The word. 6piarap (in the dative or (T-} 

ablative bpeirip) when thus applied may ' Pogus pau^up, B. In the Latin, 

signify either a blessing or a curse. That it " Kegio Povisorum," Patch (T.) 

signifies sometimes a curse is evident from k Paupcrem. Ps. cxii. 7. The Latin 

the following quatrain which occurs in a words within brackets are supplied from 

MS. in Trinity College, Dublin. (H. i. 17. B., being omitted in D (T.) 

tbl. 97. b.) : i The Saxons. Occa, from B., is sub- 


word" [i. e. blessing] of German, he became a king, and his sons be- 
came kings, and their seed have ever since been in the land called 
Pogus ! ; ut dicitur in the psalms, suscitans a terra inopem, et de 
stercore erigens pauperem". 

XVII. Now, the Saxons remained in the Isle of Teineth [ Thanef], 
and Gortigern was feeding and clothing the Saxons 1 , that they might 
fight for him against Pictland. But when the Saxons had multi- 
plied, the Britons not only refused to feed or clothe them, but the 
Britons warned them all to go away. 

But Hengist , who was an experienced, wise, cunning, and subtle 
man, made answer to them (for he saw that the Britons were feeble 
without soldiers, without arms), and he said to the King Gortigern in 
private* 5 : " Let us make good counsel; let us send into Germany for 
soldiers, that we may be numerous q against our enemies." Gorti- 
gern answered, " Let ambassadors go for soldiers ;" and they went r ; 
and there came eighteen ships with chosen soldiers out of Germany. 
In this fleet 5 came his daughter to Hengist : she was the fairest of 
the women of all Lochland'. 


stituted for co, D. IX also reads co neoip ticular." D. reads DO cunpao, fur DO 

corruptly, for which '50 n-eiciuo, which c-punpao, omitting the eclipsed letter 

literally means, "a clothing them," is sub- (T.) 

stituted from B. For cmthaigpec, both q Numerous Socpaioe oun a n-ajuio, 

D. and B. read caichui^eachc (T.) B (T.) 

m Against TJe, for which D. reads pij, r They went. t)o coap (generally writ- 

a manifest slip of the scribe. Cpuiren- ten cuap) added from B., where we read 

cuaic, Pictland, the country of the Cruith- 700 coop, 7 oo poctaoap. Co is also 

nigh. In D. Cpuicneach-cuaic (T.) added from B. before miliouib (T.) 

n But. The words within brackets in s In this fleet. Here the imperfection 

this sentence are inserted from B (T.) in the Book of Lecan ends. The text 

Hengist i5T c , > For peap paije. has been corrected from the three MSS. 

B. reads corruptly, ppipioe ; paige would which read, Ip in loinj, D. Ip in lomjip, 

be more correctly written pioe. (T.) B. Ip anopa lomjjeap pin, L. (T.) 

f In private. Incanpuo, B., " in par- c Lackland. This name is here evi- 


lappin imoppa DO pigne Gngifr pleao [mop] t>o 5r ci 5 e T lnri "1 
Dice pliiag if in ng [pig] omnao amm Cennc Glinir ; -\ m poibe in 
Sajq-ain-bepla 05 neoch DO bpeacnaib ace 05 aen peap. Po jab 
imoppo ingean Gngipc pop Dail na pleibi .1. pina -] piccepa a leap- 
cpaib oip -] aipgiD, comcap mepgoa meaoapcain na pluaig ; DO 
cuaiD cpa Demon i n^opcijepnn im jpaD injeine Gngipc, -| pola in 
beplaiD Dia paigiD Dia cuinje o'on pig DO h-Gngipc, -] po paio ciDbe 
cungeap 'na cochpa Do beaprap DO. T?6 paiD Gngipc cpi comaple 
Sapcan cuccap DuinD in peapano DianaD amm Congaplona 'p in 
bepla Sa^an, Ceinc imoppo ip in bepla bpecnuch. Oo paD ooib 

dently intended for some part of Germany, 
although generally applied by the Irish 
to Denmark and Norway. See O'Brien's 
Irish Diet, in v. Lochlannack. (7'.) 

u Great bo.nquc,t. F'-e'S' D - F 1 - 6 ' 6 ' K - 
pleao mop, L. ; this last reading has been 
followed. In the next line L. reads rluci- 
guib uile, for fluaj : pij; has been added 
from L. and B. The name here given to 
this royal house is in the Latin Nennius 
given to Gortigern's interpreter: "Fecit 
convivium Hengistus Guorthigirno regi, 
et militibus suis, et interpret! suo qui vo- 
cabatur Cerdicselmet." Bertram, c. 36: 
and the name is variously given Cerdic 
Elmet, Ceretecc, Cerdic, Ceretic ; and in 
the Irish copies, Celecielmeo, L. Cepe- 
cicelemer, B. Cencic Glmic, D. The 
reading of B. has been followed in the text, 
and it is very probable that the original 
meaning of the Irish translator was, that 
the banquet was given "in the house of the 
king, whose name was Cereticus Elmet, 
i.e. Cereticus king of Elmet," although, as 


the Irish text now stands, it must be 
translated as above (T.) 

All, this, however, is a mistake. A 
certain Ceretic of Elmet was Ilengist's 
interpreter, being acquainted with the 
British and Saxon languages. See Nen- 
nius, cap. 36. Marcus, p. 66. There is an 
Ulmetum or Elmet in Yorkshire, called 
Elmed-setna in Gale's Ilidse Cis-llum- 
brano;, apud xv. Scriptorcs, p. 748 ; from 
which Leeds was anciently Loidis in El- 
meto, and where Berwick in Elmet now 
remains, a place at or near which the 
Northumbrian kings once had their pa- 
lace. It is the Silva Elmete of Beda, 
Hist. ii. cap. 14. Camden Brit, ii. 90, I. 
Thoresby's Dueatus, by Whitaker, p. 232. 
Building on this passage of the Ilistoria 
Britonum, the author of Bertram's Sup- 
plement, p. 142, says, that Edwin, son of 
Ella, " regnavit annis xvii, et ipse occu- 
pavit Elmet, et expulit Ccrtec regem illius 
regionis." But Edwin's reign was no ear- 
lier than 616-33. There must have been 


After this Hengist prepared a great banquet" for Gortigern and 
his army in the royal house, which is called Centic Elinit ; and none 
of the Britons knew the Saxon language except one man only. The 
daughter of Hengist proceeded to distribute the feast, viz., wines and 
ales, in vessels of gold and silver v , until the soldiers were inebriated 
and cheerful"; and a demon entered Gortigern, from love of the 
daughter of Hengist 1 , and he sent the linguist to Hengist to ask 
her for the king; and he said y , that "whatever he would ask for 
her dowry should be given to him." Hengist, by the advice of the 
Saxons, said, " Let there be given to us the land which is named 
Congarlona 2 in the Saxon language, and Ceint in the British lan- 

elm forests in Britain, besides that in 
Deira, which makes the situation not cer- 
tain. Cerdic being a Saxon name, and 
Ceretic a known way of writing Caredig, 
it is not obvious of which nation the in- 
terpreter was; but the transcribers of 
Nennius take him for a Briton, and in- 
deed his being OF a given place implies 
he was a native __ (//) Hengist's name 
is spelt 6i5>pc in L. throughout, and 
Qi^ipr in D. (T.) 

v Gold and silver. No mention of these 
costly vessels is found in the Latin. The 
word comcap is an ancient mode of writing 
co m-baoap. It is spelled comoap in B. 
and L. (T.) 

w Cheerful. ITIeopach, L. ITIeaopai je, 

bo pala in belaio, and D. po paj in 
bepla, which is manifestly corrupt. B. 
and L. omit 01 a paijio, and read, OKI 
cumoig pop Gn^ipc. B. oiu cumoij pop 

x Daughter of Hengist L. adds, cpe 
coriiaipli Scrran, which is a mistake co- 
pied from what follows. In the next 
words B. has been followed. L. reads 

y He said. This clause, from DO pcno 
to beaprap DO, is omitted in L. B. reads 
DO pcno Gnjipc, which is an evident mis- 
take. D. reads DO beupcap 01, " should 
be given to her," but the whole tenor of 
the story shews that DO, " to him," is the 
correct reading. The orthography in B. 
is Cibeo cumocep na cocmapc Do bepap 
DO. (T.) 

1 Congarlona. Conjaplon, B., L. 
(T.) This should be written Cantwar- 
land, or the land of Kent. (//.) Ceno, 
L. Cenc, B. It appears from the Latin 
that Gurangona (^upcinjopo, B., Cupan- 
copo, L.) is the name of the king who 
then ruled over Kent : " et dedit illis 
Gnoirancgono regnante in Cantia". 


50 pccelce plaich ^upanjona -| po pae lap in n-injein 
1 |iop cap 50 mop. 

Qgup paio Gnjipc pe ^opcijepno bio mipi r' achaip ~\ oo 
comapleio -| Dia noeapnoa mo comaple m caempac na cineaoaig 
eile nf ovnc; ~\ pajap uampea i toclilnino ap ceano mo meic ~\ 
7Tieic peachup a marup ~\ caehaijjpio a n-aigiona namao DO pochpa- 
Dap co mup jual. Qubepc ^jopcigepno a cocuipeo, -\ oo cop ap 
a ceanD, ~| Do pochraoap Oclica mac Gnjppr -| Gbipa co. pel. long; 
1 po aipjpeao inopi Opcc ic ciachcain a ruaiD; "| po jabpac pea- 
pnnna imoa cop in minp ppipeagon, .1. in muip pil a leich ppi 
5etjealu po cuaio. No ceijoip ceachra 6 Gngipc ap ceano 
long pop, -| no cijoip pluaij nuao cacha bliaDna cucu, co po pop- 
bappeaD, ~\ 50 po linpac o imp CeneD co Cancapbojij. 

6a beaj la Oiabul oe iilc Do poinDe ^opcijepnD co capD paip 
a mjen pein Do cabaipc, co piij^ mac DO. Oo cualaiD ^eaprnan 
naem [pin] cainig ~\ cleipech Dia muuiCip .1. bpeaoiach, oo caipi- 


a Loved her much. l?op e^ap co mop, Ochca mac 6ij;ifc 7 Gi^H'oa, D. Roche 

L. The word egar is still in use to ex- ochc meic Bipjipc [the eight sons of En- 

press endearment, and is often found even gist] i ebipa, B. The Latin is " et 

where the Irish language has entirely invitavit Ochta et Ebissa." (T.) 

ceased, and in the lips of those who never e The Frisey Sea, etc. "Mare Freskmm, 

spoke a word of Irish, in the form "a quod inter nos Seotosque est, usque ad 

haygur." (T.) confinia Pictorum." The author had a 

b I will send. Ctcc pacaip uaimfea, very indistinct, notion of the position of 

B. L (T.) Friesland. The Gaidheal or Scoti here 

c The wall, Gual. TTlup ^paoul, D. mean Ireland (//.) 

mup ^aulup, B. In L. mup ftuub, which f To Cantarboryh.Thc whole of this 

is probably a mere slip for jual, which, passage is very corrupt both in the Latin 

as the Latin proves, is the true reading, and Irish copies : j po cei^oip cecru o 

See pp. 64, 65. (T.) Bnjipc ap cenn lonj pop, j po cijoip 

d There arrived Ochta. Roccaoap pluaij nuab jaca bliabna cucu, co pop- 

imoppo mac Binjipc j Gbipa, B. Roche bpipec, ] co po linpac o imp Ceneo co 

8 9 

guage." Gortigern cheerfully gave them the dominions of Guran- 
gona, and he lay with the daughter and loved her much". 

And Hengist said to Gortigern: "I will be thy father and thy 
counsellor, and if thou takest my advice the other tribes will not be 
able in any way to molest thee ; and I will send" to Lochland for my 
son, and for the son of his mother's sister, and they will fight against 
the enemy who have reached as far as the wall Gual. c " Gortigern said, 
" Let them be invited ;" and they were invited ; and there arrived 
Ochta", son of Engist, and Ebisa, with forty ships ; and they plun- 
dered the Orkney islands on coming from the north, and they took 
many lands as far as the Friseg sea e , that is the sea which is to the 
north of the Gaedhal. And ambassadors were further sent by Hen- 
gist for more ships, and a new force used to arrive every year, so 
that they increased, and filled the land from the island of Teneth to 

The devil deeming it but little the evil that Gortigern had done, 
induced him to cohabit with his own daughter, so that she bare him 
a son. When German g heard of this, he went, accompanied by a 


Cancapboji^, B. -| no cheijoip reached said to have died circa 484, which is con- 

Gijjepc ap ceano lonj boup, -| no cic- sistent with his having a child some years 
oip pluuij nnu cacha bliaona chucu co old, at that time. But it is evident that 
pa poipbpipeuo, -| co po linpuo o Ii-Gnep his unpopularity commenced several years 
Cenocch co Ceanoupbpoj, L. No ceig- later, when he attached himself to tin- 
Dip ceachea o Gigipc ap ceano long bop, Saxons, whose original invitation was sub- 

1 no ci^oip pluuij nuao cucha bliatmu sequent to St. German's death; and so 
cucu, co po popbuppeuo, -| 50 po Impuc far from being an unpopular act, was not 
o imp 6peaccm co canjjaoap bapj, D. even the king's act, but one resolved upon 
This latter reading, however, is evidently by all the consiliarii Gildas, cap. 23. 
corrupt. (T.) Therefore these statements are false ; anil 

g German German took his final the entire charge of incest is open to 

leave of Britain in 447, and Vortigern is doubt (//.) 

9 o 

ujuo 1 oo cops ^jopngepno; 1 V cmoilio laich -) cleipig 6pea- 
can inle imon caingen pin, -\ im cainjjm na Saxan ; -| acbepc imoppo 
^opcigepno pe h-ingein, Qchc co n each a n-aen baile cabaippea 
no mac a ri-uchc ^eapman, ~] abaip copob e a achaip, -| oo paio 
in n-ingean. Po gab 5 ea T iman 1 acbepc pip in mac, 610 mipi 
c'achaip ol pe, -] po cuinoij ^eapman alcain, -\ oemeap, ~\ cip, ["] a] 
nabaipc alaim na naioen ; ~\ cugab, "| aobeapr ^eapman : Q mic 
cabaip pin a laim c'achap collaioe ; ] aopaclic in naioe ~\ oo pao 
in cfp i in Oimeap -\ in n-ailcim a laim ^opngepno, -] aobepc, Q 
mo poba, ol pe, oena mo beappan, rip ip ru m'acaip collaioe, 
^eapman imoppo m'achaip cpeiomi. T?o li-unoeapgao im ^opci- 
^epno, i po jab peapj co li-aobal, -\ po ceirli app a n-aipeachc ; ~\ 
po mallacc in popul bpernacli inle, -] po n-eapcam ^eapman [oe 

DUN am6Roiss QNMSO a^us Dia ca^Ra p^'s wa 

XVIII. T?o rocinpipoaip lapoain ^opcigepno cuice oa opuiD 
Oeg, co peapao nachib a nf bo coip oo ocanam. Do paiopio pip 
na Opinoi, Sfp imli inn] 1 ! bpeacan, -] po jjebri onn oam^ean Ooo 
oioean ap in cinel n-eaclirpann Oia cnpraipi oo rfp -| oo pie, oaij 
noo minppio oo namaio, -| ^ebait) Oo cfp ~| oo ralam rap r'eip. 
17o rochleapOaip ^oprijepno co n-a pluaj ~] co n-a OpuiOib oeip- 


h A clergyman. The reading adopted J The fortress of Atnbrose. _ -t)o oun 

is that of L. D. reads cciinij ci^uf clei- Qmpoif, ]). Do oun CInibpoipp, B. In 

pij 6peacun. B. reads camij m clepec \fv\*\\,])inasEmria, the fortress of Emrys 

6pecan inle. The Latin is "venitcum or Ambrose. (T.) 

omni clero Brittonum." (T.) k The Druids said. Clcbepcaoap a 

' British people. .popal nu m-6pea- opaio ppip mile 6perain DO lappaib, B. 

can uile, D. pobul m-6pearnach, L. B. ciobeptaoap ne opuio pip, pip tmli cpichi 

oe ouobup added from B. and L (T.) 6pecan, L. In what follows the ortho- 

9 1 

clergyman" of his nation, i. c. British, to criminate and check Gorti- 
gern; and he assembled all the laity and clergy of Britain for this 
purpose, and also for the purpose of consulting about the Saxons. 
But Gortigern told his daughter, " When they are all assembled 
together, give thou thy child into the breast of German, and say that 
he is his father." And the daughter did so. German received the 
child, and said unto him, " I will be thy father," said he ; and Ger- 
man asked for a razor, scissars, and a comb, and gave them into 
the hands of the infant; and this was done; and German said: " My 
son, give these into the hand of thy carnal father;" and the infant 
advanced, and gave the comb, the scissars, and the razor, into the 
hand of Gortigern, and said, " O my master," said he, " do thou 
tonsure me, for thou art my carnal father. German is my father in the 
faith." Gortigern blushed at this, and became much enraged, and 
fled from the assembly ; and he was cursed by all the British people' 1 , 
and excommunicated by German also. 



XVIII. And afterwards Gortigern invited to him twelve Druids, 
that he might know from them what was proper to be done. The 
Druids said k to him, " Seek the borders of the island of Britain, 
and thou shalt find a strong fortress to defend thyself against the 
foreigners to whom thou hast given up thy country and thy king- 
dom, for thine enemies will slay thee 1 , and will seize upon thy 
country and lands after thee." Gortigern, with his hosts and with 


graphy of D. is very corrupt; the text ' Will slay thee. B. and L. read DO- 

has been corrected from B. and L., but it maippeao t>o namaio. For DO calam, B. 

will only be necessary in these notes to reads DO ceneoil; L. DO cheneli, "thy 

mention the more important various read- race," "Cum universa gen to tua;" 

ings (T.) Nennius (?'.) 

9 2 

ceapc mnpf bpeacan uile, co panjaoap 5 llinet) ' 1 P Pl'r eaD pl 
hepep uile, -| conao anDpin puapaDap in oino op in muiji, -\ peap- 
uriD oaingean, cop cumoaijeg h-e ; acbepcaDap a opuioi pip, Oean- 
apu punDa ou Dun, ol piao, ap rn caemnagaip nf Do co bpach. 
Uuccha paip mpoain "] no cinolic anbaip in Dinn eicip cloich ~\ 
cpano, i pugao ap uile in comaohap a ri-aeri aioce, -\ po cmolic po 
cpi inupin in comaobup pin -] pujao ap po cpi. Ocup po piappaig 
[cpa] Dia opuiDcib cio Dia Da in c-olc [pa] ap pe; po paiopeac a 
Dpuioe, cuingiD mac na peap a achaip ~| mapbcap leac -\ eappam- 
rep a puil cap in Dun; [~|] ap amlaio conn icpiDeap a cumoach. 
17o laire ceachra UHD po imp 6peacan D'lappuib mic gan acliaip, 
~| po pfppeac co mag Gilleice a cip J^euipic, ip anD pin puapaDap 
na macu 05 imam, co capla DeabaiD eri|i Da macam Dib, con 
n-ebaipc in mac ppia apaile, oDuine gan achaip, ni pil maic aguD 
eoip. l?o h-iappaijpeac na ceachca ciD Dia ho mac in jilla pip a 
n-ahpe piuD ? Qcbepc luchc na paiche, ni eacamap, ol piao [ca 

a macliaip 

m Guined. B. reads co Neo, corruptly ; 
L. has ^uneao; the Latin reads Guoie- 
nct. (T.) 

n Herer, The text is here corrected 
from B., in conformity with the Latin. 
D. omits hepep; and L. corrupts the 
words pliub hepep to palautpep. Snow- 
don is the mountain meant (T.) 

A Dinn. In the Latin arcern. The 
word Dinn, which is found in many names 
ol' places in Ireland (as Dinn Righ, near 
Leighlin), and in the name of the an- 
cient treatise Dinn-Senchus, (the History 
of Dinns) is synonimous with Dun, a fort. 
It seems to be here used in its original 
signification of a high or naturally forti- 
fied hill. It is explained cnoc, a hill, in 

old Glossaries (T.) 

p Carried away Similar traditions ex- 
ist in connexion with the erection of 
many churches in Ireland, viz., that what 
was built in the course of the day was 
thrown down at night by some unknown 
power. Mr. ()' Donovan found this tra- 
dition told of the church of Banagher, in 
the county of Derry, and has given an 
account of it in a letter preserved among 
the Ordnance Survey papers, Phtcnix 
Park, Dublin (T.) 

q Whose father is unknown. Nach 
finocup a acaip, B., L., i.e. " father 
is not known." (T.) 

' Let his blood be sprinkled. 6appain- 
cep, L., has been substituted in the text, 


his Druids, traversed all the south of the island of Britain, until they 
arrived at Guined m , and they searched all the mountain of llerer", 
and there found a Dinn over the sea, and a very strong locality fit to 
build on ; and his Druids said to him, " Build here thy fortress," 
said they, " for nothing shall ever prevail against it." Builders 
were then brought thither, and they collected materials for the for- 
tress, both stone and wood, but all these materials were carried 
away p in one night; and materials were thus gathered thrice, and 
were thrice carried away. And he asked of his Druids, " Whence 
is this evil?" said he. And the Druids said, " Seek a son whose 
father is unknown q , kill him, and let his blood be sprinkled r upon 
the Dun, for by this means only it can be built." 

Messengers were sent by him throughout the island of Britain to 
seek for a son without a father ; and they searched as far as Magh 
Eillite 5 , in the territory of Glevisic, where they found boys a hur- 
ling ; and there happened a dispute between two of the boys, so 
that one said to the other, " O man without a father', thou hast no 
good at all." The messengers asked, " Whose son is the lad to whom 
this is said ?" Those on the hurling green" said, " We know not," 


for oeipijbep, D., which signifies, "let it buine can achaip ni puil in acliaip occu, 

be spread." B. reads eppaicep, " let L., i. e. " O man without a lather, thou 

it be sprinkled." The Latin is asperga- hast no father." The reading in the text 

tur or conspergatur. (2'.) See Addi- is taken from B., as it coincides with the 

tional Notes, No. XIV., for some remarks Latin. ( T.) 

on the practice here alluded to. u Hurling-green paicci, B. puici, L. 

5 As far as Magh Eillite.- -po majjj This word, which occurs frequently in 

Gillicbe, D. Co mab Glleci, B. Co mag composition in the names of places in Ire- 

dlleice, L. This last reading has been land, signifies a green field; and in the 

adopted. (T.) See Additional Notes, county Kilkenny is still used to denote a 

No. XV. fair-green, or hurling-green ; as paicci 

man without a father. Q oume an uonuij; paicct na h-iomunu; 'ye 

jen uchaip ni h-uil achaip ajjab, D. Q an peap ip p eapp ap a' b-paicci e. See 


a machaip punn, op piao]. Ro lappaiopeac Oia macaip ciD t>iap 
bo mac an gilla. Ro ppeagaip in machaip m eat>ap-pa, olpi, acaip 
050, i ni eaoap cmoap DO pala im bpomo eicip. Uugapoaip cpa 
na ceachna leo in mac pn co ^opngepnn, -| po h-inoipoaip amail 
puapaoap e. 

XIX. lap na maipeac po cinolir [in] pluaig copo mapbcha in 
mac, -| cugao co pin pig in mac, -] aobepc ppip in pig, cm ap nam 
ciigao-pa cucaib, ap pe ? Ro pam in pi^ ooo mapbuopa, op pe, i 

000 copcpao, -\ oo copepjuo in omn pea ?>oo pull. Qobepc in mac 
cia po h-incoipc ouio-piu pin ? II lo opaioe, ap in pi. ^aipuep alle, 

01 in mac, i canjaoap na opinOi. Qrbepr in mac piu, Cia po paio 
pibpi na cnmDaigep in oun po no co coipeacapca [DO m' puil-pea] ap 
rup? -| m po ppeagpanap. Oo eaoappa, ol pe, in ci Dom paopa 
cucaihoap bap n-aiceo6 ip e t>o pai) popaih-pi inbpeagDo cancain. 
Qcc ceana, a pig, ol pe, poillpispean-pa pfpimie mno-piu, -] piappai- 
jim tiun opairib ap cup, ciO aca a polac po'n n-iiplrip po in ap piab- 
naipi. T?o paiDpeao na opmoi noc n-eaoamap ap piao. l?o eaoap- 
pa ol pe: aca loch uipce arm ; peachap ~| claecep. Po claet>et> 
-| ppich [in loc ant)]. Ct pace mt> pij, ap in mac, abpait) CID aca 
im meoon in loca? Ni peaoemap, ol piar>. Ro pecicappa, ol pe, 
acdic ori clap cipDi mopa ann in n-agaio a 11-05010, ~| cuccap ap 
[me ; 1 peagcap -| cucab ap;] -] a opuibe, ap in mac, abpafo CID 
aca ecip na clap leapcpaib ut> ? ni eaoemap, ap piao. Ro pea- 


note h , p. 66. supra. In Corinac's Glos- x With my Mood. Supplied from B. 

sury (voce pla), it is employed to trans- and L. Other corrections of the text have 

late the Latin word plated ( T.) also been made from the same sources, 

v His mother is here, said they. Added but the variations are not worth noticing, 

from L. B. reads ace aca maraip pun- being, for the most part, mere differences 

oci occai olpiuc (T). o f orthography. (T.) 

w To them ppip no opcujib, L). piu y fltis lie The meaning seems to be 

in B. and L. (T.) this: "The person who induced you to 


said they, " his mother is here," said they v . They asked of his 
mother whose son the lad was. The mother answered, " I know 
not," said she, " that he hath a father, and I know not how he hap- 
pened to be conceived in my womb at all." So the messengers took the 
boy with them to Gortigern, and told him how they had found him. 
XIX. On the next day the army was assembled, that the boy 
might be killed. And the boy was brought before the king, and he 
said to the king, " Wherefore have they brought me to thee ?" said he. 
And the king said, " To slay thee," said he, " and to butcher thee, and 
to consecrate this fortress with thy blood." The boy said, " Who in- 
structed thee in this ?" "My Druids," said the king. " Let them be 
called hither," said the boy. And the Druids came. The boy said to 
them", " Who told you that this fortress could not be built until it 
were first consecrated with my blood? 3 "' And they answered not. "I 
know," said he ; " the person who sent me to you to accuse you, is he 
who induced you to tell this lie y ; howbeit, O king," said he, " I will 
reveal the truth to thee; and I ask of thy Druids, first, what is concealed 
beneath this floor before us ?" The Druids said, " We know not," said 
they. " I know," said he ; " there is a lake of water there ; let it [the 
floor] be examined and dug." It was dug, and the lake 2 was found 
there. " Ye prophets of the king," said the boy, " tell what is in the 
middle of the lake ?" " We know not," said they. " I know," said 
he, " there are two large chests of wood face to face, and let them be 
brought out of it." It was examined, and they were brought forth". 
" And Druids," said the boy, " tell what is between those two 


tell this lie will be the cause of your dis- z The lake The words in loc unt> 

grace." Here begins a fragment of this are added from U. (T.) 

work in the Leabhar na h-Uidhri, which * Brought forth. The words within 

shall be referred to in the following notes brackets are added from B. U. and L. 

by the letter U. (T.) read -| cucab ap, only. (T.) 


Dappa, ap pe, aca peol bpac [ano ; -| cuccap ap, i ppic in peol] 
cimmapcee ecip na Da clap cipoi. Qbpam, a eolcha, ap in mac, 
cm aca a meaoon in n-eaoaig uo ? ~| m po ppeagpaDap, [ap m po 
chucpacap]. Qcaic na cpuim ann, ol pe, .1. cpuim neapg ~| cpinm 
geal ; pcaileeap in c-eaoach. Ro pcaileao in peol bpac, [~|] po 
banap na Da cpuim na coDlao ann. [Ro pam in mac] peacai6-pe 
a n-Dingnam anopa na biapna. Gnpuche each nib co apaile co 
paibe ceccap oe ic ppameao a ceile, ) [co pobnrap] ic imleanpao, 
1 ic imiche, ~\ no li-mnaphrlian in cpinm nih apaile co meation in 
c-piuil, i in peachc aile co imell. Do ponpac pa cpf pon n-inoupin. 
In cpmm puam cpa ba pant> ap nip, "| po h-innapbcao co h-imeal 
in n-eaoaiD; in cpuim cairneamach imoppo ha pann po neoi^, ~| 
po ceich ip in loch, ~] po pineapoaip in peol po ceooip. Ro h-iap- 
pam in mac t>o na Dpai6it) ; innipin ap pe, cm paillpi^ip in r-in^nao 
]-a? Ni eanamap, ap pian. Oo ^ean-pa [ap in mac] a paillpnijao 
Do'n pijj. Ip e an loch plaichiup in Domain inle, ~\ ipe in peol no 
plain u pi u a pij. Ipiac na r>a cpinm imoppo [na t>a neapc] .1. no 
neapc po co m-5peafnaib, ) neapc Sa^an In cpuim puao, ip i 
no li-moapban ap cup Do'n plaiclnup no neapc-po ; neapr Sa^ran 
imoppo in cpuim [gel] po gab in peol uile ace bea^, .1. po j;ab imp 
6peacan ace bea$, co po h-innapbpacap i.eapr bpeacan po neoi?;. 
Cupa imoppo, a pig bpeacan, eipig ap in nun po, ap nf caemaip a 
cumnach, -\ pip imp bpeacan, ~| po geba no nun pein. Ro pam in 
pig, came DO comaintnpm a mic, ol pe ; po ppeagaip in gilla, Qm- 


b Was found. The words within brack- ven to the middle of the sail." But U., 
ets are added from U. and B. In the next B., and L. all read as in the text, which 
lines the clause ap m po tucpubap is also agrees with the Latin (T.) 
added from U. and L. ; and Ro pam in d Kinydom. D. reads, in pluichemnap; 
mac from U., L., and B (T.) U., B., and L. all read plaiciup, without 

c Alternately. D.reads, in cpuim puaio the article. The words na oa neapr, 
ppiup;i. e. "the red maggot was first dri- "the two powers," in the next line, are 


wooden chests ?" " We know not," said they. " I know," said he ; 
" there is a sail-cloth there." And it was brought forth, and the sail 
was found b rolled up between the two wooden chests. " Tell, O ye 
learned," said the boy, " what is in the middle of that cloth ?" And 
they answered not, for they understood not. " There are two mag- 
gots there," said he, " namely, a red maggot and a white maggot. Let 
the cloth be unfolded." The sail-cloth was unfolded, and there were 
two maggots asleep in it. And the boy said, " See now what the 
maggots will do." They advanced towards each other, and com- 
menced to rout, cut, and bite each other, and each maggot drove the 
other alternately to the middle of the sail and again to its verge. 
They did this three times. The red maggot was at first the feeble one, 
and was driven to the brink of the cloth ; but the beautiful maggot 
was finally the feeble one, and fled into the lake, and the sail imme- 
diately vanished. The boy asked the Druids: "Tell ye," said he, 
" what doth this wonder reveal ?" " We know not," said they. " I will 
reveal it to the king," said the boy. " The lake is the kingdom d of the 
whole world, and the sail is thy kingdom, king. And the two mag- 
gots are the two powers, namely, thy power in conjunction with the 
Britons, and the power of the Saxons. The red maggot, which was 
first expelled the kingdom, represents thy power ; and the white 
maggot, which occupied the whole sail except a little, represents 
the power of the Saxons, who have taken the island of Britain, ex- 
cept a small part, until ultimately driven out by the power of the 
Britons. But do thou, O king of Britain, go away from this fortress, 
for thou hast not power to erect it, and search the island of Britain 
and thou shalt find thine own fortress." The king said, "What is thy 
name, boy," said he. The youth replied, " Ambrose," said he, 
" is my name." (lie was Embros Gleutic 6 , king of Britain.) " Tell 


added from U. B. and L (T). e Embros Gleutic Qmbpoip 


bpop, ol pe, m'amm-pe (ip e pin in Gmbpop 5^ euclc T"5 bpeacan.) 
Can Do cenel ap ip pig. Conpul Romanach, ol pe, m'araip-pe, ~\ bio 
e peo mo Dun. Roleigcpa ^opcigepno in Dun Do Ctmbpop, -| pije 
mpcaip bpeacan uile, ~\ cainic co n-a opaiDib co cuaipceapc inpi 
bpeacan, .1. gup an peapann DianaD ainm ^unnip, -\ po cuniDaij 
Dun ann, .1. caep 5r c '5 e r no a^ 

DO caichijshe 

XX. lapcam cpa acpachc 5l 1cnemi r 1 copcpac, mac <5P C1 ~ 
^eapno, co na bpachaip, .1. Caicceapno, in n-ajaio Gngipc ~| Oppa, 
[l] po cachaigpeac bpeacnaig mapaen piu co li-amnap, co po 


Snowdon, p. 174. The mount is said to 
have been called Brith, 

"And from the top of Brith 30 high and wond'roiu 


Where Dinas Emris stood," &c. 

Drat/ton, cit. ibid. p. 17o. 

In Triads 53 and 101, the Dirias 
Emmrys is called Dinas Faraon, that is, 
Enclosure of the Higher Powers or Spiri- 
tual Jieint/g. The last of these Triads 
states, that an eagle's pullet, brought 
forth by a sow, was intrusted to the 
keeping of Brynach the Irishman of Di- 
nas Faraon. It was clearly a building 
appropriated to magical uses (//.) 

f Gunnis, So all the Irish MSS. read. 

The Latin MSS. vary considerably (2'.) 

The translator, having begun the story by 
stating that Gwyncdd (or North Wales), 
and Mount Eryri (or Snowdon), were in 
the South of Britain, seems to repeat the 

U. Ctmpur- ^^F'^'C' L (?'.) That is 
to say, Emmrys Wledig, which means 
Ambrosius Sovereign of the Land. But 
Gwlcdig seems also, for some unknown 
reason, to have been conventionally an 
equivalent for Aurelius; since not only 
Emmrys Wledig is Aurelius Ambrosius, 
but Cynan Wledig is Aurelius Conanus. 
Nennius and Taliesin identify him with 
Merlin, the bard and prophet, called 
Merddin Emmrys. Two structures bore 
his name, viz., the Stonehenge, called the 
Cor Emmrys and Gwaith Emmryg, Circle 
of Ambrose, or Work of Ambrose ; and 
the Dinas Emmrys, in Snowdon, here spo- 
ken of. The latter is a roundish mound 
of rook, difficult of access, on the top of 
which are two ramparts of stone, and 
within them the ruins of a stone build- 
ing, ten yards in length. Hard by is a 
place said to have been the cell of Vorti- 
gern's magicians. Pennant's Journey to 


thy race," said the king. " My father," said he, " was a Roman con- 
sul, and this shall be my fortress." Then Gortigern left the fortress 
to Ambrose, and also the government of all the west of Britain, and 
went with his Druids to the north' of the island of Britain, that is, to 
the land which is called Gunnis f , and built a fortress there, which 
city is named Caer Gortigern 8 . 


XX. After this, Gortimer' the victorious, son of Gortigern, with 
his brother Catigern 5 , rose up against Hengist and Orsa, and the 
Britons fought fiercely along with them, so that they drove the Saxons 


name of Gwynedd, in the travestied form 
of Gunnis, and place it in the north. In 
the first place the Latin copies have Gu- 
oienit and Guenet, and in the second, 
Gwnnessi, Gueness, and Gueneri. Pro- 
bably the same name is meant in both 
instances, for Gwnnessi is said to be in 
the sinistral or northern part of Britain. 
But it is false that Caer Guortigern was 
either in Gwynedd, or any where in the 
north. And the whole sentence, " et ipse 
cum magis suis ad sinistralem plagam per- 
venit," etc., seems to be an ignorant in- 

8 Caer Gortigern, .1. Caep ^opci^epnn 
ipoem, B. .1. cuep j;opclii^epno, U. .1. 
Caep 5 ol P cn '5 e P nn > 1 po a I" h-Gm- 
pop in Dun, .1. bun Gmpoip, L. (T.) 

h Of the warfare. B. reads oo cucai- 
ecc 5 Pc'5 e P n an&po piop. L. reads oo 
chathaib 5'P m chij5epn anbro pip. (T.) 

1 Gortimer The reading of U. has been 


adopted as being in accordance with the 
Latin. D. reads 5 P clrn 5 e P nD - The other 
MSS. read 5P ITlc ' 11Tne P n -> L. 5P C| - 
5 epnb, B. (T.) 

J Catigern. This name occurs here 
in D. only. The Latin makes no men- 
tion of the brother, but reads, " et cum 
gente illorum." There is much confusion 
in the Irish copies about these names, 
and even in the same copy uniformity is 
not preserved. For Gortimer we find. 
Gortimgernd, Goirmthigern, Gormthimern, 
Goirtimper, Gort/ternir, &pc. For Cati- 
gern, Cailhgearnn, Cantigern, Cern, &c. It 
has been thought better, however, to pre- 
serve uniformity in the translation (7 T ). 

The Catigern of the Latin copies is Cyn- 
deyrn in Welsh, to which Kentigern is the 
equivalent, both meaning Chief Prince; 
but Cathigern, Battle Prince, is quite 
a distinct word ; which discrepancy is un- 
accounted for (//.) 


h-int>apbpacap Samaria co h-inip Ceinech, -| po jabpac bpeacain 
po cpi poppo in n-in'p, co copachc cobaip cucu ap in ^ ea r TTiain ' 1 
po caicha<5peac ppi bpeacnu cac can ba leo copcap, can aile ba 

Ocup oo po pan ^oipchemip ceichpi caca ooib, .1. each pop bpu 
Oeipgbemc ~| each pop bpu Pechenepjabail ~\ ip ann Do pochnip 
Oppa i Cocijepnn mac ^opcijepnn, -| each pop bpu mapa ichc, ~\ 
caipni^chep Saxain co a longaib muliebpicep, [~| each pop bnuaij 
Gpippopc]. TTIapb rnnoppo ^opcimpip [lap n-aimpip m-bic] ocup 
a oobaipc ppia bpeacnaib ap pe n-eg a aonacail pop bpu mapa> 
~] ni cicpaicip guill ec p in mnpi mpoain. Mi oeapnnpac bpea- 
cain in ni pin. Qopacc reapc Sa^an lap pin, ap ba capa Doib ^op- 
cijjepno ap Daij a mna. 


k Deirgbeint. That this battle of the 
Daren t was distinct from that of Crayford 
(which, in fact, is not on the Darent), ap- 
pears from Henry of Huntingdon, p. 310, 
31 1. Ailsford, on the Medway, is sup- 
posed to be the Saxon Eppisford, and the 
British Set Thergabail, Sathenegabail, or 
Kit Hergabail of Nennius. Being a Va- 
duni, Kit is clearly right; and Saiscnag- 
aball, destruction of the Saxons, is per- 
haps the title of that ford. But Cainden, 
unless he had other copies, incorrectly 
states that Nennius hath told us it was 
so called, because of the Saxons being 

vanquished there i. p. 260. Gibson. The 

last of these battles was at the " Lupis 
Tiliili super ripam Gallici maris,'' which 
the most probable conjecture places at 
Folk-stone ; whereof the name almost im- 
plies that the people had some rights, 

sanctions, or usages (some titulus) con- 
nected witli a stone. (//.) 

1 Kpisfort The text of this passage is 
very corrupt in all the MSS., and is here 
given chiefly from U. ; the following are 
the readings: U. reads .1. cue pop bpu 
Depjuint, -) car pop bpu Rethene ja- 
buil, -| ip cmo pochuip Opp -] Carijepno 
mac ^opci^epnn, -| each pop bpu mapa 
ice, i capnicip 8a,rain co a lonjaib, -\ 
car pop bpuaij Gpippopc. D. reads .1. 
carh pop bpu tDeipjbemr, -\ each rop 
bpu Raceapjabail, -\ ipannpm bo poch- 
cup Gijipc-] Ccicijepnn, mac ^opcijepnn 
-] each pop bpu peicepja mapa ichc, -| 
caipnijep Sa^rain co lonjaib mulie- 
bpicip. Here three battles only are men- 
tioned, as in Bertram's Nennius, cap. 
45. The word muliebriter is inserted from 
the Latin, " et ipsi in fugam usque ad 


to the island of Teineth, and the Britons took this island thrice from 
them ; so that forces arrived to their assistance out of Germany, and 
they fought against the Britons, and were one time victorious and 
another time defeated. 

And Gortimer gave them four battles, viz., a battle on the bank 
of the Deirgbeint" ; a battle on the bank of Rethenergabail, in which 
Orsa and Catigern, son of Gortigern, were slain ; and a battle on 
the shore of the Iccian sea, where they drove the Saxons to their 1 
ships, muliebriter; and a battle on the banks of Episfort 1 . Gorti- 
mer died soon after, and he said to the Britons shortly before his 
death, to bury him on the brink of the sea, and that the strangers 
would never afterwards come into the island. The Britons did not 
do this". After this the power of the Saxons increased, for Gorti- 

gern was their friend on account of his wife. 


chiulas suas reversi sunt, in eas mulie- 
briter intrantes." This is the only MS. 
which makes Hengist, instead of Orsa, 
be killed in one of these battles. .1. Cadi 
pop bpu t)epcoumt>, -| car pop bpu 
T?echene Uengabail, -| ip anopuibe oo 
pochaip Opp -| Cepn muc ^oipchijepn, 
-| each pop bpu mapa ichc, -| caipmjj- 
cheap Sayain co lonjjjaib, -| each pop 
bpu Gijepipopc. B. reads, i. Car pop bpu 
tJepjumb, -| car pop bpu TJechepe a- 
bail, -| ip anpioe bo pocuip Opp -| Canci- 
jjepn mac 5P^'5 e P nn 5 1 ca ^ FP bpu- 
015, Cpipopc. In the Latin, Episford is 
made identical with the second battle- 
field : " super vadum quod dicitur in lin- 
gua eorum Episford, in nostra autem lin- 
gua Sathenegabail." Bertram. " Kit Her- 
gabail." Stevenson (T.) 

m Soon after. Instead of the words 
within brackets, which are supplied from 
U., B., and L., and are a literal transla- 
tion of the Latin post modicum intervul- 
lum, D. has paulopopc (T.) 

n The Britons did not do this, etc. 
Gortimer is the Vortimer of Latin, and 
the Gwrthcvyr of Welsh, history ; cele- 
brated both as a saint and a warrior, 
and surnamed Bendigaid, or the Blessed. 
What the Britons are here, and in Geof- 
frey, said not to have done, they are else- 
where reported to have done. The bones 
of Gwrthevyr Vendigaid were buried in 
the chief ports of the island, and whilst 
they were concealed, the oppression of the 
island was impossible. But Vortigern of 
the Perverse Mouth revealed his bonus, 
out of love for Ronwen, daughter of Hen- 


XXI. Do pata imoppo, lap n-eg ^opchemip -| lap pi'6 
1 ^opcijepnn, Do ponpac Sa^ain meabail pop bpearnaib, .1. bpea- 
cain i Sa^ain Do cinol in n-aen baile [amail biD Do pio .1. Grrgipc 
1 <5opriepn] po comlui jen apmaib ac cachcap nai[oib], ace 
rujpac Sa^ain pceana ecuppa -\ am maelana, ~\ po mapbpac na 
bpeacnaig baoap annpin uili occ 5P cl 5 ea l irm na aenap, ~\ po 
ceanjlaoap ^opcigeaprm, "| DO pao cpian a peapainD cap ceano a 
anma, .1. Qllpa^an -| pucpajram -] micilpa^an. 

No popcanao imoppo ^eapman in of J5P cl 5 ea P nt) co P leigeo 
a mriai [.i. a injjen]. Ro ceicli -] po polaig pe n-^eapman ip in 
peapann oianao ainm ^oipcijeapnmam, ~\ Do cuaio ^eapman co 
clepcib bpeacan, "| po bai cecpaca la ~\ aiDce ann : ] Do cuaiD 
apipi ^opcigeapno pop ceicheD na clepeach coa Dun, -| DO cuaoap 
na 01015, 1 P t> aT > a P C P' l< a 1 C P' h-aiDci annpin in n-aine; -] po loipc 
reine Oe oo mm [in 01] ^oipngeapnn ano pin co n-a h-uile muinn- 


gist the Saxon Triad 53, Series 3. The 
history of this person is involved in ob- 
scurity; and his date and age agree but 
ill with the chronology of Vortigern. 
See Rice Rees' Welsh Saints, p. 135. It 
has been doubted if any such man was 

his son. Carte's History, I. p. 193 


In peace. The clause within brackets 
is added from L., B., and U (T.) 

p Sandals. According to the Latin, the 

Saxons were directed by Hengist to bring 
each an artavus, or small pocket-knife, 
" in medio ficonis sui," i. e. in his shoe or 

boot (//.) 

" Sparing his life " Pro redemptione or depreciation of Gortigern, but rather 

animaj suaj," Nennius. Oap cenou mna, the contrary (7/.) 

U. dp 0015 a mna, On account of s His own daughter. These words are 

his life," L. For one third (rpian) of his 
land, the translator ought rather to have 
said three parts; " tres provincias." 
Mama. In the names of these three 
provinces, which are evidently Essex, and 
Sussex, and Middlesex, the MSS. are 
very corrupt, tcirqjcum, -| Sucpoxum, 
-] niulpcitum, B. fa Soium, -\ Sue 
Sqrum, ) m-puil Scitam, L. 
1 pucycr^um ) nicilparum, U. 

cm, -| purp,xan, -) nicilparan, D (?'.) 

r Gorliyern. Literally, " the person," 
or " the man Gortigern;" mi, D. mm, 
U., L. in oi, B. This prefix is not to 
be understood as implying any contempt 

io 3 

XXI. Now it came to pass after the death of Gortimer, and after 
the peace between Hengist and Gortigern, that the Saxons com- 
mitted an act of treachery upon the Britons ; that is, the Britons and 
Saxons were assembled together in equal numbers in one place, as 
if in peace , viz., Hengist and Gortigern, neither party having arms ; 
but the Saxons carried knives concealed between them and their san- 
dals p , and they killed all the Britons who were there except Gortigern 
alone, and they fettered Gortigern, and he gave the one-third of his 
land for the sparing of his life q , viz., All-Saxan, and Sut-Saxan, and 

Now German had admonished Gortigern r to put away his wife, 
that is, his own daughter"; but he fled away from German, and 
concealed himself in the land which is named Gortigernmain ; and 
German, with the clergy of Britain, went after him, and remained 
there for forty days and nights ; and Gortigern fled again 1 from the 
clergy to his fortress, and they followed him and tarried there three 
days and three nights fasting. And the fire of God from heaven 
burned Gortigern" there, with all his people. Others assert that 


inserted from U., B., and L. The incest gerniawn, where it is not doubted Caer 
of Gortigern is only mentioned in the Guortigern was situate; and, being pur- 
MS. edited by Mr. Gunn, and in the mar- sued by Gcrmanus and his priests, and 
gin of the Cottonian MS. Caligula, A. dreading their power, he removed thence 
viii. See Stevenson. (T.) This whole to another fort of his called Din Gorti- 
affair is very doubtful. See p. 89. But gern, in Dyvcd or Demetia, on the banks 
here the falsehood is manifest; for the of the Tivy. So it is styled in Gale's 
plot of knives is usually attributed to the text; but Mr. Gunn's has " Cair Guorthe- 
year 473, and at any rate German died girn juxta flumen Tebi," which I eon- 
one year before Hengist's first arrival in ccive to be erroneous. (H.) 
449- (H.) u Gortiyern. - Literally, " the person 
1 Fled again. There is a confusion Gortigern." See above, note r ; in ni, U. 
here, from its not being clearly expressed in 01, omitted in D. L. does not name 
that Gortigern had two places of refuge. Gortigern here, but reads in cijjeopru 
First, he went to the district of Guorti- pin. (?'.) 


cepi. Qobepac apaile ip Do DepcafmuD aobar pop paenouil a Hog 
illog. Qubepc apaile ip calam DO pluig in ajaio po loipceo a 

XXII. TCobaoap imoppo, cpi meic oca .1. ^opcimpep, ip epibe 
po cachaiD ppi Sa^ann; Caingeapnn ; papcannc, ip Do pioe Do 
par, Qmbpop pi bpearan, bocuelc -| ^opngeapnmain mp n-eg a 
achap ; paupcup r.oein, mac a ingene. -| ^ ea P mcm po m-baipo ~\ 
po n-ail i po popcan ; -] reachcaiD in cachpaig pop [bpu] ppoca 
l?aen. Nemnup aobepc po. 

peapmael pil anopa pop peapann J5 01 ] lcI 5 e r mDrnain > niac ce ~ 


v Died of grief and tears, etc. But cer- 
tainly far advanced in years. His repu- 
ted tomb, culled the Bedd Gwrtheyrn or 
Grave of Vortigern, is still seen at Llan- 
haiarn in Carnarvonshire, and was found 
to contain the bones of a man of lofty 
stature. See Carte i. 196. The Beddau 
Mihvyr, st. 40, says that the tomb in 
Ystyvachau is supposed by all men to lie 
that of Gwrtheyrn or Vortigern. (//.) 

w Three sons, That is to say, Vorti- 
gern had three legitimate sons, or such 
as the British recognised for princes. 
Nothing is known of this Saint Faustus, 
nor doth there seem to be any church or 
convent of his invocation. The Renis or 
Reins, at which Faustus (not Germanus, 
as here) built a locus mognus, has been 
conjectured to be the Rumney, dividing 
Glamorgan from Monmouth.-Ussher, Brit. 
Eccl. Primord. Appx. p. 1002. One manu- 
script calls him S. Faustus Seeundus. A 
Briton of the name of Faustus was bishop 
of Riez, in Gaul, and honoured as a saint 

(Vide Aub. Mirteum in Gennadium, cap. 
61), though by some condemned as here- 
tical. He flourished in the days of Vor- 
tigern, and kept up a correspondence 
with Britannia. See Sidonius Apollinaris, 
Lib. ix. Epist. 9. A fourth son ascribed 
to Vortigern is Gotta, whom his Saxon 
wife, Rowena, is said to have borne to 
him, and to whom V'ortigern is said to 
have given (i. e. limited in succession) the 

crown of Britain Triad. 21, series 3. 

Lastly, Mr. R. Rces mentions three 
saintly sons of Vortigern, St. Edeyrn, 
who formed a convent of 300 monks at 
Llanedeyrn, near the Rumney above- 
mentioned, St. Aerdeyrn, and St. Ell- 
deyrn. Essay on Welsh Saints, p. 186. 
All these names are formed, like Gwr- 
theyrn's own, upon teyrn, a prince. Pas- 
cent is the most authentic of his imputed 
progeny (//.) 

x Who fuvght Ip e po chachaio pe 
Stream, D. " Qui pugnabat contra bar- 
baros." Nennius (T.) 

10 5 

he died of grief and tears', wandering from place to place. Another 
authority asserts that the earth swallowed him up the night on which 
his fortress was burnt. 

XXII. He had three sons w , viz., Gortimper, who fought 11 against 
the Saxons ; Catigern ; Pascant, to whom Ambrose the king of Bri- 
tain gave Bocuelt and Gortigernmain, after the death of his father; 
Saint Faustus y , his son by his own daughter, and whom Germain 
baptized, fostered, and instructed, and for whom he built a city on 
the brink of the River Raen z . Nennius" said this. 

Fearmael", who is now chief over the lands of Gortigern, is the 


! Saint Faustus D. reads pour-tup 
panctup: all the other MSS. have poup- 
rup noem or naem. (?'.) 

* The River Raen. See note ". pop bpu 
ppora, L., B. pop bpo ppora Roen, D. 
Pop bpo ppora Rein, U (T.) 

3 Nennius. Nenup, B. Nemnep, L. 
Neumnop, D. Nemnup, U. (7'.) 

*>Fearmael Fernmael (Strong-ankles), 
Firmwail, or Fermail, was a petty prince, 
reigning when the Historia was compiled. 
The same name occurs in Fernwail, Fer- 
nael, or Fermael, sun of Idwal, in the 
Brut Tywys. and Saeson, p. 391, 473, 
and (as I conceive) in King Farinmagil, 
slain at the battle of Deorham. Ilenr. 
Huntingd. p. 315. Fernmael I take to 
be the true form and etymon, according 
to the orthography of these days. His 
genealogy (which Gale attributes to that 
bugbear, Samuel) is in every copy and 
edition. Pascentius, son of Vortigern, 
was permitted (as the Historia has already 
told us) to retain Buellt, a district of Kad- 


nor, where stood the ancient Bulla'um 
Silurum, and Guorthigerniawn or Gwr- 
theyrniawn, i. e. the Jurisdiction of Vor- 
tigern or Gwrtheyrn, a district adjoining 
the other in the direction of Rhaiadrgwy, 
whereof the name yet survives in the 
ruined castle of Gwrthrenion. 

This patrimony of Pascent ap Gwr- 
theyrn descended from him, through ten 
intermediates, to Fernmael, son of Theo- 
dore or Tudor. All copies exactly agree 
in the pedigree, save that one or two 
have mistaken Vortigern's opprobrious 
surname, Gwrthenau, Perverse- Mouthed, 
for a separate person. It is not likely 
that such particular accounts should be 
given of the fate of Vortigern's estates in 
Radnorshire, and of the descent of their 
actual owner, save by a person specially 
acquainted with those parts. But that 
impression rises into conviction, when we 
find that every copy of the catalogue of 
the twenty-eight cities of Britannia, in- 
cluding that copied into the Harleian 


Dubpe, mic paipcceann, mic J5'Oicann, mic TTlopur, mic Gllrao, 
tnic eiooc, mic pauil, mic TTleppic, mic bpiacac, mic papcenc, 
mic ^opci^eapno, mic 5 uacai U mic 5 uacu ^ in > rnic <5^ oa - hnup 
1 Paulup i TTlupon cpi meic [oile] "filoa, ip epioe t>o pome in cac- 
paig Caipglou .1. ^tupepcep F P ^P u SabpainDe. Do cuaiD 5 ec T" 
man Dia cip. 

XXIII. paDpaic cpa in n-inbai6 pin i n-oaipe i ri-Gipino ic 
TTliliuc, i [ip ip in aimpiji pin] po paioeab pleoiup cum n-6ipeann 
DO ppoicepr ooib. Do cuam paopaic D'poglaim bo oeap, co po 
leig in canoin la J5 ea l iman - T? h-inoapbao pleoiup a h-6ipinn, 
1 canig co pa pojam t>o Oia i popoun ip in Tllaipne. Uanig pa- 
opaic DO cum n-GipmD lap pojlaim, i po baipc pipu 6peann. O 
Qoam co baiclnp peap n-6ipeann, u.m.ccc.jr^. peapca paDpaic 
DO intupm oaibpi a pipu 6peann, ip upce DO loch annpin, [-) ip 


MS. of pedigrees, places Caer Guortigern, 
the capital of Guortigerniawn, first in 
the list of cities, before London, York, 
Caerleon upon Usk and upon Dee, and 
whatever was most famous in the island! 
The place in question was, on the face of 
it, no older than the fifth century; and, 
from its wild and mountainous site, could 
have been little more than a military fast- 
ness. This is such palpable exaggeration 
and flattery as may best be accounted for 
by supposing Guorthigerniawn to have 
been the author's native land, and Fern- 
mael his lord and patron. (//.) 

Tedubre, son of Paistcenn. That is to 
say, Theodore or Tudor, son of Pascent. 
The authenticity of this pedigree from 
Vortigern derives some support from the 

recurrence of Pascent's name. At least, 
if it be a fiction, it throws baok the inven- 
tion of it to Fernmael's grandfather, or ra- 
ther to that grandfather's sponsors. (//.) 
This genealogy is given in the MSS. with 
great variations in the spelling of the names. 
1). is followed in the text. U. gives them 
thus: Fearmael, Teudubri, Pascent, Guo- 
dicator, Morut, Eldat, Eldoc, Paul, Me- 
prit, Briacat, Pascent, Gorthigernd, Gui- 
tail, Guitoilin, Glou. L. gives them thus: 
Fearmael, Teudbri, Pasceand, Guodicatur, 
Muirind, Eltaid, Eltog, Paul, ^epret, 
Bricad, Pascent, Gorthigern, Gutail, Gu- 
tolin, Golu. B. has them thus: Fermae), 
Teudbri, Pascenn, Guodicant, Muriut, 
Eldat, Eldoc, Paul, Meprit, Bricat, Pas- 
cent, Gorthigern, Gutail, Gutolin, Glou. 


son of Tedubre, son of Paistcenn c , son of Guodicann, son of Morut, 
son of Alltad, son of Eldoc, son of Paul, son of Mepric, son of 
Briacat, son of Pascent, son of Gortigern, son of Guatal, son of Gua- 
tulin, son of Glou. Bonus, Paul, and Muron were three other sons of 
Glou, who built the city of Caer Glou", i. e. Glusester, on the banks 
of the Severn. German returned home to his own country 6 . 

XXIII. At this time Patrick was in captivity in Eri with Miliue ; 
and it was at this time that Pledius was sent to Eri to preach to 
them. Patrick went to the south' to study, and he read the canons 
with German. Pledius was driven from Eri, and he went and served 
God in Fordun in Mairne. Patrick came to Eri after studying, and 
baptized the men of Eri. From Adam to the baptizing of the men of 
Eri icere five thousand three hundred and thirty years. To de- 
scribe the miracles of Patrick to you, ( ) men of Eri, were to briny 

suam." (T.) 

* To the south In the Latin, " Romam 
usque perrexit ;" but there is no mention 
there of Patrick's studying the canons 
with German. In describing the mission 
of Palladius, the Latin adopts the words 
of Prosper in his Chronicle: " Missus est 
Palladius episcopus primitus a Celestinn 
episcopo et papa Roma; ad Scottos in 
Christum convertendos." (T.) The trans- 
lator of Nennius deservedly rejects his 
sketch of St. Patrick's life and miracles, 
as a mere drop of water or grain of sea- 
sand. But he is himself much at va- 
riance with the popular hagiography, if 
he conceives Patrick to have been still a 
captive to Miliue M c Cuboin, the Dalara- 
dian magician, at the time when Palladius 
was sent. The mission of St. Patrick to 

For Gloucester we have Gluseghter, B. 
Gluseicther, L. Glusester, U., D. (T.) 
For some remarks on Gorthigern, son of 
Guatal, see Additional Notes, No. XVI. 

d Caer Glou. This statement is not in 
all the Latin copies, and is deservedly ac- 
counted fabulous. For Caer Gloui or 
Gloucester is the Glevum of the Itinera- 
rium Antonini, a work not later than the 
fourth century. And the idea of Gloui 
building cities east of the Severn implies a 
measure of Celtic independence and so- 
vereignty which did not exist in the days 
of the Itinerary, nor in those of Vorti- 
gern's grandfather (H.) 

e To his own country. t)i acallairii, 
B., L. U. omits this clause altogether. 
In the Latin it is " Sanctus Germanus 
reversus est post mortem illius ad patriam 



liairep gainem mapa ano fin, i lecpeao oaib pechaino co pe can 
cumaip -] can paipneip inoipm co leicc.] 

XXIV. Ro jab rpa neapc Sovran pop bpearanib lap n-eg ^op- 
cigeapno. l?o gab Ochca mac Gnjipc, pigi poppo. dp a uioi no 
cachaijio Qpcup -] bpeacain piu co calma, -\ Do pao Da each oeag 
ooib, .1. in ceD each in n-inobeap ^ ein 5 in canaipce ] in cpeap -| 

Ireland falls upon the Annus Mundi 4382, 
and not on 5330, according to the Hebrew 
chronology of O'Flaherty (//.) 

8 To a lake Upce po rhalman, L. 

Upce DO loch, U., D. Upci po lap -| licip 
janeurii mapa, B. The clause which fol- 
lows, within brackets, in the text, is in- 
serted from L. (T.) 

11 Arthur and the Britons Mr. Ber- 
tram's edition inserts, before the mention 
of Arthur, " hie expliciunt gesta Brito- 
num a Nennio conscripta ;" from which 
some have thought this history was ori- 
ginally silent as to Arthur. But all MSS. 
agree in containing his legend, and the 
mistake arose thus : That colophon is 
subjoined to the Acts of St. Patrick ; but. 
in some copies, particularly the Marcian 
or Mr. Gunn's, those Acts form the con- 
clusion of the Historia; and some of the 
editorial copyists, while transferring them 
to the middle, took along with them the 
expliciunt or colophon (//.) In the fol- 
lowing account of Arthur's battles, the 
text of all the MSS. of the Irish is very 
corrupt, particularly D. ; it has been cor- 
rected by the help of the Latin from B., 
L., and U., but it would be a waste of time 


to specify all the variations, most of which 
are the blunders of mere ignorance. The 
names of the several battle-fields are very 
variously given in the Irish MSS. The 
following is a list of them : The first was 
at Inbuip 5^ e 'P> U. Inbbep J)le |n t L. 
^lem, B. Inobep ^'- a " 1 > ^*- I n the place 
of the next four all agree. The sixth at 
6pu 6appa in B. and L. 6upa, D. 6pu 
ftapu, U. The seventh at Caill Cuillioom 
.1. caic coic Cleiouman, D. Cciill Cai- 
liooin .1. cmc coic Cleoeb, U. Chucain 
.1. caic coic Cleb, L. Caill Cuoom .1. 
caic coic Cloceb, B. The eighth at lep 
^uinneam, U. Ceipc Cumpein, L. ^epc 
JJuinioom, I). (It should be mentioned 
that D. apparently omits the seventh and 
gives the eighth twice; but this is a mere 
slip of the scribe, who wrote u h-occti, 
when lie ought to have written in pecc- 
muo). f,ep 5 uin P euln , H. After the 
eighth battle I), inserts the clause which 
in the other copies, and in the Latin, fol- 
lows the twelfth, Ip arm pmoe po imop- 
coip Qpciup occcil. in aenlo, -| ba leip 
copcap inocib peo uile, and then goes 
on (as in the text) to speak of his having 
there carried the image of the Virgin. 


water to a lake 8 , and they are more numerous than the sands of the 
sea, and I shall, therefore, pass them over without giving an abstract 
or narrative of them just now. 

XXIV. After the death of Gortigern, the power of the Saxons 
prevailed over the Britons. Ochta, the son of Hengist, assumed govern- 
ment over them. Arthur, however, and the Britons" fcmght bravely 
against them, and gave them twelve battles', viz., the first battle at 


The ninth battle was at Cacpaij mo 
teomain, U., L., B. Cachpaig mo e- 
j;oin, D., which agrees with the Latin. 
The tenth at Robpoir, U., L., B. TJob- 
puio, D. The eleventh is omitted in all 
the Irish MSS., nor do they name the 
twelfth ; in what they say of it they all 
agree with the text except D., where the 
scribe wrote u DO oej if unn po mapb, and 
there stopped short without finishing the 
sentence (T.) 

' Twelve battles. This was the favourite 
and mystic number of the British nations. 
St. Patrick is made (by the author of the 
very barbarous productions bearing his 
name) to boast of having gone through 
duodena pericula. It is unknown where 
these battles were fought, and it is mere 
guess-work, from resemblance of sound 
and other trifles. I. Gleni, or Glein, is a 
name consistently given, and therefore not 
to be treated ad libitum. The river Glem 
by Glemford, in Lincolnshire, is recom- 
mended by Gale. There is also the Glen 
of Glendale, in Northumberland, fluvius 
Gleni, in which Paulinus baptized multi- 
tudes. Bede, Hist, ii., cap. 14 II., III., 

I V., V. The river Duglas or Dubhglas may 
be the dark green or blue(i'or i y/a*iseither), 
or rather the dark stream, from the Gaelic 
glaise, a stream. It is said to be the Dow- 
glas in Lancashire, that runs by Wigan. 
R. Higd. Polychron. p. 225, Gale. But if 
so the regio Linuis, Linnuis, Linnis, or 
Limus, cannot be Lindsey, Lindissiof Bede, 
in Lincolnshire. Indeed, the Archdeacon 
of Huntingdon calls it regio Innis.Ilist. ii. 
p. 3 1 3. Mr.Whitaker speaks of a local tra- 
dition that three battles were fought near 
Wigan, but omits to observe, that the tra- 
dition probably came from those very chro- 
nicles, of which it is therefore insufficient 
to determine the sense Hist. Manches- 
ter, ii. p. 36, 43. There is also the river 
Douglas, in Clydesdale, more famous for 
the family who took its name, than for 
its own dark waters. VI. Bassas of Nen- 
nius, Lusas of the Marcian manuscript, 
is unascertainable. But a place called 
Eglwysau Bassa, the Churches of Bassa, 
is prominently mentioned in Llywarch's 
Elegy upon Cynddylan. Near that place, 
Cynddylan and Elvanof Powys were slain 
by the Lloegrians, or Britons west of 

1 IO 

in ceachpamao -| in cuiceao car pop bpu Oubjlaipi ; in peipeab 
car pop bpu bappa ; ocup in peacrmab car a Caill Caillmoin .1. 
caicCoic CleiDuman; in roccmab cacim lepc 5 ul DO ' n 5 T ant) 
pin po imapcop Cfpciip Delb TTluipe pop a jualaino, -| po ceiljiprap 
na pajam. In nomao[car] i caclipaij im> Lejoin; in oechineatj 


Severn, and were buried in the Eghvysau, 
of which the plural number indicates some 
great establishment, probably conventual. 
Owen's Llywarch, p. 82-84. Llywarch, 
apud Areh. Myvyr. p. 109, 1 10. How- 
ever, Mr. Carte has imagined the Bassas 
to be the river of Basingstoke and Basing, 
in Hants ; i. p. 205. VII. The seventh 
was cad coed Celyddon, the battle of the 
wood of Forests. Celyddon is a general 
name for any traet of woodlands so exten- 
sive as to furnish shelter and bailie pur- 
suers, of which the ancient orthography 
was expressed in Latin, Caledonia or 
Calidonia. See Florus, cap. xi. This bat- 
tle may have been fought in any eelyd- 
dnii or vast forests; in the sylva Caledonia 
of Caesar in Florus; in Caledonia north 
of Clyde; or where the fortress of Pen- 
savle-eoed was built. Geoffrey of Mon- 
uiouth, ix. eap. 3, places the battle of 
Nemus Caledonis in Lindsey, near Lin- 
coln ; but as he clearly mistakes the 
position of Caer Loid Coed, his recti- 
fied sense would place it in the Sylva El- 
mete of Leeds. VIII. Castellum Gunnion, 
Guinion, Guimer. This place is simply 
unknown. The Vinovium of Ptolemy, 
Vinovia of Antoninus, and Vinonia of 

Kavennas, is mentioned in Messrs. Gunn's 
and Stevenson's Notes. It is now called 
Binehester, in Durham. There is also a 
Vennonis (High-Cross), otherwise Vino- 
nium, in Antoninus. Gwyniawn, in mo- 
dern spelling, is probably the word in- 
tended by Nennius, whatever place he may 
have meant. An interpolation (absent 
from Marcus and various other MSS., 
as well as from this translation), adds 
to the portrait of the Holy Virgin an 
account of a wooden cross made at Jeru- 
salem, whereof the rcliques were preserved 
at Wedale, near Melrose. IX. Urbs Le- 
gionis or Caer Lleon, was a name com- 
monly applied to two cities, that upon 
the Usk in Gwent or Monmouthshire, 
and that upon the Dee, now called Ches- 
ter. It does not appear which is speci- 
fied, but northern places seem rather to 
be iu question. X. Upon the river Trat- 
treuroit, Trath-treviroit, Tribruit, Iti- 
broit, or Arderit, it may be observed 
that the four first readings represent the 
same, and the real appellation; while the 
intrusion of the celebrated, but not Ar- 
thurian, battle of Arderydd is an imper- 
tinence. A trath or traeth is not properly 
a river, but an inlet of the sea, a tract of 

1 1 1 

the mouth of the river Glein ; the second, the third, the fourth, 
and the fifth battle, on the brink of the river Dubhglas ; the sixth 
battle on the brink of the Bassa ; the seventh battle in the wood 
of Callidon, that is, Gait Coit Cleiduman ; the eighth battle at 
Lesc Guinidon ; it was here Arthur carried the image of Mary on 
his shoulder, and drove out the Pagans ; the ninth battle at the city of 

Legion ; 

marsh, or other shallow and sandy place 
usually covered with water; such as the 
Traeth Mawr, Traeth Bychan, and Traeth 
Artro in Merioneth, and Traeth Taffe in 
Glamorgan; and the word traeth-Uyn (ap. 
Camden, ii. 46), a quagmire. " Dicitur 
autem Traeth lingua Cambrica sabulum 
mari influente longius, et se retrahente, 
nudatum." Giraldus Camb. Itin. Cambr. 
ii. cap. 6. Of Traeth Trev there is no room 
for doubt ; but the difficulty is to meet the 
analogies of the ancient Welsh spelling, 
which is preserved in roit and ruit. Per- 
haps Traethtrevrhwydd (the frith, or 
marshy channel, of the open or unen- 
closed habitation) is the name. But the 
name is easier found than the place. XL 
The eleventh battle (here omitted) was at 
Agued Cathregenion, Cath-Bregion, or 
Thabregomion ; or, as Marcus has it, "in 
Monte Breguoiu .... quern nos Cat Bre- 
gion appellamus." Humfrey Llwyd says, 
" Edenburgum, Scotorum regia, olim ab 
Eboraco Britannorum rege condita, et 
Castell Mynydd Agned, id est, Castellum 
Montis Agneti, postea vero Castellum 
Virginum, dicta." Comment, p. 62. That 
suffices for the place. As to its additional 

name, we see clearly from Marcus, as well 
as from the reason of the thing, that the 
Cat is added in consequence of the battle; 
and I believe that Agned Brechion, Ag- 
netum Maculis-distinctorum, was simply 
expressive of the nation to whom that 
fortress is said to have belonged, Edin- 
burgh of the Picts. XII. The place, which 
is omitted here, was Mons Badonis. " Ad 
annum obsessionis Montis Badonici, qui 
prope Sabrinum ostium habetur, novis- 
simaque fere de furciferis non minima,- 
stragis." Gildas, Hist. cap. 26. Lands- 
downe Hill, above Bath, is supposed to 
be signified; and no doubt can exist of 
Badon being Bath, or, more strictly, the 
Baths. Mr. Carte's conceit, that Mount 
Badon is Badbury Hill, on the borders of 
Wiltshire, towards Berkshire, is fully con- 
futed by " prope Sabrinum ostium." The 
" novissima fere strages" of Gildas sug- 
gested to the Historia Britonum its diut- 
decimum bellum, or last battle (//.) 
For the history of Arthur and his twelve 
battles, see " Assertio incomparabilis Ar- 
thuri autore Joanne Lelando, Antiqua- 
rio." Lond. 1544. Eeprinted in Leland's 
Collectanea, vol. v. p. 17, &c (T.) 

I 12 

in Pobpmo; a DO oeaj ip ann po mapbab [la Idim Qpcuip prl. ap occ 
cecaib i n-aen lo, -| ba leipcopcup incib peo uile]. NochuinDgioip 
imoppo Sa^ain na popcacr ooib a ^epmanio -\ pip popo, co h-loa 
ip eipioe ceo jii$ po gab uaoaib ipop inobip Onic .1. ppi Umbpia, 
acuaio. loa piliup Gabba. Gnpleo pilia Goumni coipeac pmm po 
baipceo DO Saxanaib in n-inip bpeacan. 



awt> so sis. 

XXV. In ceo injnao inopi bpearari Loch Lomnan ; I;:, imp 
ann; If. cappaj -] I/, ppur ino, -| aeri j^urh ap, .1. Lenmain. 


i Eight hundred and forty men, Sj-c. So 
all but Gunn's MS., which is represented 
as having DCCCCXL. This statement is 
less hyperbolical, though it may be more 
mysterious, in its real than in its ap- 
parent sense. Like 7 to the Hebrews, 
12 was to the Britons the absolute 
number, significant of perfection, pleni- 
tude, and completeness. But they had 
also a way of expressing that number by 
various other numbers, of which the 
cyphers added together make 12. So, 
at his great synod of Llan-Ddewi Brevi, 
St. David assembled 7140 saints; at the 
battle of knives, or of Hengist's ban- 
quet, Eidiol Gadran, with the branch of a 
roan tree, slew 660 Saxons ; and here, 
Arthur, with his own sword, slays 840. 
In some remarkable instances the num- 
bers 147 and 363 were so employed; and 
from each number deductions of seven 
and three were made respectively, the 
object of which affected deductions was to 

shew the principle; for 7 from 147 leaves 
i and 4, i. e. 5, being the remainder of 
7 from 1 2 ; and in the like manner 3 from 
363 leaves 9. The direct demonstration 
of the fact is found in the statement, where 
twelve years of well-known chronology 
(the reign of one king) are termed teir 
lili/nedd trngcln a thrycltunt, 3 63 years. 
Cyvoesi Merddin st. 106. The motives for 
such a practice are not obvious. In Triad 
85, the number 21,000, thrice repeated, 
is characteristic of three. The matter is 
also curious, as regards the main principle 
of what we term Arabic numerals. (//.) 
k Until Ida. " Usque ad tempus quo 
Ida filius Eobba regnavit, qui i'uit primus 
rex in Bernicia, id est, Iberneich, de gente 
Saxonurn."- Nennius, cap. 63. Cambrice 
y Berneich or Bryneich. This is the Inbh- 
er Onic of the Irish translator, which, 
however, he correctly places north of 
Humber.- (//.) This passage is greatly 
corrupted in L. : co h-ioa is transformed 

Legion ; the tenth battle at Robruid; in the twelfth battle there were 
slain, by the hand of Arthur, eight hundred and forty men' in one 
day, and he was victorious in all these battles. And the Saxons 
sought assistance from Germany, and it was from thence they brought 
their kings until the time fl/'Ida", who was the first king that ruled 
over them at this side of Inbher Onic, that is, to the north of Umbria 
[Humber]. Ida was the son of Ebba. Enfled, the daughter of Edwin 1 , 
was the first of the Saxons that was baptized in the island of Britain. 


XXV. The first wonder of the island of Britain is Loch Lein- 
non; there are sixty islands and sixty rocks in it, and sixty streams 

flow into it, and one stream out of it, that is the Leamam". 


into conao, and uaocub ipop into uceibe 
pop, which is nonsense. For Inber ( )nic 
this MS. reads Inbeneopao .1. abpa a 
cuaich. D. reads Inobip Onic .1. pop 
muip acuaio. U. reads In bene poic .1. 
ppi Umbpia aruaio, and B. has it In 
benepoc .1. ppi Ubpa u cuair (T.) 

' Enfled, daughter of Edwin. Her bap- 
tism by St. Paulinus is related in Bedu, 
2, cap. 9. The mention of her occurs in 
the midst of those "Saxonum et aliarum 
genealogies gentium", which Nennius, 
at the suggestion of Beulan the priest, 
" noluit scribere;" but which Bertram 
and Mr. Stevenson have printed from 
varying copies. The remarks originally 
made on the mode in which the Ilistoria 
was treated explain the force of scribere. 
Nennius was dissuaded from including 
them in his edition. The translator Gua- 


nach must have been in possession of the 
Genealogise, but imitated Beulan's pupil 
in the rejection of them, only culling out 
of them this sentence about Eanfled, be- 
cause of the religious interest it possessed. 
(//.) The MSS. of the Irish version dif- 
fer here, as in other cases where there are 
proper names: loa mac Cuba, Ganplech 
in^en Gomn, U. loa piliup Gabba. GM- 
pleip; pilia GouiFii, 1). loa mac Guba. 
Gunpleb inj;en Gouin, B. loa mac Goba. 
Gnpleo, no Gene, mgeun debaui, L. 
Here the copies of this work in the 
Book of Ballymote and in the Leiibhar 
na h-Uidhri end; at the end of the copy 
of the Book of Ballvmote are the words 
pmic oo'n 6peacnocnp, " liritainism (i.e. 
the history of Britain) ends." (T.) 

m Wonders of the island of Britain 
The legend of St. Patrick seems to be 

In c-mjjnao canaipce, inobeap ppocha Upanon ap Ima6 6 bonn 
ppia aen ruino, -] cpaig amuil [cac] muip eile. 
In cpeap injnao, na h-uipce ceinoce. 
In cearpamao injnao, cobap palaino moce. 
In cuiceao [ingnao], Da builg uameince inbep Sabpamoe ; oo 


scriptum in all the copies, and there is not 
" aliquod volumen Britannia;" that con- 
tains it not. But it is otherwise, with the 
Genealogia:; and also with the Mirabilia, 
which various copies, and the two first 
editors in print, have nut included. Mr. 
Stevenson has printed them, to the num- 
ber of thirteen, which is also the number 
in the Irish. But the sixth and seventh 
of tlie Irish translation are made out of 
the seventh of the Latin ; the eleventh 
is the twelfth ; the twelfth and thir- 
teenth do not occur in the Latin; neither 
do the Latin sixth and thirteenth occur 
in the translation. The Wall ire Mirabilia, 
given in verse by Ralph Iligden, appear 
to me to be only twelve in number; but 
it is uncertain whether one mirabile at 
Basingwerk is intended, or two, in which 
latter case there are thirteen. There is 
not above one of them that coincides with 
Nennius's; but, however varied in the 
selection of instances, the mirabilia seem 
to have had a fixed and conventional num- 
ber. That number, 13, 1 conceive to be 
the same sacred number, 1 2, above spoken 
of; the difference being that of the zodi- 
acal number with or without the sun, 
and the apostolic number with or without 
its Head. The British 13 is not quite 

unlike the Hebrew 8, being the over- 
flowing of fulness. The thirteen natu- 
ral mirabilia of Britain form a counter- 
part to its thirteen tlysau, i. e. jewels, 
toys, or trinkets, being magical talismans 
of the most portentous virtue ; of which 
a catalogue is printed in the Mabinogi 
of Kilhwch, p. 353-5, and another in 
Ilynavion Cymreig, p. 6j. Caervyrddin, 
1823. (J2). 

n The Letimain Lake Lomond in 
Scotland is here greatly shorn of its mar- 
vels. The Latin places an eagle upon 
each rock, cap. 67, Stevenson. But Geof- 
frey adds, that once a year the sixty 
eagles assembled together, and sang aloud 
their prophecies of whatever events were 
about to happen Lib. ix. cap. 6. Also 
in Gervas of Tilbury, JJe Rcynu Jiriton/im, 
p. 44. The Leamain here, and Lenin or 
Leun of the Latin, is the river Levin, 
flowing out of Lomond into the Clyde, 
by the famous fortress of Alclyde or Dun- 
barton (//) L. reads och f.omu. D. 

makes the number of islands, rocks and 
streams ;cl. instead of Ir. ; the transposi- 
tion of the ;c is easy, but the number of 
rocks and streams is written in full, ceach- 
paca. L. reads sixty in each case ; and 
after the sixty rocks, adds, ) meo apoib 

The second wonder is the mouth of the stream Iran on", which 
is filled from the bottom with one wave, and ebbs like every other 

The third wonder p is the fiery waters. 

The fourth wonder is the fountain of salt which is there. 

The fifth wonder, i. e. two bubbles" of froth at the mouth of the 


in each. Laemhain (in the Latin copies 
Lenin and Leun), the name of the river 
running out of this lake, is also the name 
of a river in the Co. Kerry in Ireland, 
which runs into the Lake of Killarney, 
and of another in Scotland, from which the 
district of Lennox, anciently Leamhain, 
or Magh Leamhna, has its name. (T.) 

Tranon Trans Hannoni, Thrannoni, 
Strannoni, Trahannoni, is Traeth Antoni, 
the iustuary of the Anton or Southampton 
river, Ptolemy's Mouth of the Trisanton, 
Tpiff&vrtavof irora^ov t(c/3o\ai See Gibson's 
Camden's Britannia, p. 212; Nennius, cit. 
ibid. In Italian romance, Bevis of Hamp- 
ton is Buovo d'Antona. The name Tris- 
Anton comes from tri, three, indicating 
the triple form of the enclosure made by 
the Isle of Wight, and consisting of the 
Hampton river and the two channels of 
Ryde and Yarmouth; as also Claus- 
entum, for the same waters, signified the 
Enclosure of Anton. The name Anton 
itself is simply free from leaves or billows, 
as all sheltered waters are, to the extent 
and degree of their shelter. This foolish 
wonder seems only to describe the vio- 
lence of a spring-tide. (//). L. reads, 

inbeup ppoca lineup ppi h-en cumo, -| 
cpajio anilam can muip .1. &ichne. 

p Third wonder. This is in regions 
Huich. The waters were in a paved bath, 
and were either hot or cold, according to 
the bather's wish. The fourth wonder, 
in the same region, is no wonder at all ; 
but the writer imagined there was no salt 
in the earth, only in the sea. (77.) 

11 Two bubbles. I), reads ou bmlj hil- 
luin biclie, which is plainly corrupt. The 
reading of L. has been followed. In the 
Latin, " Duo Rig Habren," which is inter- 
preted, " duo reyes Sabrina; :" pij; is a king 
in Irish; but could duo rig mean the two 
rams, from the Celtic peire, which would 
be easily confounded with pi in sound ? 
The Latin adds: "etbellum faciunt inter 
se in modum arietum." (T.) The Latin 
says, "When the sea is poured into the 
mouth of the Severn to a fall head of water, 
["Ad sissam in unaqufiquesissfi." Sissit 
is a known corruption of assisa, and I do 
not clearly know what the assize of water 
is, but I suppose it to be water brought, 
to a head, as at mill-dams. Ducange cites, 
from a charter of A. U. 811, "aquas et 


jmo rpoio, 1 bpipeao each a ceile Dib, -| najaic pop culu oo 
pmipe, ocup conopecaio oopioipe, ip amlail) [pin] bio Do speap. 

In .ui.eb [ingnao], Loch heilic cen uipce mo na app, -| ceanel 
pain eipc ann cacha h-aipoe, -| m poich oo ouine ace co jlun; .??. 
cubac ina pao, -\ 'na lecheat) ; -] bpuacha apt>a[inie]. 

In .un.rnao [injnao], ubla pop uinopmo a^ ppur ^oaip. 

In c-ochcmno in^nao, pochlaio pil i cnp 5 uenr 1 S aecn c l n 
bif a p. 

In noman, alroip pil h-i toinjjpaib, puilngio e in aep comaipo 
cioe pip o calmain |>uap. 

In tieiclirneao [in^iao], cloch pil pop capn in 6ocuilr, -| a ceal- 
cao con Qpcuip more ; -| cio beapap pon Doman po ^elia pop in 
capno cenoa. 

assisas aquarum."] two heaps of surf aro 
collected on either hand, and make war 
against each other like rains; and each 
goes against the other and they collide to- 


There is also a place in Herefordshire 
called Khydy Ilelig. (11.) 

* Ash tree. Mr. O'Donovan informs me 
that umnpenn is still in use in the north 

gether, and secede again from each other, of Ireland as the name of the ash tree; 

in the south and west the common word 
is puitmpeoj ; but the old form is pre- 
served in the name of the river pumn- 
pionn, in Cork, and in that of Ctdi-Pu \nn- 
pionn, or Ashford in Limerick. (T.) 

' G'lent. Gwent was chiefly composed 
of the modern Monmouthshire. The 
cave is said to be entitled \Vith Guint, 

and advance again at each sissa 
This seems to be meant for a description 
of the phenomenon called the Bore, which 
may Ije seen in some [estuaries, among 
others at Bridgewater (//.) 

r Luck lleilic. 6lec, L. (T). This 
Loch lleilic is called in the Latin Finnaun 
(or Fountain) of Guur Helic or Guor Ile- 

lie, and said to be twenty feet (not cubits) that is, Gwyth Gwynt, and to mean_/??/o 

square. It was in the region of Cinlipluc, 
Cinlipluic, or Cinloipiauc. Near it, and 
forming but one wonder with it in the 
Latin, was the river Guoy (Wye) and the 

venti. Gicyth is rage or violence; but 
also means a channel or conduit through 
which anything is conveyed, and that is 
perhaps the sense here. (77.) The word 

apple-bearing ash. Helic means willow- pochlaio (poclae, L.), a cave, is now ob- 
trees, and is the ancient name of Ely. solete, but is explained a cave in Cormac's 

Sabrain. They encounter and break each other, and move back 
again, and come in collision again, and thus continue perpetually. 

The sixth wonder is Loch Heilic r , which has no water flowing into 
it or out of it ; and there are different kinds of fishes in it at every 
side ; reaches, in its depth, only to a man's knee ; it is twenty 
cubits in length and in breadth, and has high banks. 

The seventh wonder, apples upon the ash tree 5 at the stream of 

The eighth wonder, a cave which is in the district of Guent', 
having wind constantly blowing out of it. 

The ninth iconder, an altar which is in Loingraib". It is supported 
in the air, although the height of a man above the earth. 

The tenth wonder, a stone which is upon a earn in Bocuilt, with 
the impression of the paws of Arthur's dog v in it; and though it should 
be carried away to any part of the world, it would be found on the 
same earn aqain. 

Glossary, and the corresponding word in 
the Latin \sfovea. With, the name given to 
this cave in the Latin, and explained flatio 
venti, seems cognate with the Irish $aer, 
a blast of wind. (T.) 

u Loingraib 12 etch, L (T.) The altar 

of Llwyngarth in Gower, upon the sea 
shore. The story, as told in the Latin, was 
this. St. Iltutus beheld a ship approaching, 
which contained the body of a saint, and an 
altar suspended in air over it. lie buried 
him under the altar, and built a church 
over it ; but the altar continued suspended 
in the air. It was but slightly raised ; for a 
regulus or local prince, being doubtful, 
proved the fact by passing his rod or 
wand under it. He was punished for his 


incredulity by a speedy death ; and ano- 
ther man, who peeped under it. by blind- 

v Arthur's dog. The impression upon 
the earn in Buellt is said to have been made 
by Arthur's dog, Cavall or Caball, during 
the chase of the porcus Troynt, i. e. the 
Twrch Trwyth. That famous boar had been 
a king, but was thus transformed, and one 
Taredd was his father. He was the head 
and summit of that pile of porcine allu- 
sions which are known to form a peculi- 
arity of British superstition. Llywareh 
Hen says, in a proverbial tone, 

u In need, Twrch [himself] will crack jiipmts." 
Marwnud Ci/nddyluii, st. 89. 

Cavall did, indeed, hunt the Twrch 


In.^ [in5naD],pilaDnaculi peapann Qpginji.can .un.cjiaiji, 
can .;r., in can .111., in can a cuic oeaj ina pao. 

In Dana [injnaD] Deaj, cloch pop cap i m-bpebic. 

In cpeap [injnao] oeaj, bpo pop bleich Do gpeap im TTlachlinD i 
Cuil, ace Dia Domnaij, po calmain rnioppo DO cluinceap. 

Ctca cippa in gpain im TTleaDon, .1. cippa o pilenn span can 

[Qca ono ann cibpa 6 m-bpuchcao cnaime en Do jjpep 'pm cfp 

Qcaic Dna coin DiaipmiDe ann in apaile cappaig, ~| laic po'n 
muip amail bio i n-aep. 

Qca Dna baippneach pop cappaij ince, .1. baippneach oc Ceoil 
cpicha mile cemenn on muip. 

Qca ono jlenn i n-Qengnp, ~| eigim cacha h-aiochi luain anD, 
-) ^lenD Qilbe a ainm, 1 ni peap cia tto ^ni puif. 


maNCiNN QNN so sis. 
XXVI. .1. in ceaona, cpai cen muip. 

whom Arthur >lew and buried at that 
spot. Llygad Annir, tlie Eyo of Annir, 
name, and Amiir i. e. 

is the fountain' 

Trwyth, but he was Si'vwlch's dog, not 
Arthur's. See the Mabinogi of Killnvch, 
p. 291. The Cam Cavall is a mountain 

in Buellt ; and the publishers of the Ma- Lackland, the man's. The lengths given 

binogion have given an engraving of a in tin- printed Latin are six, nine, and fit- 

stone with a mark like u dog's paw, eon- teen feet; and the author attests the fact 

jectured to be the one in question. Hid. on his own experience, " et ego solus pro- 

p. 360. (If-) bavi." One eopy has " Oculus Amirmur," 

" Argingi In L., Gpjneoi. (T.) The for which we can read " Oeulus Annir 

land of Argingi is Erging or Ergengl, Mawr." (77.) A superstition exactly si- 

called in English Erchenfield or Archen- milar, connected with the Dwarf at Tara, 

field, a district of Herefordshire. The is mentioned by Mr. Petrie, in his History 

sepulchre in question was beside the foun- and Antiquities of Tara Hill, p. 1 56. 

tain called Licat Anir, the last word being ( T.) 
the appellation of one of Arthur's knights, " Brebic. Clojh up dp i &pebic, L. 

The eleventh wonder, a sepulchre which is in the land of Argingi w , 
which one time measures seven feet, another time ten, another time 
twelve, and another time fifteen feet in length. 

The twelfth wonder is a stone in a cataract in Brebic x . 

The thirteenth is a quern y which constantly grinds, except on 
Sunday, in Machlin in Cul. It is heard working under ground. 

The well of the grain is in Meadon 2 , that is, a well from which 
grain flows without ceasing. 

There is in the same district a well from which the bones of birds 
are constantly thrown up. 

There are also innumerable birds there on a certain rock, and 
they dive under the sea as if into the air. 

There are also limpets on the rocks there, viz., limpets at Cecil, 
thirty thousand paces from the sea. 

There is a valley in Aengus', in which shouting is heard every 
Monday night ; Glen Ailbe is its name, and it is not known who 
makes the noise. 


XXVI. The first wonder is a strand without a sea. 


This wonder does not occur in the Latin. meaoon is the reading of L. D. reads 

I cannot explain Brebic. (T.) im megonjjan, "in Megongan ;" but I 

y A quern -No notice of this or the know not what place is intended. For can 

succeeding "wonders," is found in the anao, L. reads oo jpep, i.e. always. (TJ 

Latin. Machlin is a town in Ayrshire, a Aengus. The county of Angus or 

a district of Galloway, in the stewartry Forfar in Scotland. The words and clause 

of Kyle ; which latter is here styled Cul within brackets, and some other corrtc- 

and Cecil. " Eadbertus cainpum Cyil tions in the text, are from L (T.) 

cum aliis regionibus suo regno addidit." b Wonders of Manann; or the Isle of 

Bedce Epitome, A. D. 750. It is the Man. There are five such in Nennius. 

same word as the Irish Cul (//) The fourth is thus stated : A stone walks 

1 In Meadon, or " in the middle ;" im by night in the valley of Citheinn, and 


In canafpoi, ach puil pooa o'n muip, -| linaio in can linap muip 
"1 cpaijiD in can cpaijip muip. 

In cpeap, cloch imcigeap a n-amcib aca i n-^hno Cinoenn, -| 
cia poceapoap im muip no i n-eap bib pop bpu in gleanoa cetma. 

t>e creuichNeachai6 iwcipic. 

XXVII. Q cip Upaicia cpa canjaoap Cpuicmj,.i. clanDa 5 ue " 
le/>in mic Gpcoil iao. Gjachtppi a n-anmant>a Seipiup bpacap 
can^anap coipeac, .1. Solen, Ulpa, Necran, Opopcan, Qengup. 
Leceno. para a ciaccana .1. poticopnup, pi Upaijia, Do pao 
gpat) na piuip, co po cpiall a bpec ^an cocpa. LoDap lap pin 


once upon a time was thrown into the nians here, according to the learned." But 

whirlpool Cereuus, which is in the mid- what follows is no part of the Britannia 

die of the sea called Mene, but the next of Nennius, and is not found in any Latin 

day was undoubtedly found on the shore copies. The Book of Ballymote is adopted 

of the above-named valley. (//.) The as the basis of the text. (T.) For a dis- 

second wonder, "Mons qui gyratur tribus sertation on the origin and history of the 

vicihus in anno," is omitted in both the Picts, see Additional Notes, No. XVII. 
Irish copies. In the Latin, the third won- 
der (second in the Irish) is nothing mira- 
culous, " Vadus quando innundatur mare 

et ijise innundatur," &c. ; the Irish trans- painted their bodies, and are, therefore, 

lator perceived this, and therefore adds, assumed to have been the ancestors of the 

d GueleiiH, KOH of Ercal. Gelonus, son 
of Hercules by Echidna, was the ancestor 
of the Cieloni, a people of Scythia, who 

poort o'n mvnp, a ford which is far from 
the. sen. L. makes the first and second one, 
thus, Cpcnjj cen mup, .1. och pocu o'n 
rnuip, ive. The section " De mirabilibus 
Hibernia;" is omitted in the Irish copies. 
(T.) See Appendix. 

c Of the Cruithnians, \. e. of the Picts. 
This section, which occurs only in tin- 
Books of Leacan and Ballymote, is entitled 
in the former Do Chpuichnechcub ctno- 

Picts : 

' L I'J>a>quc iluiims Aralmin. pictosqne Gelonos." 
t'irtf. fieorff. ii. 11;"). 

Some have supposed them to be a peo- 
ple of Thrace, or at least to have settled 
then' in one of their migrations, because 
Virgil, in another place (Genrg. iii. 461), 
says of them : 

Acerqui' (it-lonus 
Cum fui;it in Khodopen, at<|W'in deserta Getariun." 

pec, Dopeip nnn-eolnch, "Of theCruith- This, perhaps, may possibly have been 


The second is a ford which is far from the sea, and which fills 
when the tide flows, and decreases when the tide ebbs. 

The third is a stone which moves at night in Glenn Cindenn, and 
though it should be cast into the sea, or into a cataract, it would 
be found on the margin of the same valley. 


XXVII. The Cruithriians came from the land of Thracia ; they 
are the race of Gueleon, son of Ercal d (Hercules). Agathyrsi 6 was their 
name. Six brothers f of them came at first, viz., Solen, Ulfa, Nechtan, 
Drostan, Aengus, Leithenn. The cause of their coming 5 was this, 
viz., Policornus, king of Thrace, fell in love with their sister, and pro- 

the origin of the tradition that the Picts 
were a Scythian people (" de Scythia, ut 
perhibent," says Bede, lib. i. e. i.) who 
came into Ireland from Thrace. For ^ue- 
leoin, (which has been adopted from L.), 
B. reads ^leoin. (T). 

e Agathyrsi. B. reads Ctjanchippt. The 
Agathyrsi were a Scythian tribe, said to 
be descended from Agathyrsus, a son of 
Hercules. See above, p. 49, and note *. 
They are also called picti by Virgil, ./En. 
iv. 146. See the legend of the birth of 
Agathyrsus and Gelonus, and the cause of 
their being sent away from Scythia to emi- 
grate, in Herodotus, lib. iv. c. 9, 10. The 
account given by Herodotus of the Aga- 
thyrsi is that their country abounded in 
gold, but that they were themselves effe- 
minate, and had their women in common. 
Ibid. c. 104. The story of the Agathyrsi 
coming first to Ireland, and being sent on 

from thence to North Britain, is told by 
Polydore Virgil and others. He says, 
"Quidam hos Agathyrsos esse suspican- 
tur, Pictosque vocitatos, quod sic ora ar- 
tusque pingerent, ut ablui nequirent; sed 
Pictos undecunque dictos, satis constat 
populos Scythias fuisse." (lib. ii. p. 38, 
Edit. Basil. 1555). See also Hector Boe- 
thius (Hist. Scotorum, lib. i. fol. 4, line 50. 
Edit. Paris, 1575), and Fordun's Scoti- 
chronicon. (Z 1 .) 

' Brothers, L. omits the word bpacup. 

e Cause of their coming Mr. Pinker- 
ton, who has quoted this account of the 
Picts from the Book of Ballymote, in the 
Appendix, No. 14, to his Enquiry into the 
History of Scotland, makes the words 
paca a ciaccana a proper name, and 
translates this passage " Fiacta-atiactana, 
alias Policronus, K'ing of Thrace," Ac. 


cap Romanchu co Ppangcu, -] cumcai^ic piac caraip ann .1. PIC- 
ramp, a piccip .1. o n-apmcaib. Ocup Do pac pi Ppanjc jpao Dia 
piaip. CoDap pop muip mp n-oeg in c-peipeaD bparap .1. Ceicino. 
1 CITID Da laa mp n-oul pop muip acbach a piup. J5 a kr ac Cpuir- 
nij inbep Slaine i n-Uib Ceinopelaijj. Qcbepc piu Cpernrano 
I'ciar-bel, pi Caijen, DO bepaD pailci Doib' ap Dicup Cuaife pmba. 


This is only a specimen of the innumera- 
ble ludicrous mistakes which Pinkerton 
has committed in his translations from the 
Irish. In the next sentence an cocpa, 
signifies not " without settling a dowry 
on her," as Pinkerton renders it, in con- 
formity with modern ideas, hut, " without 
giving a dowry for her," to her father or 
next of kin, according to the practice of 
the ancients. Policornus, the fabulous 
King of Thrace, mentioned in this legend, 
is elsewhere in the Book of Ballyniote 
(fol. 23, a. a.) called Poliornus, and in the 
Book of Lecan (fol. 13, b. 6.), Piliornis. 
See Addit. Notes, No. XVIII (T.) 

h Without ... a doicer L. reads cen 
fochpaioe, without forces. (T.) 

' Pictavis. The Lemonum of A. Hir- 
tius de B. Gall. c. 26, and Augustoritum 
of Ptolemy, afterwards Pictavia or Picta- 
via;, Pictava or Pictavse, now Poictiers. 
Amrnianus has it Pictavi, from the people, 
xv. c. 1 1 ; others Pictavium. Whether the 
Pictones or Pictavi were so called by the 
Romans from any usage of painting, or 
whether it was a native name, is uncertain. 
Brutus in his voyage from Troy hither 
visited Poictou, where Goffarius Pictus or 

Goifar Ficti, was then reigning. Galfrid, 
Mon. i.e. 12. The derivation of this name 
" from their arms," alludes to the word 
pike in English; pioc, Irish; pig, Welsh; 
pinca, Italian ; pica (and see also picture), 
apud I)u Gauge. (H.) In the account 
already given, p. 53, supra, the Picts are 
described as having been first in Orkney, 
before they went to France and founded 
Poictiers. The tradition that this city 
owed its origin to the wandering Aga- 
thyrsi was also current in France. Du 
Chesne says: "II est certain que Poictiers, 
ville principale et premiere de Unite cette 
contree, est tres antique, mais incertain 
qui en <>nt este les premiers fondateurs. 
L'opinion de plusieurs Francois est que ce 
peuple est une ancienne Colonie des Scy- 
thes dits Agathirses, lesquels, au dire de 
1'lirie, Pomponius et Solin, se peignoient 
les cheveux et le visage, afin de se rendre 
plus redoutables, et pour ce estoient ap- 
pellez Picti. Que ces Agathirses peints 
vindrent premierement planter lours pa- 
vilions en la Grande Bretagne; ou estans 
multipliez se fit encore cette peuplade, 
laquelle vint bastir la ville de Poictiers, 
et 1'appella Pictavis en Latin, comme ce 


posed to take her without giving a dower". They after this passed 
across the Roman territory into France and built a city there, viz., 
Pictavis', called a pictis, i. e. from their arms. And the king of 
France fell in love with their sister. They put to sea after the death 
of the sixth brother", viz., Leithinn; and in two days after going on 
the sea their sister died. The Cruithnians landed at Inbher Slaine, 
in Hy-Ceinnselagh. Cremhthann Sgiathbhel, King of Leinster, said 
that he would give them welcome on the expulsion of the Tuatha 
Fidhbha 1 . Drostan, the Druid of the Cruithnians, ordered that 


qui diroit force petntt. Ridicule opinion 
puis que ce peuple est avoiie barbare par 
tous les anciens Autheurs, et partant ig- 
norant de la lanque Latine, laquelle mesme 
n'estoit point alors, ou n'estoit en telle 
splendeur, que les estrangers en recher- 
chassent la connaissance." 4?J#ywte, #c., 
des Villesde France, torn. i. p. 535- John of 
Salisbury, in his Polycraticon, sive de Nu- 
gis Curialium, suggests also a Latin de- 
rivation (lib. i. c. 13) : " Avis picta urbi 
Pictavorum contulit nomen, levitatem 
gentis colore et voce prsefigurans." But 
all these are manifest fables, derived from 
fanciful analogies of sound ; for the inha- 
bitants of Poictou were known by the 
name of Pictones in Caesar's time, before 
they had any intercourse with the Latins. 
This objection, however, does not apply 
to the derivation from pica, for that word 
existed also in the Celtic languages, al- 
though it may, perhaps, be as fanciful as 
the rest. (T.) 

k Sixth Brother L. reads in c-pinnpp 
bparhap, " the eldest brother." If this 


reading be of any authority, it will, there- 
fore follow, that Leithinn, though men- 
tioned last, was the eldest brother (T.) 
1 Tuatha Fidhbha. Chuaichi pijoa. L. 
No mention of this colony has been found 
except in this legend. Yet it is curious 
that the inhabitants of the barony of Forth 
were an English or Welsh colony, although 
they are certainly not in Ireland long 
enough to have given rise to this story, 
which is, however, of great antiquity; 
much less can they be supposed to have 
been here since A. M. 2931, the period 
assigned by O'Flaherty to this Cruithnian 
invasion. See the Additional Notes, No. 
XVIII. Pinkerton and his Irish assistants, 
not knowing that Tuatha Fidhbha was a 
proper name, translate this passage thus : 
"Cream than Sciathbel, King of Leinster, 
told them they should be welcome, provided 
they would free him of the tribe-ieidotcs." 
vol. i. p. 507. B,ut his version of this 
tract is full of similar errors, which it 
would be waste of time to point out indi- 
vidually (T.) 


Qobepc Opopcan, bpm Cpuirneac .1. bleajon un. ix c . bo pino DO 
Dopcuj mbaille i ppeappaibi in each. Oo ponnaDinof pin, -j DO pon- 
na6 in car Doib .1. each Gpoa-leamnacca in Uib CeiriDpelai. ^ac 
aen no joncfp no lafjeo ip in leamnacc m cumjab a neim ni t>o 
neoc oib. T?o mapbca ona mpcam Cuara piDba. TTlapb ceacpap 
DO Chpuirneacaib lap pin .1. Dpopcan, Solen, Neaccain, Ulpa. 
^abaip ^ub 1 a mac .1. Cachluan neapc mop a n-Gpinn, jop m- 
DapbpaDap Gpimoin ~\ 50 capoa mna na peap po baicea immaille 
ppi Oono Doib .1. mna bpeppe -| buaippe -|jia. 

XXVIII. Qnaip peipep Dib op bpeajmai^. 18 naiDib gach 
5^i pp, i gach pen, ) jach ppeob, -] jora en, ) gac mana. Car- 
luan ba h-aipO-pi oppo uili, ~\ ip e cec pi po jab tub a n-Qlbain; Ijcpc. 
pij Dib pop Qlbain o Charluan ju Conpcancin, -| ip e Cpuirneac 
Deibeanac pop jab. Da mac Cachluain .1. Cachmolobop ~\ Cacino- 
lacan ; in Da cupaiD, 1m mac pipn, ~\ Cino achaip Cpuichne ; Cpnp 
mac Cipij a milio ; Uaipneirh a piliD; Cpuirne a ceapo ; Oomnall 


m Ard-leumnachta The hill or height 
of new milk. This name, which perhaps 
gave origin to the fable, is now lost. The 
description here given of the battle, and 
of the advice of the Druid Drostan, is very 
obscure, but it is explained by the more 
full account of the transaction which will 
be found in Note XVIII. at the end of the 
volume, from which some explanatory 
words have been inserted in the transla- 
tion, to render it intelligible. For Oo pon- 
nao in car, L. reads Oo paoao in cur. (T.) 

n Sokn. L. reads Rolen in this place, 
but in enumerating the chiefs of the 
Cruithnians above, Solen, as in B (T.) 

Gub. L. reads "fc\b, Keatinge reads 
Gud. See Addit. Note XVIIL (T.) 

v Donn. See above, pp. 55-57, and note 
m , p. 56, where the names of the chieftains 
drowned with Donn are given in a stanza 
cited from a poem by Eochy O'Flynn, a 
celebrated historian and bard of the tenth 
century. (T.) 

'' BreuyJimlKHjh. Bregia, the great plain 
of Moath, in which Tarais situated. (T.) 

r Sreodh. For the meaning of this word 
see note on the following poem, line 149, 
p. 144. Pinkerton's version of this passage 
is ludicrously absurd: " They were in 
want of order and distinction: had neither 
spears (for hunting), nets (for fowling), 
nor women." (T.) 

s Last Cruithnian that reigned. Not true 
in fact; but the Nomina liegum Pictorum 

I2 5 

the milk of seven score white cows should be spilled [in a pit] 
where the next battle should be fought. This was done, and the 
battle was fought by them, viz., the battle of Ard-leamhnachta m , in 
Hy-Ceinnselagh. Every one of the Plots whom they wounded used 
to lie down in the new milk, and the poison of the weapons of the 
Tuatha Fidhbha did not injure any of them. The Tuatha Fidhbha 
were then slain. Four of the, Cruithnians afterwards died ; namely, 
Drostan, Solen", Nechtain, and Ulfa. But Gul)" 1 , and his son Cath- 
luan, acquired great power in Eri, until Herimon drove them out, 
and gave them the wives of the men who had been drowned along 
with Donn p , namely, the wife of Bres, the wife of Buas, &c. 

XXVIII. Six of them remained as lords over Breagh-mhagh". 
From them are derived every spell, every charm, every sreodh r , and 
augury by voices of birds, and every omen. Cathluan was monarch 
over them all, and he was the first king of them that ruled in Alba. 
Seventy kings of them ruled over Alba, from Catbluan to Constantirie, 
who was the last Cruithnian that reigned 8 . The two sons of Cathluan 
were Catinolodar and Catinolachan' ; their two champions were Ini, 
son of Pern, and Cind, the father of Cruithne" ; Cras, son of Cirech, 
was their hero; Uaisneimh was their poet; Cruithne their artificer; 
Domhnall, son of Ailpin v , was the first Gadelian king, till he was 

(ap. Innes, App.ygS), were carried down no at cupam, and translates in on cupum. 

further. FivePictish princes reigned after " in great distress." (T.) 

Constantine during 22 years (H.) See u Cruithne. Cuierme, B. (T.) 

what Innes has said on this Irish account v Ailpin tDomnall mac Qilpil ip e 

of the seventy kings, vol. i. p. 102 (T.) caipech po job 50 po mapb 6pircur 
1 Catinolachan. L. reads Da mac mnai Iracon, L. There is some sad con- 
Curhluan po jjabrae Cpuirhencuach .1. fusion and omission of words in the text. 
Cacmolooapop -\ Caanalachan. " The I have supplied conjecturally in italics in 
two sons of Cathluan took possession of the translation what I suppose to have 
Cruithen-tuath, viz., Catinolodaror and been the meaning. For Britu?, son of I?a- 
Catinalachan." Pinkerton puts a full stop con, see above, p. 27. (T) 


mac Ctilpin ip e coipec, 50 po mapb. 6picup imoppo mac Ipicon. 
Clann Neimib po jabpac lap m-6picup .1. lap ^lun. Cpuichni^ po 
gabpac lap pin, lap cecc ooib a h-Gpinn. 5 aeD1 ^ imoppo po $ab- 
pac lap pin .1. meic Gipc mic GacDach. 

[XXIX. Do chuaiD o macaib TTlileaO Cpuichnechan mac 
Locic, mic Ingi la bpeacnu poipcpen Do chachuguo ppi Sa^ain, i 
po chopain cip ooib Cpuichencuaic, ) ara>p pen aco. Qchc ni 
baoap mna leo, ap bebaip banocpochc Qban. Do luio lapum 
Cpuichnechan pop culu DO cum mac TTlileD, -\ po gab neam, -| 
calam, ~\ jpian, ~\ epca, Dpuchr, -| oaichi, muip, -j cip, [cop] ba DO 
maichpiu plaich poppo co bpach ; ~\ DO bepc Da mna nee pop- 
cpaiDi baoap oc macaib TTlileao, apo bare a pip ip in paippge ciap 
ap aen pe Donn ; conao DO peapaib h-Gpino plaic pop Cpuichnib 
o pin oogpep.] 

XXX. CRUlUhN15h [CID] Doppapclam, 
i n-iaf Qlban n-ampa, 

Glim. 5alu, L. (T.) 

x Sons of Ere, i. e. Fergus, Loam, and 
Aengus; see Innes, App. p. 801. Fordun. 
iv. c. 9._(7Y) 

' Cruithnechan, This section occurs 
only in L (T.) 

'Britons ofFoirtren. That is to say, the 
Gwyddyl Fichti of North Britain, whose 
kingdom was called by the Irish Fortren 
Mor. Fodla Fortren was one of the seven 
fabulous brothers, sons of Cruthne, who 
divided Albany amongst them. But Foir- 
tren, perhaps, amounts to powerful or 
mighty. Dr. O'Conor fancifully makes it 
a contraction of Fortraigh Greine, sunrise, 
i.e. the east Script. R. H. iii. p. 55. It is 
the name of the whole realm; and has not 

been ascertained to have been special to 
any part of it. It was, I scarcely doubt, the 
Gwyddyl Fichti name as well as the Irish 
name ; for the prefix For, which is the 
gor of the Welsh, is prevalent in the com- 
position of Pictish names of places.- (//.) 
a By heaven and earth, ij-c. This is the 
ancient Irish oath, by which the various 
elements and parts of nature were made 
guarantees of the bargain, and enemies to 
the forswearer. The oaths exacted from 
his subjects by Tuathal Teachtmar, and 
that given to the Lagenians by King 
Loeghaire mac Neill, are memorable in- 
stances of it. At an earlier epoch King 
Hugony the Great is reported to have se- 
cured the crown to his family by the same 

I2 7 

killed. First, Britus, son of Isacon, possessed Britain. The clan 
Neimhidh obtained it after Britus, that is after Glun w . The Cruithnians 
possessed it after them, after they had come out of Eri. The Gaedhil 
possessed it after that, that is, the sons of Erc x , son of Eochaidh. 

XXIX. Cruithnechan y son of Lochit, son of Ingi, went over 
from the sons of Mileadh to the Britons of Foirtren z , to fight against 
the Saxons, and he defended the country of Cruithen-tuath for them, 
and he himself remained with them [i. e. with the Britons]. But they 
had no women, for the women of Alba had died. And Cruithne- 
chan went back to the sons of Mileadh, and he swore by heaven and 
earth", and the sun and the moon, by the dew and elements, by the 
sea and the land, that the regal succession among them for ever 
should be on the mother's side ; and he took away with him twelve 
women that were superabundant with the sons of Mileadh, for their 
husbands had been drowned in the western sea along with Doim ; 
so that the chiefs of the Cruithnians have been of the men of Eri 
from that time ever since. 

XXX. THE CnuiTHNiANS b who propagated 

In the land of noble Alba c , 


mode of oatli ; but it is not said whether Patricii; apud Petrie on Tara, pp. 57-68, 

he first introduced it Ogygia, iii. c. 38. where that incantation is rather indul- 

See Battle of Magh Rath, p. 2, 3, and the gently translated, by inserting within 

note, ibid. See also the verses of the bard brackets such words as tend to remove 

Malmura in O'Con. Proleg. ii. p. Ixxix. the invocation, otherwise apparent, of the 

Perhaps, in terming it the oath per res rescreatas omnes. (H.). 

creates omnes, Mr. O'Flaherty may be em- b The Cruithnians. This very ancient 

ploying an important phrase of his own poem occurs only in L. & B. The text in 

theology, not apparent in that of his Pagan both is very corrupt, and often unintel- 

ancestors. The spirit of the adjuration ligible. B. has been chiefly followed. In 

per res omnes has infused itself into the line i, cm is inserted from L.; in line 3, 

celebrated production, otherwise Chris- L. reads belju for belba. (T.) 

tian, called the Feth Fiadha or Lorica c Alba. Alba, genitive Alban, dative 


50 n-ct m-bjiij bil belba, 
cia cip ap nac capga ? 

Cia poconn pop |io sluaip, 
o cpicaib in cogaio? 
ppi pmm conD cap ppeachap, 
cm lin long Do looaji? 

Cia plonouD ppia naccain 
DO jiiaccain na pije? 
ap a n-aipm pabein, 
ip cia n-ainm a cipe? 

Upaicia ainm a cipe 
50 pipe a peolca 


Albain (Alban, undeclined, in Welsh), 
Albany, is a well-known appellation for 
that part of Britain which the Picts oc- 
cupied. See Mr. O'Donovan's Grammar, 
p. 1 06. Fable refers it to Albanact, bro- 
ther of'Locrine and Camber; and, like the 
names of Lloegyr and Cymmry, it is 
utterly unknown to ancient historians 
and geographers. Nay, indeed, the triple 
division of the island into the Anglo- 
Roman, Cambro-British, and Scoto-Pict- 
isli portions, was a post-Roman circum- 
stance, to which this late nomenclature 
has adapted itelf. The name Braid- Alban, 
Jugum Albania, Collar of Albany, indi- 
cates the elevation of that district; while 
the highest ridge or summit of the Braid- 
Alban was styled the Drum- Alban, Dor- 
sum Albania;. It is Adamnan's Dorsum 
Britannia; his mention of it is alwavs as 


the boundary of Pictland towards the 
Scots ; and crossing the Dorsum Britan- 
nia; is the conventional phrase for enter- 
ing the former kingdom from the west. See 
Adamn. i. 34; ii. 32, 43,47; iii. 14. Why 
one of the three parts should thus be 
termed Britannia, i. e. the whole, may be 
explained from that part alone having re- 
tained an independence, varying in it> 
limits, as the upper or lower wall was 
maintained. And the Irish abbot of lona 
has therein the support of the ancient 
Welsh, by whom Alban was also termed 
Prydyn (an old form) though never Pry- 
dain. SeeTaliesin, p. 75, 1. 22. Golyddan, 
p. 156, 1. 14, p. 157, 11. 25, 65. Taliesin 
(or rather some one assuming his person) 
uses that name triadically, that is, in dis- 
tinction from Lloegyr and Cymmry, which 
makes it the precise equivalent of Alban ; 


With glorious illustrious might, 
From what region did they come ? 

What cause also moved them 
From the countries of war? 
To traverse the waves' 1 over the floods, 
In what number of ships did they embark ? 

How were they named before they came 
To attain their sovereignty? 
(They were named from their own e weapons) 
And what was the name of their country? 

Thracia f was the name of their country, 
(Until they spread their sails, 



saying, of the Serpent of Germany, " she- 
shall conquer Llocgyr and Pri/dyn, from 
the shore of the German Ocean to the 
Severn, and then shall the Brython . . . 
lose all their land, except wild IValfia." 
p. 94. st. 29-31. The improbable state- 
ment in Giraldus and the Brut of Kings, 
that the Humber was the south limit of 
Alban, arose from the lower, or Picts", 
wall, passing through Northumberland; 
as appears from the oldest of the Welsh 
copies, where it is said that Alban lay 
" from the river Humber to the penrhyn 
of Bladon ;" for Cape Blatum was the 
western terminus of the Severian wall, 
therefore its eastern terminus inNorthum- 
bria should have been said for the I lumber. 
Brut. Tysilio, p. 117. Roberts (interpo- 
lating the word northwards), p. 33 ; Giraldi 
Descript. Cambria?, cap. 7, p. 886. (//.) 


d The leaves. Lines 7 and 8 are given 
thus in B. : 

Cia lin lon^ up cecijuji 
ppi r-mm cono Do looap ? 

In what number of ships did they embark. 
Ami set out to traverse the waves'? 

The reading of L. is preferred, as most in 
conformity with the metre. (2'.) 

e Their own. For puoein L. reads bo- 
oene, a form of the same word, now writ- 
ten pem. See O'Donovnn's Irish Gram- 
mar, p. 130. (T.) 

' T/iracia.- According to T/schucke, the 
Agathyrsi did not inhabit Thrace, but the 
Bannat of Temeswar, and part of Transyl- 
vania. Tzsch.inPomp. Melam, torn. 6, p. 12. 
The ancients do, however, impute to the 
Thracians the use of certain blue punc- 
tures, as ornaments of nobility, but not 


m]i na caipaul ceacca, 15 

a n-aipciup na h-Goppa, 

Ggancippi a n-anmann 
am pano Gpcail-irbi 
o ceappcapoi a cucclf 
acheprap cit> PICCI. 20 

Pica in aicme ar paib 
pop caicne ceacc muip, 
jan jnim n-oeipeoil n-ooocain, 
pil n-<5eleoin mic Gpcoil. 

h-uat>ib peipeap bparap, 25 

ppi larap jan liun, 
)o pepc blab 50 poab, 
in peaccmab a piup. 

Solen, Ulpa, Neccain, 

Dpopcan Decrain Dperell. ^o 

a n-anmano a n-aeboup. 
Qen^up aiip Leirenti. 


auy general painting of the body. See "AfdXoxs ianZov, iv iv xl'' 1 <"(/"""' ix 01 "' 

Nota> Threicue, ap. Ciceronem de Off. ii. Ki.dw aruytpor ?>, \t\aOotvro <t>6vn,,. - 

<;. 7. Herod. Tcrps. cap. 6. Their women (**) 

also wore these marks (some say on the 'Ercal-ItM, i. e. perhaps 6pcal in Oiebi, 

hands and face), and they are represented or Hercules the Theban. This is the 

by Dion Chrysostom as marks of their reading of L., for which B., running both 

rank and dignity. Orat. xvii. cit. Wesse- words into one, reads Cpcrbi. In the 

ling in Herod, u. s. But poets repre- next line the name Picti is derived 

sent them as a badge of infamy for having from tattooing, although just before (line 

slain Orpheus: for example Phanocles ap. 1 1), it was derived from pikes (T.) Aga- 

Stobseum, Flor. ii. 478. (Ed. Gaisford), thyrsus and Gelonus were brothers of 

'3 1 

After they had resolved to emigrate), 1 5 

In the east of Europe. 

Agathyrsi was their name, 
In the portion of Ercal-Itbi g ; 
From their tattooing their fair skins 
Were they called Picts. 20 

The Picts, the tribe I speak of, 

Understood travelling over the sea, 
Without mean, unworthy deeds", 
The seed of Geleon son of Ercal. 

Of them' six brothers 25 

With alacrity, unflinching, 
For glory's sake set out; 
The seventh was their sister. 

Solen, Ulpha, Nechtain, 

Drostan the powerful diviner, 30 

Were their names and their order, 

Aengus and Leithenn. 


Scytha, and sous of Hercules or Ercuil, And in the next line the same manuscript 

called in Welsh Ercwlf. Herod. Melp. has Golchom for 5 e ^ eoln . which seems 

cap. 10. Steph. Byzant. in T ( \tavov. The a manifest mistake of transcription 

bard seems to make Gelonus (Geleon) the (T.) 

ancestor, and Agathyrsi the name, of one ' Of them. In B. h-Ua oib, which 1 

and the same tribe (//.) have supposed to be intended for h-uuoili, 

Unworthy deeds. L. reads line 23, and translated accordingly. L. reads 

thus: h-Uaichip, which may perhaps mean, 

Ceo snirn n-6pcail n-occhaib. " of their country." In line 26, for lion 

The hundred deeds of mighty Ercal. L. reads liub. (T.) 

S 2 


Lan pi Upaigia cpeabca 
DO oecpa a piuip pocla, 

po bo Damna Deabca, 35 

5an rapba jan cocpa. 

lea in oeij-pip, 
o ripib, o rpeDaiti, 
luce cpi long co lopmub, 
nonbup ap cpi ceoaib. 40 

Cingpec peac cumo cpichi 
Ppangcu, piacu pailgif, 
[5;nio] carpaij aipm a 
i>'iap ba ainm 

a piccif 45 

acbepcfp a carpai^, 
ba plonnuo plan pocpam 
lapum Dap pin par-muip. 

T?i po cap a piuip, 

rpe jliaib 50 n-^aipje, 50 

Di poconn a pepje, 

[a Dcorli]punD pop paipje. 


i Absolute sovereign. Literally full king, lopmuo. H. lias also nue lon^, nine ships, 

i.e. ard rigft, or supremo king over the instead of cpi. (T.) 

reguli or toparchs of Thrace __ (77.) m Three hundred and nine. It is curious 

k Sought __ -L. reads DO cheachpa, ad- that this number makes izalso, ontheprin- 

mired or fell in love with __ (T.) ciple explained p. 1 1 2, supra, note J. (T.) 

'Flocks. The reading of L. is here "Sea. B. reads an cpicu, "they passed 

followed. B. has cpeabaib, "from their through the countries." (T.) 

houses." In the next verse B. has jol- They built. 5 nlt) added from L., as 


The absolute sovereign j of populous Thrace 
Sought k their lovely sister, 

(It was the cause of conflict) ir 

Without gift, without dowry. 

They came away with her, the good men, 
From their lauds, from their flocks 1 , 
A company of three ships in good order, 
Three hundred and nine persons. 40 

They stepped on land from the surrounding sea" 
Of France, they cut down woods, 
They built" a city with their many weapons, 
Which was named Pictabis. 

Pictabis p a Pictis ^r 

They named their city; 
It remained a good and free name 
Afterwards upon the fortress. 

The king sought their sister 

By battle fiercely 11 , - 

And in consequence of his anger 
They were driven upon the sea. 


necessary both for the .sense and for the contrary to the prose preface, which had 

metre. This verse is obscure. The words derived it from pikes; unless the word 

cctrpuij aipm aiblip will admit of being picti* here be taken to mean pikes, and not 

translated " a city in a pleasant [or beau- the name of the people. (77.) 

tiful] situation." The events alluded to <i Fiercely. B. reads 50 naipge. Inline 

are given above, p. 123 (T.) 52, the first syllable of ocochpurm, which 

P Pictabis Pictabis or Pictavia, Poic- is necessary for the metre, is supplied from 

tiers, is here derived from the Picts, L. (T.) 


POJI cpacc mapa meabbaib 
long lelaij luce lacaip, 

anaip ap a peipiup 55 

acin peipeao bparaip. 

baoap in 

[50] n-gpaine oia n-jlenail, 

a n-amm po bo aeba, 

aipm ippaba Glaip. 60 

Glam app a cele, 
co n-oene po oiuo, 
cino Da la jac laccu, 
acbar accn a piup. 

Seac bpearnaib 'na peimun, 65 

co h-Gpinri ria li-aine, 
po co^par a cinoperh 
gobpar inbep Slaine. 

Slaigpeac plua^ [pea] poplar, 

t>m pojnain i nemni, 70 

rpia glunGu japja 

i each Qpoa-leamnacc. 


r With her -- acin, the reading of L., ous fathers of the western church. Ve- 

is a combination of aci, with her, and in, nantius Fortunatus, one of his successors 

the article. B. reads uccu in (T). i n that see, writes thus in his eulogy 

"Renowned. paoa, L., i. e. long, or far- of the pious Queen Radegund, lib. vii. 

famed. (T.) r Il: 

' Elair " The place where Elair was ;" 

" Fortunatus ego bine humili prece, voce, saluto, 
that is to say, the see 01 ot. Hilary, bishop 

J J ( Italia gcnitum Galhca rura tenent) 

of Poictiers from A. D. 350 or 355 to Pictavis resigns, qua Sanctus Hilarius olim 
368 or 369, and one of the most illustri- Natus in urbc fuit notiis in orbe pater. " 

On the shore of the sea was shattered, 
A ship, swift sailing, well manned, 
There remained, as we know, ^5 

With her r the sixth brother. 

They were in Pictavia, 

With success attaching to them; 

Their name was renowned 5 

At the place where Elair r was. 60 

They stole away thence together 
In haste, under sorrow, 
At the end" of two tempestuous days, 
Their sister died with them. 

Passing by Britain in their voyage, 6 $ 

To Eri the delightful 
They directed their course, 
And reached Inbher Slaine v . 

They cut down the plundering host of Fea", 

Who were aided by poison 11 , 70 

By their fierce deeds, 

In the battle of Ard-leamhnacht. 


u At the end. L. reads cinca la co tioncd in the prose narrative, p. 123. (T.) 

lochca. " From the fault of a stormy x Poison. The reading of L. has been 

day.". ( X.) followed. B. reads t>ia pojnao a noein- 

' Inbher Slaine. The mouth of the nacc, and in the next line a n-glungnu. 

River Slaney at Wexford. See above, See the story, p. 1 25, above, and in Addi- 

p. 123 (T.) tional Notes, No. XVIII. In line 71, B. 

w Fea, added from L. Fea signifies " of reads opian for cpia, which is given in 

woods." This was the host of the Tuath the text from L., as being probably the 

Fiadhbhe, or " people of the woods," men- more correct reading. (T.) 

i 3 6 

Laic anjbaibe, aimble, 
pea paiobe puoap, 

gona oanaib 50 n-oecpaib, 75 

Do bhpearnaib a bunao. 

ba mapb nee no 

ace ceiljreip a puile, 
50 bom cpu ooenne, 
cib cu no cib Dune. 

Opui Cpincnec in capoaip, 
puaip ic amnp amlaiD, 
lemlacc ip innalao 
pjii ramab pop calmain. 

Uucra camce rpeab-clann, gj 

la Cperhrano coip cenn-balc, 
co corhlacc an aicmib, 
pop paicri Qpt)lemnacr. 

SlaijpeaD pluaij pea paebpacli 

gan cpebao ip gan ropao, 90 


* Their oriyin Sec above, p. 123. Tliis ing of ]>.. and is adopted in the text in- 
stanza is thus given in L.: stead of no peccif in B. (T.) 

a ]l r atcd uvuij. This line is thus <nven 
Caicn anrbuioi paiobe 

in L. : 
co ngaipbe pe puoap 

co numib co noecpa.b Con bo C 1 1U De I'*" e ' 

DO 6peacnuib a mburiao. but the meaning is the same. (T.) 

" Heroes hard cutting " Offrieii(Mii/>. \. e. a ii'iendly druiil, 

With roughness, with liurtf ulness, benefactor. In L. incapoaip. (T.) 

With wonderful weapons; Were washed. unalao, L. The word 

Of the Britons was their origin." (7\) inaluim, andlaim, or lonnlmm is still in 
2 They struck __ No cheijoipis the read- use in Scotland, and in many parts of 


The heroes valiant and numerous 
Cut down knotty woods, 

With wonderful arts; 75 


From the Britons was their origin*. 

Dead was every one they struck 2 , 
If but his blood they shed, 
So that he wasted away* 1 on that account, 
Whether he were a dog, or w r hether he were a man. 80 

A Cruithnian Druid, of friendship 6 , 

Discovered a cure for those thus wounded, 
New milk in which were washed 
Those who lay wounded on the earth. 

The herds of cows of the tribes were brought, 85 

By just Cremhthann the headstrong d , 
Until the herd was milked 
On the OTeen e of Ardleamhnacht. 


They cut down the troops of Fea, of sharp weapons f , 
Leaving tJietn without tillage and without produce, 90 


Ireland. If, however, we read in n-uluio, plied in the English word hendxtrniKj : 

which may possibly he also the reading cenn, a head, is often used as a sort of 

of B., the line may be translated " new intensitive in composition. It may mean, 

milk, in the wound." The next line is however, a stout head, i.e. chief or leader, 

from L., but B. reads un-urumuo pop- For cenn-bulc, L. reads cecbulc, and in 

curoail, which (if the words he so di- the next verse, co corhlacc a pach nem, 

vided) will signify, 4i in powerful [or which is corrupt (T.) 

efficacious] bathing." (T.) e Green See above, p. 93, note u . The 

d Headstrong The word cenn-bnlc is word paicci is omitted in L (T.) 

literally thus rendered, but does not in- f Sharp U'eapoiis. Puebpuch is the 

volve the idea of perverse obstinacy im- reading of L. In B. this liny is given 

i 3 8 

po cobpab Oia n-oich 
Cpemcano pciacbel pcopac. 

coin in 

pop ruipcib cpi maije, 

comoap ecla paebaip 95 

na 5 aelt)1 ^ 5 n- 

mp pin 50 n-apao 
cecpup blacac bparap, 
Solen, Neachran, Opopcan, 
Qengup, popodn pacac. 100 

17o pair a n-oeap Ulpa, 
lap n-upcpa a capao, 
in l?achpant> i m-bpeajaiB, 
anD po mebaiD malaipc. 

TTlopcap occa Carluain, 105 

nip bo cpuaj in r-aipe, 


thus, Slijpeac pluu j pea pebac, ford. Perhaps cpi mui^e sliould l>e taken 

plijpeac is an evident mistake for floij;- as a proper name, but it is not now known 

peur, and pea pebac is probably the as such. It occurs in both copies. In L. 

name of the hostile tribe Fea Fidhbhe. lines 93 and 94 are transposed, and the 

See above, line 72. In line 90 the read- stanza is read thus: 

ing of L. has been followed. B. reads Cuipm (.no cpi mcng. 

5 un cpeib i r 5 an cobac. (T.) na Cpu , c i, nich co n . 5ulp , 

8 Their defeat, i. e. the defeat of the cumrap eajla paebaip 

Tuath Fidhbhe: oia n-oich has been nu ^aei^.l co n- 5 lame. 

adopted from L. for cuar rbaio, which 

" On the three plains planted 

is the reading of B (T.) ^ Cruitnneans ^h p ro9pl ,rity, 

h The three plains -- These words seem Until dread of their arms 

to denote some place in the County Wex- Had seized the noble Gaels." (T.) 


By their defeat in the battle 8 , 

Cremhthan Sciathbel of horses was protected. 

The Cruithnians settled themselves 
On the lands of the three plains", 

Until dread of their arms 95 

Had seized the noble Gaels 

Soon after that died' 

Four of the noble brothers, 

Solen, Neachtan, Drostan, 

Aengus, the prophetic pillar. 100 

From the south was Ulfa sent 
After the decease of his friends ; 
In Rachrann in Bregia j 
He was utterly destroyed. 

Cathluan was elevated k by them, 105 

(No despicable chieftain), 


In line 95, B. reads oibil instead of pae- i Rachrann in Bregia. Kachrann was 

buip, which latter reading has been adopt- the ancient name of the rocky island of 

ed in the text. The word cuipcib in line Lambay, near the Hill of Howth, which 

94, which is omitted in L., appears to is in the territory of Bregia. Lines 1 03 

signify sods, soil, lands (T.) and 104 are from L. B. reads, 
' Died co-njabao, L. In line 98 L. , n a 6apnn im-6pea 5 aib 

reads bpaehap blaoach, and in line 99, ano po meaoaip malapc. 

B. reads Ulpha instead of Neuchcun, In his cam ln Brcgia 

which last name has been substituted in Did he meditate malediction.'' (7 1 .) 

the text from L., as being in accordance * Elevated. L. reads mapBcap, "is 

with the prose, especially as B. imme- killed," which is plainly wrong. In line 

diately after agrees with L. in the account 106 B. reads bo acpuajaipe ; the reading 

given of Ulfa in the next stanza. (T.) of L. has been preferred ( T.) 


DO pij; popaib uile 
pia n-oul a cfp n-aile. 

dp apbepr ppiu Gpimon 

ap in Spino peccap, no 

ap na oeapna oeabam 
immon Ueuinaip ceccaib. 

Tpi cec ban no bpeaca, 
uoib pop cecha claraij, 

cioeab p<> bo cuacail, 1 ' 5 

jac bean 50 n-a bpacaip. 

(>nrap para poppo, 
ppi6 perinu ppi oipe, 
comb poipe a marap, 
pup jnach jjob in pi^i. 120 

l?ept>aip ap in Gpinn 
ma peimnn par-^lint), 
gan mupeip jan mapc-luaj, 
nn Carluan nine Cairinuio. 

Cac-molo6op cnap-cpucnb 125 

i]' Cacmacan jjluctip, 


1 SjHike. Q DuLpuopiu.L. In the next duiny, vol. xviii.) (T.) 

line L. reads corruptly pin n-<bpinopin n- " Agreeable. This line is given in H. 

eicuip; in line 1 1 1 oeapnpuo loroeupnu; thus: ooiG po pcereu clurui^. The read- 

aiid inline 1 12, ceccuichforcecctnb. (?'.) ing of L. lias been preferred. Tin- true 

"' Teamhair. The royal palace of Tara, reading was probably ooib pop cerha 

in the county of Meath. See Mr. Petrie's clarai^. (T.) 

Essay on the History and Antiquities of " And her brother lit. " with her bro- 

Tara Hill (Trans, of the Royal Irish Aca- ther." The meaning is that the Irish were 


As king over them all, 

Before they set out to another country. 

For to them spake 1 Erimori 

Thai out of Eri they should go, 1 10 

Lest they should make battle 
For Teamhair m , as a possession. 

Three hundred women were given, 
To them they were agreeable", 

But they were most cunning, i 1 5 

Each woman and her brother". 

There were oaths Imposed on them, 
By the stars, by the earth, 
That from the nobility of the mother 
Should always be the right to the sovereignty 1 '. 120 

They set out from Eri 

On their oath-bound expedition, 
Without families, without cavalry, 
With Cathluan, son of Caitmiim' 1 . 

Catmolodor r the hard-knobbed, 125 

And Cathmachan the bright, 


cunning in obtaining conditions from the gallons guaranteed by oath or otherwise. 

Picts, before they gave them women. (?'.) (?'.) 

p Sovereignty This distich is very cor- '' Cuitminii Cuicmo. li. ('/'.) 

rupt; for poppo, line 117, B. reads eppu. r Cutiiwlodor. This name is now Cad- 
The text is corrected from L. Line 120 -waladyr. He appears to be called " hard- 
is also adopted from L., instead of po jjnu- knobbed," in allusion to the deep scars 
rai^ ippi^e, the reading of 15. L. reads with which his body was tattooed or <ir- 
oe.nmu inline 1 18, for pennu. In line 117, namented. Lines 125 and I 26 arc uivc.n 
paru signifies not so much oaths as obli- thus in L. : 


baoaji gilli jlop&a 

t)d mac cpotia Cacluam. 

Q copaib cjniaiD corhnapc 

ba cpom bale a caipm peam 130 

Cinj coceppnn Oia ceppn-peom 
Irn mac peppnn a n-amm-peorh. 

Vt-Uaipem ainm a 
no pfpeo in peo-gin, 

po bo pup oia mili6 135 

Cpup mac Cipij Ceclim. 

Cpuicne mac coip Cfnca 
Doib po cluncha rochmopc, 
co rue banncpacc blaf-^lan 
Gap Qclimaj, oap Qrjopr. 140 

Qnair oib' a n-Galga, 
fio lin cepoa ip cupac, 


Caonolobop cleclicip, ' Ciiul >ki!ful in their art'' [i. e. war]. 

ip Cacainlocach cnap pumo. In the next line the scribe luis written 

" Cadnolodur, the chief. .un. me pipe, " the *even sons of Pirt," for 

And Catainlwnch tin- n-d-km.lilii '.!." " Im, son of Pirnn." _ (T.) 
The word clechcip signilies the person ' lluasem, or Uasem, for the H is only 

in u tribe to whom belonged the right of euphonic. L. reads h-Uuipnecitn. Thin 

final appeal. In line 127 L. inserts jlcinu name sounds not unlike that of Ossian, 

before jjlopoa (T.) which, however, is always written Oipm 

s Their trampling. This line is from L. in Gaelic. In the next line in pec- jean, 

B. reads ba ooprm bale a toip-peo.ii. In L. (T.) 

the next line B. gives Cind, not Cing, as u Cctlim __ Cheiclem. L. 1 have taken 

the name of the first champion, which this word for a proper name ; cec lim 

agrees with the prose (see page 125), and might signify, "I acknowledge," " I al- 

reads Cmo co cepo oia cepo-peom, low." (T.) 


Were glorious youths, 
The two valiant sons of Cathluan. 

His hardy, puissant champions, 

Heavy, stern, was their trampling', 130 

Cing, victorious in his victory, 
Im, son of Pernn, were their names. 

Huasem' was the name of his poet, 

Who sought out the path of pleasantry. 

Ruddy was his hero, 135 

Crus, son of Cirigh Cetlim". 

Cruithne, son of just Cing v , 
Attended to their courts! up, 
So that he brought a company of fair women, 
Over Athmagh, over Athgort. 140 

There remained of them behind in Ealga", 
With mauy artificers and warriors", 


v Cirxj. Cpuiehmj meic coip 5 ln 5 u- " & a kl a - B. reads mel^u, which is 

L. In the remainder of this stanza the perhaps a mistake for in eigu. Elga or 
text of L. has been followed. B. reads : Ealga was one of the poetical names of 

Ireland. (In cpeap amm (says Keatinge) 
Ko cincci accocmop , _ 

Imp 6alcu .1. oilen uaral. Oip up 
Co cue banncpacc mblacn rlan 

._ lonann imp ~\ Ollen, -i ap lonann enlrci -i 

Da nacn sopr, . , , 

uafol, ~\ op pe linn peap m-oolj pd ^mir 

which must be corrupt, for it violates the an c-amm pin uippe. " The third mime 

metre. Different duties are assigned to ( O f Ireland) was Inis Ealga, i. e. noble 

Cruithne here, and in the prose account, island ; for Inis is the same as island, 

where he is called a ceapo, their artist and Ealga is the same as noble; and this 

or artificer. The places called Athmagh was its usual name from the time of the 

and Athgort, line 140, are unknown Fir-bolgs." (T.) 
(T.) x Wamom. B. reads cpucm, for which 


nan cepeao pop bpeagrnach 
peipeap Denrmac t>pua6. 

Opuibeacc if lolacr, maic, 
in ailc mm jlan mup glcm, 
bapc oibeipjji, Duain 51 1, 
ip uaioib po munab. 

TTlopab ppeo ip mana, 
paja pin, am pona, 
jocha en Do paipe 
caipi 7;ac ceol cona. 


i c 


cupach, the reading of L., has been sub- 
stituted. The next line is also taken from 
L. B. reads na po ceippeao &peayjtnac, 
" they would not leave Breghmagh." Tlie 
Druids are called " demon-like," or " de- 
vilish," as being skilled in demoniacal 
arts. (T.) 

J Drutdism. The word maic is so ex- 
plained in an old glossary in the Library 
of Trinity College, Dublin. The whole 
stanza is thus given in B. : 

TDpuioechc i loluclic rrKir mapc 
mm bale in up jlan Jjlep 
oibao 30 ouun jil 
ip uaioib po rnunuo, 

which is so corrupt that it is difficult to 
translate it, and it is also inconsistent 
with the laws of the metre. The text of 
L. has been followed, with one correction 

Cnuic ip coipn npcopa, 

cen cpojja cuach caille, 


of uaoib po in the last line, for uuib pib 

"Sredlif __ B. reads p lea, a word which 
may signify " spears ;" but the reading of 
L. is preferred, as being in accordance with 
the pivi-e. See p. 125. As the meaning 
of the word ppeo or fjieoo is doubtful, it 
has been left untranslated. See the poem 
attributed to St. Columba, Miscell. Irish 
Arch. Soc., vol. i. p. 2, and note 31, p. 12, 
where Mr. O'Donovan conjectured it to 
be the ancient form of epeao, a flock or 
herd. But he has since found another copy 
of that poem in a parchment MS. in the 
Bodleian Library at Oxford, Laud. 615, 
p. 7, where the word is twice written 
with an aspiration on the t>, thus : " ni haj 
ppeoio acu mo cuift; and again, rta ha- 
6cnp DO joraib gepjy na | peoo, na pen 
up bif ce ;" it is also found written in 


Who settled in Breagh-magli, 
Six demon-like druids. 

Necromancy and idolatry, druidism 1 ', 
In a fair and well-walled house, 
Plundering in ships, bright poems, 
By them were taught. 

The honoring of sredhs z and omens, 
Choice of weather 3 , lucky times, 
The watching the voices of birds, 
They practised without disguise. 

Hills and rocks they prepared for the plough, 
Among their sons were no thieves, 

MSS. indifferently ppeo and fl le 5i from 
which we may infer that the final letter 
was always intended to be pronounced 
with aspiration, therefore the word must 
he ppeo, ppiao, pper, or ppeor, a sneezing, 
a word still in use, which is also frequently 
written ppor or ppo. It is well known 
that sneezing, both among the Greeks and 
Homans, and also in the middle ages, was 
regarded as ominous, and made use of for 
the purposes of divination. This super- 
stition was prohibited by several enact- 
ments of councils and synods, and formed 
a frequent topic of reprobation from the 
pulpit. As an example we may cite the 
following passage from a sermon preached 
by St. Eligius or Eloy, who became Bishop 
oi' Koyon about the year 640, " Similiter 
et auguria, vel sternutationes, nolite obser- 
vare, nee in itinere positi aliquas aviculas 
IRISH ARCH. SOC. 1 6. 1 


cantantes attendatis, sed sive iter, sivc 
quodcunque operis arripitis signate vos in 
nomine Christi, etc." Vit. S.Eligii. lib. ii. 
c. 15, apud Dacherii Spicil. p. 97. See also 
the "Libellus abbatis Pirminii," publish- 
ed by Mabillon, which he supposes to be- 
long to the year 758 : " Noli adorare idola, 
non ad petras, neque ad arbores, non ad 
angulos ; neque ad fontes, ad trivios nolite 
adorare, nee vota reddere. Precantatores, 
et sortileges, karagios, aruspices, divinos, 
ariolos, magos, maleficos, stermttus, et au- 
guria per aviculas, vel alia ingenia mala 
et diabolica nolite facere etcredere." Vet. 
Anal. p. 69. These examples will suffice 
to shew the late continuance of this 
class of superstitions. See also Grimm's 

Deutsche Mythologie, p. 647 (T.) 

8 Weather. This line is from L. B. 
reads poju peun ni pona. Line 152 is also 


c a cinojiem 
puno a n-mbeji bonni. 

6a lieab looayi uainoi 
5o-n-5lucnpe na 5fn'be, 
ima raijj co cpene 
i ci|i mai peach lie. 

J 55 


from L. B. reads chaipe jan eel cona. 
For paipe, line 151, B. reads aipe (T.) 

b Inbher Boinnc. The mouth of the 
river Boyne, which runs through the re- 
gion of Bregia, where the Picts, accord- 
ing to the account here given of them, 
had their settlement in Ireland. In line 
153, L. reads coipci, and in line 155, 
cuapjjcnbpec Oia cinopum, where B. has 
po coftpac. In line 156, the reading of L. 
is adopted. B. reads jabpac inbep m- 
ftomoe, but the text in both copies is pro- 
bably very corrupt. (T.) 

c Away. L. reads bu heaoap oo looap, 
" by Edar [the hill of Howth], they passed 
from us." In lines 159, 160, B. reads: 

imma lar co opene 

i cip lac peach He. (2'.) 

d He. The island of Hay or Ha, one 
of the five Ebuda; or Hebrides, anciently 
Epidium, and long the capital seat of 
the Lordship of the Isles. It lies out- 
side of the Mull of Cantire or Epidian 
Forelund, to the inside of which lies Boot 
or Bute. And I suppose that King Bruide 
the First, whom I have argued (See Addit. 
Notes, No. XVII.) to be the very first 

king of Gwyddyl Fichti in Britain, was 
called Brudi Bout, from that island. If 
the first descent was on Hay, Bute was a 
snug and likely place to become the royal 

This statement is somewhat different 
from that of Nennius, cap. 5, that the 
Piets first occupied the Orkneys, " ft 
postea ex affinitimis insulis vastaverunt 
non modicas et multas regiones, occupa- 
veruntque eas in sinistrali parto Britan- 
nia;;" though even he admits that they 
did not occupy the mainland from the 
Orkneys immediately, but from the other 
islands. Beda says generally, " habitare 
per septentrionales insula; paries cffipe- 
runt ;" and that phrase, which meant no 
more than Alban or the ultra-mural 
Britain in general, may possibly have 
suggested the statement in the Ilistoria 
Britonum. That they stood over from 
Cruthenia in as nearly as may be the same 
course, as in after days their neighbours 
of the Dalriadha pursued, is the probabi- 
lity, as well as the best authority. When 
we read that Muredach, son of Angus, 
was the " primus colonus" of Hay (Ogygia, 
p. 470), of course we merely understand 


They prepared their expedition 
Here at Inbher Boinne b . 

They passed away c from us 

With the splendour of swiftness, 

To dwell by valour 

In the beautiful land of He". 


1 60 

that he was the first Dalriadhan settler. 
The termini given by this poet exclude 
the Orkneys, of which the Irish legend 
seems to say nothing ; and, though Nen- 
nius in cap. 5 mentions the temporary oc- 
cupation of them by the Picts, in his first 
chapter he places them ultra Pictos, which 
the name of the Pightland Firth doth like- 
wise imply. Yet it is not to be doubted 
that the Picts did possess those islands 
before the Norwegians. See Wallace's 
Orkneys, cap. xi. p. 67, Ed. 1693; Adam- 
nan, ii. cap. 42. The History of the Picts 
ascribed to H. Maule of Melgund has a 
legend of Leutha, king of the Picts of 
Orkney, who subdued and gave his name 
to the isle of Lewis ; p. 29, Ed. Glasg. 
1818. The Diploma of Thomas Bishop 
of Orkney (ap. Orkneyinga Saga, p. 549, 
550) avers, upon the authority of an- 
cient records, that the Norwegians found 
two nations in Orkney, the Peti (Picts) 
and the Papse, but entirely destroyed them 
both. The former is a known Saxon and 
Norse softening of the name Pict. " Scotia? 
ac Petice insularumque quas Australes 
vel Meridianas vocant." Saxo Gramm. 
Hist. Dan. ix. p. 171. etc. We must 


adopt the conclusion, that the Papas were 
the Irish fathers of the rule of St. Co- 
lumkille, who repaired to the Orkneys, 
and obtained possession of Papa Stronsa 
and Papa Westra, as he had done of lona ; 
though, perhaps, with this addition, that 
all the inhabitants of the Papa islands, 
and not alone the religious, came to be 
so called. That opinion, I think, is de- 
cided by the statement of Ari Froda, 
that, when Ingulf the Norwegian visited 
Iceland, he found some Christians there, 
whom the Northmen call Papaa, who, 
not choosing to associate with heathens, 
went away, leaving behind them Irish 
books, bells, and croziers ; and from these 
things it was easily judged they were 
Irish. Arius, cap. ii. p. 10, Ed. 1744. 
If Iceland be the Thule Insula of Dicuil, 
who wrote his book De Mensura Orbis 
in 825, he had thirty years before con- 
versed with some clerici who had so- 
journed upon that island from the ist of 
February to the I st of August, and in the 
summer could see to catch the lice upon 
their shirts at midnight Cap. vii. s. 2, 
n. 6. This was seventy-nine years anterior 
to the voyage of Ingulf. Arngrim Jonas 


Ip ap gabpac Glbain, 
anft-jlain ailep coijiriu, 
cen Oich luce la rpebru 
o quch Char co poipcu. 

T?op bpip Carluan cacu 
gen cacu cen cechcu 


observed that the small island of Papcy, 
in East Iceland, was probably a seat of the 
Irish Papa;, and expressed the like opinion 
(which Mr. Pinkerton has adopted without 
acknowledgment) of Papa Stronsaand Papa 
Westra. Arngr. Island. Primordia, p. 375, 
Ed. II. Steph. St. Cormac the Navigator, 
called O'Liathain, whose daring coracle 
visited the Orkneys under letters of safe 
conduct obtained for him by Columbkille 
from Bruide, king of Picts, sailed about 
with the express object of finding for 
himself an eremus (hermitage) in oceano. 
Adamnan, i. cap. 6, ii., cap. 42. Thus it 
was that the kings and toparchs of the Peti 
received the Papa? into the smaller isles. 
The same Dicuil mentions some little is- 
lands, to be reached in two days and the 
intervening night, in a boat of two benches, 
from septentrioualibus Britannia; insulis 
(Orkneys?), and which I take to be the 
Faroes, in quibus in centum ferine annis 
(from 825, making 725) eremita; ex nostril 
Scottia navigantcs habitaverunt ; but the 
latronesNortmanni had driven them away, 
and the islets were vacua; anachoretis, but 

full of sheep and wild fowl Ibid. s. 3. 

(//.) The word 5piKe, line 158, has 
been supposed to signify swiftness. In the 


Leabhar Gabhala of the OClerys, p. 96, in 
an historical poem by Eochaidh O'Flynn, 
we rind an apo abaip n-imjpib, where 
the Gloss is lap an uapal ci^epna apo 
ba cornluac in-oeatjai6 no in lopjcnl, 
i. e. " the noble lord who was all swiftness 
in battles and conflicts." And in the an- 
cient metrical Glossary called " Poetry is 
the Sister of Wisdom," jpib is explained 
amm DO luup, " a name for swiftness." 

e The people Lines 163 and 164 are 
from L. B. reads 

cen bieh clacc la cpebcu 
o chpicac co poipciu, 

which is manifestly corrupt (T.) 

' Cat. The region of Cat is the country 
now called Cathancsia, or Caithness. Its 
derivation from C'aith or Cat, one of 
Cruthne'a seven sons, is a patronymical 
fable. Whether derived from the wild 
cat, like the Clan Chattan, whose terri- 
tory included Caithness (see Scott's Maid 
of Perth, iii. chap. 4), or from cath, war, 
battle, the sound of it seems to recur 
in the names Cathluan, Catnolodar, Cat- 
nolachan. That province may have owed 
celebrity to its position as a northern 


From thence they conquered Alba, 
The noble nurse of fruitfulness. 
Without destroying the people 6 or their houses, 
From the region of Cat f to Forcu g . 

Cathluan gained battles 

Without flinching or cowardice, 



terminus; as Nennius says, " a Totenes 
usque ad Catenes." 

The Tractatus de Situ Albania? (com- 
posed by an Englishman, at least not by a 
Scot, soon after 1 1 85, and printed by 
Innes, ii., 768-72, with a suspicion that 
Giraldus was its author), divides Albania 
into the seven portions of seven brothers, 
of which the seventh was " Cathanesia 
eitra montem et ultra montem, quia mons 
Mound dividit Cathanesiam per medium," 
The Mons Mound was Mount Ord, and 
the Cathanesia cis montem was the Su- 
durland (southern land) of the Northmen. 
" Of old, Sutherland was called Cattey, 
and its inhabitants Catteigh, and so like- 
wise was Caithness and Strathnaver; and, 
in the Irish, Sutherland to this day is 
called Catey, and its inhabitants Catigh ; 
adeo ut Catteyness nihil aliud sit quam 
promontorium Catta? seu Sutherlandiw, 
quod promontorium a latere oriental! 
mentis Ordi prsetenditur." Blaew cit. 
in Brand's Orkney, cap. xi. As Caith- 
ness lies not at all north, but fairly east, 
of Sutherland in its enlarged sense (for 
Dunnet Head in Caithness is only 58 35' ; 
and Cape Wrath is 58 34'), it is evi- 
dent that the Sudurland of the North- 

men was only the portion properly so 
called, and that they did not include 
therein the Strathnavern. But as they 
divided those parts into the jarldom of 
Katanes and the Sudurland, we should, 
I think, infer that Strathnavern was in- 
cluded in the jarldom ; while the Sudur- 
land, though infested, and perhaps partly 
inhabited, by Northmen, was not thus 
feudally detached from the crown of the 
Scoto-Picts. Sir Walter Scott mentions, 
that the territory of the Clann Chattan 
comprehended Sutherland and Caithness 
[Cathanesiam citra et ultra], and that the 
Earl of Sutherlandshire was their para- 
mount chief, with the title of Mohr Ar 
Chat ; and, though he includes Inverness, 
and even Perth, within the limits of that 
clan or league of clans, as referrible to 
the fifteenth century, we may safely es- 
teem that the Chattanaich originally de- 
noted the people of Katanes within and 

without Ord (//.) 

B Forcu. Of the place here called Furnu 
I can give no account. It must have been 
on the southern extremity of Fortren Mor. 
FOR is the favourite Pictish prefix, as in 
Fortren, their kingdom, Forteviot, their 
palace, Fordun, Forfar, Forres, &c. Pos- 

I 5 

nip bo irrgajig cuchcu 
co jio mapb 6]ieacnu. 

ba oe gabpac Qlbain, 

ajio-jjlain calcain clac-mfn, 

co n-imao amlaeB 

co Cinaer mac n-Qlpm 


sibly the Glas-cu of the Strathclyde Bri- 
tons was Forcu in their vocabulary. (//.) 

h Onsets, i. e. the fierceness of his onsets 
was not relaxed or diminished until, &c. 
For cechcu, line 166, B. reads cpeocu, 
and, line 167, cuiciu for cucrhu. The 
readings of L. have been followed in the 
text. (T.) 

' Conquer L. adds Cpuichni^, "the 
Cruithnians seized on Alba," and gives 
this stanza thus: 

6a be jubpafc Cpuiclimj 
Qlbain cuprhig elacc mm 
ep cloo a n-il ael 
co cineuo mac Qilpm. 

Thus did the Cruitlinians acquire 

Alban, the fruitful, the smooth-surfaced, 
After defeating their many rocks [?] 
To Cinacdh Mac Ailpin. 

or ael may signify sharp weapons. But 
B. has im for co, in line 172 (T.) 

J Many an Amlaff. Amlaff, Amlaib, 
Aulaib, &c., for Olaf, was the prominent 
name among those northern vikingar, who 
ravaged, and in part conquered, Ireland 
and Pictland, during the ninth and tenth 
centuries. See Battle of Magh Rath, 

p. 290, and the Editor's note. In 852(3) 
Amlaip, king of Lochlin, came into Ire- 
land and exacted tribute there. Ann. 
Ult. In the spring of 866 he ravaged 
Pictland. Three years later he was slain 
by Constantine, king of Picts. Ann. Ult. 
and Chron. Pict. Among the Danes of 
Northumbria and Lothian the name of 
Anlaf was popular, and one of their An- 
lafs fought on the Scottish side at Brunen- 
burg in 937. Chalmers' Caled. i. 337, 338. 
Amlaib M c llluib, son of Indulf (so Dr. 
O'Conor), king of Albany, was slain by 
Kenneth, son of Malcolm [son of Domh- 
nall, ap. Ann. Ult., but erroneously], in 

976 or 977 Tig. et Ann. Ult. in annis. It 

would seem as if king Indulfus had married 
some vikingr's daughter, to have an Amlaff 
for his son. The year 979 saw the death of 
the son of Amlaff the younger, grandson 
of Amlaff the elder, at the battle of Te- 
mora. And in 980 Amlaibh M c Sitriuc, 
last Danish king of Dublin, retired to 
lona. It is evident that this popular name 
had come to be expressive of the nation 
who used it, as those of John, Patrick, 
and David have connected themselves with 
three sections of our island empire ; with 

His onsets" were not without fierceness, 
Until he had slain the Britons. 

Thus did they conquer' Alba, 

Noble, gentle-hilled, smooth-surfaced. 
With many an AmlafP, 
Down to Cinaeth mac Alpin k , 



this further resemblance to the two latter, 
that Olaf son of Tryggvi, and St. Olaf, 
were the apostles of religion in Norway. 

The main error of our bard, if the 
reading in the text be correct, would con- 
sist in the supposition that an intermix- 
ture of Northmen with Scots and Picts 
existed from the beginning ; and that 
" many an Amlaff" had combined with 
the Cruthnich in their first occupation of 
Albany. If, however, we were at liberty 
to make a transposition of two lines, we 
might thereby restore the truth of history 
to our bard. That they " seized on Alba, 
with many an Amlaff, till Kenneth Mac Al- 
pin," would be enormous error ; but that 
they did so " till Kenneth Mac Alpin with 
many an Amlaff," is the truth. For it 
was in his (the first Scoto-Pictish) reign, 
that Danari (the Danes under Amlaiv) 
vastaverunt Pictaviam for the first time. 
Chron. Pict. in num. 77 (H.) 

Perhaps the word ctmlaeb in the text 
(if that be the original reading) may not 
be a proper name, but may be used in 
the sense of a champion, a hero, from 
which the proper name is derived; but 
for this we have no authority, and it is, 

therefore, more probable, that the bard 
had no idea of speaking of " Amlaffs" at 
all, and that in line 171 there are mis- 
takes of the scribe. We should read per- 
haps a momao nil aeb, i. e. " with their 
many arts" or sciences, deb is explained 
eulaoa, arts or sciences, in old glossaries, 
and ml may easily be confounded with 
nil. But as this is only conjecture, no 
alteration has been made in the text. 

k Cinaeth mac Alpin. Kenneth Mac Al- 
pin was king of Scots, or of the British Dal- 
riada, called Airer-Gaedhal, i. e. territory 
of the Gael ; which name of Gael, Gaithel, 
or Gaedhael was then synonymous to that 
of Scots. The country bearing the national 
appellation of Argyle included, besides the 
modern Argyle proper, the territory of 
Loarn or Lorn, and those of Knapdale, 
Cowel, and Cantire; being bounded to 
the east by Mount Drum-Alban, Adam- 
nan's Dorsum Britannire, and southward 
by the Firth of Clyde. In 843 he wrested 
the kingdom of Albany out of the hands 
of its last native ruler, Bruide the Seventh, 
and the Scots and Picts were never again 
disunited. This is the usual epoch of the 



Qp cpeacab n-apo n-aicni6, 
pop aiccib cen uchneim 
nf celloap in coclaij, 
ap DC aobepap Cpuirnij. 

Coeca pig cem cpecac, 
map aen De pi Gcoac, 
o pep^up po pfpio 
co mac m-bpijac m-bperach. 

Se pija ap pe oeicib, 

Dib ppi peifim puil cpech 
cappac picbe puiclech, 
jabpar pije Cpuicneac. 

Cpuichmj oop popclam. 



Conquest; altliougli three princes of the 
Pictish line, Kenneth, Bruide, and ])rus- 
tan, kept up a struggle against die son 
of Alpin till 846. (//.) 

1 Plundering. L, reads ceclmuo, and 
in the next line cticib for airtib. But 
cen uchneam is adopted from L. instead 
of cen ucli in 15. In line 175 L. reads 
nu cochlcnb. The writer's meaning in 
this stanza secius to be, that the name 
of Cruithniun was derived from cpeucao, 
plundering. But the whole passage is very 
obscure. The word upo, line 173, 1 have 
taken to signify a place, a point of the 
compass, a sense in which it is still used; 
and uircib ] suppose to be the same as 
pcnrcib, a word that has already been ex- 
plained; see above, p. 93, note". Cpeacao, 
in line 173, might also signify wounding, 

scarring ; alluding to the tattooing prac- 
tised among the Picts; but it will be diffi- 
cult to make the remainder of the stanza 
square with this. The translation adopted 
is, therefore, more probably the intended 
meaning, especially as the word cpecuc 
appears to be used in the same significa- 
tion in line 177 ; and see line 182. (T.) 
m Fifty L'ingf That is to say, inclu- 
sive. For Macbeth, king of Scots and 
Picts, is the fiftieth in the enumeration 
of the Scots kings from Loarn Mac Ere, 
in the Duan Albanach, a contemporary 
poem ; and apud Ogygia, p. 488, and the 
Tables in Pinkerton, ii. p. 352, 353. In the 
list of the same, ap. Innes App. p. 767, he 
is only the fortieth. But without counting 
the three competitors from 843 to 848, 
he was numbered ninety-second in the 


For plundering 1 known places, 
And greens, without remorse, 
For not practising inactivity, 
For this are they called Cruithnians. 

Fifty kings'" of plundering career, 

Every one of them of the race of Eochaidh", 

From Fergus, most truly, 

To the vigorous Mac Brethach . 



Six kings .and six times ten 

Of them who attended to bloody plunder: 

They loved merry forays, 

They possessed the sovereignty of the Cruithnians. 

The Cruithnians who propagated 1 '. 


Pictish catalogue from Cruithne, the se- 
venty-ninth from Brudi Bout, and the 
fifty-seventh from Drust Mac Erp. (//.) 

Eochaidh This was Eochaidh Muin- 
reamhair, father of Ere, and grandfather 
of Loarn and Fergus ; himself the third 
in descent from Cairbre Riada, and the 
fourth from Conary II., king of Erin, 
whom the princes of the Dal Riada affected 
for the founder of their race, the " Clamia 
Chonaire." Duan, ver. 27 (//.) 

Mac Brethach, or perhaps we should 
read Mac Bethach. See Additional Notes, 
No. XIX. This stanza and the next oc- 
cur only in the Book of Ballymote. If 
they are a portion of the original poem 
the writer must have lived after A. D. 
1040, in which year Macbeth began his 
reign. (T). 


The sixty-six kings mentioned in tin- 
next stanza are evidently the kings of 
the old Cruithnian race, beginning with 
Cruithne Mac Cinge, and ending with 
Drusken Mac Feredach, according to For- 
dun's list, which contains exactly sixty- 
six kings, including Keneth Mac Alpin, 
by whom Drusken was overthrown, and 
in whose person the Fergusian and Pictish 
monarchies were united. (T.) Of these 
kings thirty-three are Pagan and thirty- 
three Christian ; a circumstance which 
looks like contrivance. And we may add 
that sixty-six (like 309, the number of 
the original Agathyrsi, see p. 133, line 40), 
is the bardic expression of 12. (II.) 

p The Cruithnians who propagated. This 
is a repetition of the first line of the poem, 
a usual custom with Irish scribes, to mark 


[t>o &UNat)ai6 MQ crcuicnNecn awt)so 

XXXI. Cpuichne mac Cinge pacap piccoptim habioann in aca 
inpola .c. annip penebaic ; .un. meic po ceachc ; ace ann po a 
n-anmano .1. pib, pioach, Polclaij, popcpeno, Caicc, Ce, Cip- 

Cipcm .Ipr. annaip pegnau. 

PIOOC .jcl. annip p. 

Popcpeno .pi. annip p. 

polclaio .jc;r;r. a. p. 

^acc .pen. a. p. 

Ce .;ru. a. p. 

pmbaiio .prjcnn. a. p. 

^eioe Olljocliach .l;r;r;r. a. p. 

Oenbejan [c.] a. p. 

Ollpinacca .l/r. a. p. 

that the poem they had copied was con- 
cluded, lest the next article to it in their 
MS. might be deemed to be a continua- 
tion of it. (IV) 

11 Here follows. This title is added from 
the Book of Lecan, which contains iwo 
copies of sect. xxxi. one at the beginning 
of the work, and the other after the Mira- 
bilia, in what seems to have been intended 
as a new edition or revision of the work. 
They shall be denoted, as before, by L'. 
and L'-'. In L'. and B. the title prefixed 
is Do bunuo Cpuiclinech [unn] po. Piu- 
kerton, in his quotation from the Book of 
Ballymote, has erroneously made this title 
a part of the preceding paragraph ; vol. i. 
App. No. xiv. These several copies of this 
section differ so widely that they will be 

given separately in the Additional Notes, 
No. XX. The text of all that follows is 
from 1) (T.) 

' Cniithne, fun of dug,- Infte, D. and 
L 2 . Oinje L'.and B. (7'.) Cingiamighty, 
a ting, a jiri/icc. E. Lluyd's Irish-English 
Diet. But John of Fordun has it (iv. cap. 
10), " Cruythne filius kynnejudieis;" and 
in i. cap. 35, he says, " dementis unius 
judicum filius." This homonomy shews 
him to have understood kynne, kin, or 
kind, in the modern sense of the adjective 
kind, i. e. benevolent, a sense which has 
escaped Dr. Jamieson's lexicographical 
researches. (//.) 

s Regnabat The transcriber was evi- 
dently utterly ignorant of Latin, and has 
absurdly perverted these words ; and the 

J 55 


XXXI. Cruithne, son of Cing r , pater Pictorum habitantium in 
hac insula, c. annis regnabat 5 . He had seven sons. These are their 
names, viz., Fib, Fidach, Foltlaig, Fortrend, Caitt, Ce, Circing'. 

Circing Ix. annis regnavit. 

Fidach xl. annis regnavit. 

Fortrend xl. annis regnavit. 

Foltlaid xxx. annis regnavit, 

Gatt \i. e. Caitt] xii. annis regnavit 

Ce xii. annis regnavit. 

Fidbaid [/. e. Fib] xxiiii. annis regnavit. 

Geide Ollgothach Ixxx. annis regnavit. 

Oenbegan c. annis regnavit. 

Ollfinachta Ix. annis regnavit, 

same may be said of almost every scrap of 
Latin which he had occasion to transcribe ; 
liis attempts at Latin are here given, how- 
ever, exactly as they stand in the original 
MS., although they have been, of course, 
corrected in the translation. (2'.) 

' Circing. In B. these names are given 
thus : Fib, Fidach, Fonla, Fortreann, 
Cathach, Gait Ce, Cirig. The insertion of 
Cathach renders it necessary either to 
make Caitce one name, not two separate 
names, as the above list, and some other 
transcribers (no doubt rightly) have done, 
or else to make Fodla-Fortrean, (i. e. Fodla 
of Fortren) one name, although in the 
above list they are given as two, for Folt- 
laid is the same as Foltlaig and Fodla. 
Cathach is omitted in L'. in the list of the 
sons of Cruithne given above, p. 51, and 

X 2 


also in the Chronicori Pictorum, Innes, 
vol. ii. p. 773, App. No. ii., and Pinkerton, 
vol. i. App. Nos. x. xi. But his name oc- 
curs in the verses attributed to Columkille, 
which immediately follow in this place in 
B., and are the same as those given above, 
p. 5 1, where cecach was understood to sig- 
nify an hundred. The verses might be ren- 

Cait, Ce, Cireach, Otach of children [i. e. tin- 
Fib, Fidach, Fodlii of Fortrenn. 

or else, 

Caitce, Cireach, Cetarh of children, 
Fib, Fidach, Foclla. Knrtren. 

These seven fabulous brothers are symbo- 
lical of seven real territorial divisions. 
See above, p. 51 (T.) 

5 aectl bpeacnach .1. a. p. 

^eapcuipcibonc ..... &?. ano uao, -\ bpuige ba h-airim Do 
jac aen peap; -] penauepunc hibepnmm -| dlboniam pep .cl. an. 
uic inuenicup i leabpaib na Cpuichneach. 

bpuioe panre amm in ceo bpuioe. 

bpuioe Uppance. 

bpui;e Leo. 

bpuioe Upgainc. 
bpui^i pec. 
bpuioe Ujipejnp. 








bpuiji Gpu. 
bpuijji ^apc. 
bpuiji Cinic. 

u Geascuirtibont. There is evidently 
some omission or confusion here. The 
Chronicon Pictorum divides Geascuirti- 
bont into two, Gestgurtich and Brude- 
bout, inserting between them Wurgest. 
The words are: " Gestgurtich. xl. Wur- 
gest, xxx. [Innes reads xl.] Brudebout 
(a quo xxx. Brude regnaverunt Hiber- 


mam et Albanian!, per centum 1. anno- 
ruin spatium) xlviij. minis regnavit." 
Pinkerton, vol. i. p. 492. We ought, 
therefore, to read, in all probability, 
" Geasguirti xxx. Bout. xxx. There 
were thirty of them afterwards, and 
Bruide was the name, &c." If we count 
Bout as one of those who were called 


Guidedh Gaeth, a Briton, 1. annis regnavit. 

Geascuirtibont" .... xxx. of them thenceforward, and Bruide* 
was the name of every man of them, et regnaverunt Hiberniam et 
Alboniam per cl. annos, ut invenitur in the books of the Cruithniaris : 

Bruide Pante was the name of the first Bruide. 

Bruide Urpante, 

Bruide Leo. 

Bruide Gant. 

Bruide Gund. 

Bruide Urgann. 

Bruide Urgaint. 

Bruide Fet. 

Bruide Urfexir. 

Bruide Feoir. 

Bruide Cal. 

Bruide Urcal. 

Bruide Cint. 

Bruide Arcint. 

Bruide Fet. 

Bruide Urfet. 

Bruide Ru. 

Bruide Eru. 

Bruide Gart. 

Bruide Cinit. 

Bruide, there will be thirty-two in all, 
or, omitting him, thirty-one. The Chro- 
nicon Pictorum names only twenty-eight 
(exclusive of Bruide Bout), giving in re- 
gular order a name, and then the same 
name with ur [which is perhaps the Gaelic 
tap, after] prefixed : Pant, Urpant ; Leo, 
Urleo; Gant, Urgant, &c. (T.) 


* Bndde. It will be observed that in 
many places the Irish transcriber has 
written this word 6pu ije with y instead 
of d, a circumstance of no importance, 
further than that it proves the (/ to have 
been aspirated in the pronunciation. Uni- 
formity has been preserved in the trans- 
lation. (T.) 





bpuiji TTlunaic. 


bpmgi Upcpirt. 

bpmje Uprnain. 

pegnauepunc. cl. ann. uc oipcimmup, -] po bai Ctlba cen pig ppio pe 
uile co h-aimpp 5 nt) ' cec I 11 ?) T n S '-"' C^bnm mle cpi comaipli no 
np eigin. 

XXXII. Qcbepair apaile comau h-e Cacluan mac Cairmmj 
no jabao pije ap eigm i CpuicheannmicVi ~\ d n-Gipinn .1. l;r. blia- 
t)ain, ~) mpfin po gab <5ut> .1. I. 

Uapam .c. an. pegnauic. 

TTlopleo a. .;cu. a. pe. 

Deocillimon .;rl. an pejnainr. 

Cmioioo mac Qiprcoip .uu. a. p. 

Oeopc .1. a. p. 

6lieblir .u. a. p. 

Deococpeic ppacep dn .jcl. a. p. 

Upconbepc .jc^. a. p. 

Cpucbolc .un. a. p. 


y Gud __ The statement that Albany had Cathluan sixty years, and Gud fifty years, 

no king till Gut, and the mention of Gut it gives Gilgidi 101 years. In the list here 

(unless he be the same as Gilgidi), are given Usconbest's reign is reduced from 

absent from the Pict. Chron. In lieu of thirty to twenty, and that of Crutbolc 


Bruide Cind. 

Bruide Uip 

Bruide Uirup. 

Bruide Gruith. 

Bruide Urgrith. 

Bruide Munait. 

Bruide Ur. 

Bruide Gidgie. 

Bruide Crin. 

Bruide Urcrin. 

Bruide Urmain. 

regnaverunt cl. arm. ut diximus ; and Alba was without a king all 
along until the time of Gud y , the first king that possessed all Alba 
by consent or by force. 

XXXII. Others say 2 that it was Cathluan, son of Caitming, who 
first possessed the sovereignty by force in Cruitheutuath and in Eri, 
for sixty years, and that after him succeeded Gud for fifty years. 

Taram c. annis regnavit. 

Morleo xv. annis regnavit. 

Deocillimon xl. annis regnavit. 

Cinioiod, son of Artcois, vii. annis regnavit. 

Deort 1. annis regnavit. 

Blieblith v. annis regnavit. 

Deototreic frater Tui xl. annis regnavit, 

Usconbest xx. annis regnavit, 

Crutbolc vii. annis regnavit. 


(Belga Pictus) interpolated. In other from the same source as that given by 

respects it agrees very nearly with the Fordun (Scotichron. iv. c. 11.), except 

Chron. (H.) that he begins with Cruythne, son of 

' Others say The second list of kings Kynne, instead of Cathluan, ^on of Cait- 

which begins here appears to have come ming (T.) 


Oeopoiuoip .?:. a. pejn. 

Uipc .1. annop p. 

l?u .c. an. p. 

^aprnaic .1111. ijc. a. ]ie. 

6pec mac buicheo .un. a. p. 

Uipo ignauic .^f. 

Canarulacma .111. annip p. 

Upaoach uecla .11. a. p. 

^apcnair ouipeip Apr. a. p. 

Colopc mac Qirlnuip Apr;rii. 

Dpupc mac Gpp .c. pegnauir, -j .c. cara po jem. Nonooeamo 
anno pei^ni eiup pacpiciup panccup epipcopup ao hibepn;am pep- 

Uolopc mac Qmel .1111. a. p. 

Neccan mop bpeac mac Gipip .pr^prnji. a. p. Uepcio anno 


a Gartnait.TA. Van Praet's attested 
copy of the Chronicon Pictorurn, pub- 
lished by Pinkcrton, gives this passage 

" gartn&ithloc a quo j., p artiiait .iiii. 

rejoin, vcre ix. a. n/y." 
Wliicli I\[r. Pinkerton interprets thus : 

" '-'0. (iartiifiith loc, a quo ftartnait, iiij. rcgna. 
30. Vcre ix. an. Kg." 

Tims making vere the name of a king, 
limes reads Gartnaithboc, and likewise 
makes Vere the thirtieth king. But are 
not the words " vere ix. an. reg." an evi- 
dent correction of " iiii. regnavit," inti- 
mating that the real length of Gartnaith- 
loc's reign was nine, not four years? The 
Irish transcriber evidently intended to 

adopt this correction, but in doing so 
retained the iiii., expunging the other 
words. Fordun (iv. c. n) has " Gnrnath- 
bolger annis ix." The reign of Canatu- 
lacma appears to be fixed nt three, but 
may be four years, as in the Chron. Pic- 
torum, for in. and in. are easily confounded, 
and in this case it is not quite certain 
which was intended by the scribe. Ura- 
dach-vetla is assigned two years, which 
agrees with Innes, but differs from M. 
Van Praet's copy, in Pinkerton, which 
has iv. ('/'.) 

^'Gartnait-duipeir. Fordun has Garnard 
J)ives, from which we may presume that 
duipeir signified rich. Perhaps the d is 
an expletive derived from the final t or d 

Deordivois xx. annis regnavit. 

Uist 1. annis regnavit. 

Ru c. annis regnavit. 

Gartnait" iiii. ix. annis regnavit. 

Breth, son of Buithed, vii. annis regnavit. 

Uipo-ignavit xxx. 

Canatulacma iii. annis regnavit. 

Uradach-vetla ii. annis regnavit. 

Gartnait-duipeir" Ix. annis regnavit. 

Tolorc, son of Aithiur, Ixxv. 

Drust. son of Erp, c. annis regnavit, and gained a hundred battles. 
Nonodecimo anno regni eius Patricius sanctus episcopus ad Hiber- 
niam pervenit. 

Tolorc, son of Aniel, iiii. annis regnavit. 

Nectan-mor-breac", son of Eirip, xxxiiii. annis regnavit. Tertio 


of Garnard or Garnait, and if so, itipeir is 
not far from the Irish pmbb'ip, rich (the 
initial p aspirated), which is pronounced 
very nearly as uipliir. (T.) 

c Gained. -The Latin has " c. bella 
peregit :" po jein signifies properly, 
wounded, killed, and hence, won. gained, 
when applied to battles (T.) 

d Mor-breac, for Morbet [as in Pict. 
Chron.] bene. The statements which fol- 
low are false and out of chronology. Pict- 
land and Abernethy were not then Chris- 
tian, nor was St. Bridget yet born, nor 
was Darluchdach yet abbess of Kildare. 
Very long after the death of both these 
ladies, and about 608, Nectan II. founded 

St. Darluchdach was the immediate suc- 
cessor of St. Bridget, as abbess of Kildare, 
and died on the anniversary of St. Brid- 
get's death, having survived her but one 
year. Colgan. Vit. S. Darlugdaclue ad i 
Feb. There are different dates assigned for 
St. Bridget's death, varying from 510 to 
548 Colgan has decided in favour of the 
year 523 Trias. Th. p. 619. Fordun (iv. 
c. 1 1) gives the series after Garnaitduiper 
thus: Hurgust, son of Fergus, twenty- 
seven years; Thalargen, son of Keother, 
twenty-five. Durst " qui alias vocabatur 
Nectane films Irbii annis xlv. Hie, nt. asse- 

' Centum annis vixit et centum liolla pcrpjrit.' 

the church of Abernethy Register of Quo regnante sanctus Palladius [not Pit- 

St. Andr. cit. Pink. i. 296; ii. 267 (//.) tricius] episcopus a beato Papa Cccles- 



pepn emp Oaplugoach abbanpca Cille oapa oe Qbepniam ajcu- 
lac p. ;cpd ao bpinmam pp' anno aouenicup cui immolaueir Nec- 
connmp armo mm Ctpuipnige Oeo -\ panccane bpijprea ppepence 
DapluigDeacli que cancauic all. pupep ipcam. 

Oapcguicimor .pjcj:. a. peg. 

J5alamapbicli .;ru. a. peg. 

Da Opeppc .1. Opepc pi. b.uopop .;ru. annip peg ticuc. Oeppc 
pi. ^)ipum polup .u. a. p. 

J5aluTYi cenamlapeli .1111. a. p. 

<5apcnair pi. ^ipom .un. a. p. 

Cailcaine pi. ^iporn anno p. 

Calopg p. TTluprolic .^i. a. p. 

Opepc pi. TTlanaic uno a. p. Cum 6pioeno .1. anno. 

bpuioe mac TTlaelcon .^^. a. p. ITlochcaauuo anno pejm eic 
hnibnjacup epr. Gpancro Columba. 

tino missus est ad Scotos docendos, longe 
tamen ante in Christo credentes." Thim 
follow Talargar, son of Amylc, two years; 
Noctane Thaltamoth, ten years. In the 
next chapter he ascribes the foundation of 
Abernethy to St. Bridget and her seven 
virgins, but places it in the reigi- of 
Garnard Makdompnach, the successor of 
the Bruide in whose time St. Columba 
preached to the Picts ; which is of course 
more probable. Pinkerton and Innes are 
both mistaken in their reading of the 
Chron. Pict. in this passage, which is not 
" abbatissa cilia; Daradre, Ilibernia exulat 
proximo ad Britanniam," but "abbatissa 
Cille-dara de Ilibernia exulat pro Christo 
ad Britanniam," as may be seen by their 
own edition of M. Van Praet's attested 

copy. What the contracted word ppi 
stands for in the text I do not know. 
The Chron. Pict. reads "secundo." (?'.) 
c Two Drentft If I am right in consi- 
dering tkiopeprr [read chiopepc] as two 
words, and translating " two Drests," 
the Irish version has enabled us to cor- 
rect a mistake which Innes and Pinkerton 
have both committed in their interpreta- 
tion of this passage of the Chron. Picto- 
rum, which stands thus in M. Van Praet's 
attested copy: 

dadrest .i. drest (Hi 9 

gyrum .i. drest tili 9 wdrost .v. 

ail gregfi. Urest fill 9 ^irom s<jl y . 
v. au rcg. 

From this Innes and Pinkerton have 
given us three kings, viz.: i. Dadrest, who 

l6 3 

anno regni ejus Darlugdach, abbatissa Cille-Dara de Hibernia exu- 
lat pro Christo ad Britiniam; [secundo?] anno adventus sui immola- 
vit Nectonius anno uno Apurnighe Deo et sanctte Brigidje, praesente 
Darlugdach, quas cantavit alleluia super istam [hostiam]. 

Dartguitimoth xxx. annis regnavit.. 

Galamarbith xv. annis regnavit. 

Two Drests e , i. e. Drest, fil. Budros, xv. annis regnaverunt com- 
inuniter. Drest, fil. Girum, solus v. annis regnavit. 

Galum-cenamlapeh iiii. annis regnavit, 

Gartnait, fil. Girom, vii. annis regnavit. 

Cailtaine, fil. Girom, anno regnavit. 

Talorg, fil. Murtolic, xi. annis regnavit. 

Drest. fil. Manaith, uno anno regnavit. Cum Brideno* i. anno. 

Bruide Mac Maelcon xxx. annis regnavit. In octavo g anno regni 
ejus baptizatus est a sancto Columba. 


reigned one year; 2. Drest, son of Girom, 
and 3. Drest, son of Udrost. Drest, son 
of Girom, they make to have reigned one 
year alone, five years jointly with Drest, 
son of Udrost, and then five years alone. 
I have very little doubt, however, that 
Dadrest, should be read Da Drest, which 
words signify Duo Drest. If this con- 
jecture be correct it will prove that the 
Chron. Pictorum was translated from a 
Gaelic original, more ancient than our 
present Irish transcript, which appears 
from the mistakes with which it abounds, 
to have been taken from a Latin copy. I 
would propose to read the passage thus : 
"Duo Drest, i.e. Drest filius Girom et 
[for the .i. here either signifies " i. e." or 
is a mistake for et] Drest filius Wdrost 

v. annos coureguaverunt. Drest filius 
Girom solus v. annos regnavit," Thus 
the Irish and Latin will agree, except in 
the length of the joint reign, which tin- 
Irish transcriber makes to be fifteen years. 
It is some confirmation of the emenda- 
tion here proposed, that of the five lists of 
Pictish kings quoted by Pinkerton, vol. i. 
p. 242, and tables at the end of vol. i., Dad- 
rest appears only on the authority of the 
Chron. Pictorum, as he and Innes have un- 
derstood it. The contraction ucuc is pro- 
bably intended for " communiter." (T.) 

1 Cum Brideno. Galumcenarnlapeh in 
the Chron. Pictorum is placed after Drest, 
son of Munait, and the words " cum Bri- 
deno i. anno," apply to him (T.) 

2 In octavo The transcriber has here 



p. Oomnach .p. a. p. 
Neachuan nepo. Uepp .pp. a. p. 
Cmhoinc p. Lmcpiu .p^p. a. p. 
^apcriaic mac Uiuo .u. a. p. 
Uolopc ppacep eopum ouooeicim a. p. 
Colopccm p. Gnppec .1111. 

^apcnaipc p. Oomiel .ui. a. p. -] rjeimiomm anm. 
Opupc ppacep eiup .un. a. p. 
bpioe p. pie .pp. a. p. 
Uapan p. 6n pioaiu .1111. 
bpei p. Oeipilei .;n. a. p. 
Necbcan p. Oeipile .p. a. p. 
Opepc ~\ Glpen conneganaueinc .u. a. p. 
Onbep p. Upgupc .p^p. a. p. 
bpeice p. Uujuc .^u. a. p. 
Cimoo p. luupeoeg .^u. a. p. 

Ctlpin p. Uuoio .111. annip pejnauic "| onniuon pe^n'. 
Dpepr p. Ualopcan .1. a. p. 
Ualopcan p. Dpopcan [n] uel .u. riej;. 
Ualopcen p. Onupc .jcn. ~\ ttiiniitoin a. p 
Canul p. Uang .u. a. p. 
Cuapcannn p. Uupguipc r^u. 


mado sad work, but the text is printed Gartnait mac Uiud or Wid, and this To- 

without correction. He mistook in for lore ; and that the omission was a mistake 

m, and by confounding the uo of oc- of the Irish transcriber is evident from 

tuuo with the no of anno, he has pro- the word eorum. (T.) 

duced the compound TTloccaauuo unno, ' Conregnaverunt The scribe has 

which the Chron. Pictorum enables us to strangely blundered this word : he has 

decipher (T.) also written a. p. at the end, where the 

h Tolorc -The Chron. Pictorum inserts p is redundant (T.) 

" Breidei fil. Wid v. an. reg." between k Dimidium The word pejni added in 

Gartnait, fil. Domnach, xi. annis rcgnavit. 

Neachtain nepos Verp. xx. annis regnavit. 

Cinhoint, fil. Lutriu, xix. annis regnavit. 

Gartnait, mac Uiud, v. annis regnavit. 

Tolorc" frater eorum duodecim annis regnavit. 

Tolorcan, fil. Enfret, iiii. 

Gartnairt, fil. Donuel, vi. annis regnavit et diinidium anni. 

Druse frater ejus vii. annis regnavit. 

Bride, fil. Fie, xx. annos regnavit. 

Taran, fil. En-fidaid, iiii. 

Brei, fil. Derilei, xi. annis regnavit. 

Nechtan, fil. Derilei, x. annis regnavit. 

Drest et Elpen conregnaverunt' v. annis. 

Onbes, fil. Urgurt, xxx. annis regnavit. 

Breite, fil. Uugut, xv. annis regnavit. 

Cinoid, fil. Juuredeg, xv. annis regnavit. 

Alpin, fil. Uuoid, iii. annis regnavit et diimdium k anni. 

Drest, fil. Talorcan, i. anno regnavit. 

Talorcan 1 , fil. Drostan, [v.] vel xv. 

Talorcen, fil. Onust, xii. et dimidium annis regnavit. 

Canul m , fil. Tang. v. annis regnavit. 

Cuastantin, fil. Uurguist, xxxv. 


the text is an evident mistake for anni; m Canul. This king is called fil. Tarla 

Dimioon is of course a blunder for oimi- in theChron. Pict. The narneol'his father 

Dium. (T.) is given above Canj, with a mark of con- 

1 Talorcan. This king is omitted in the traction, which has been retained, as I 

Chron. Pictorum, but he is given by For- know not how to write the word in full, 

dun. The Irish text is corrected from It may be Tangar or Tangad. Lynch 

Lynch's copy, Cambrensis Eversus, p. 94. gives it " Canul fil. Tang," without no- 

The scribe omitted u before uel, and ticing the contraction. Cambr. Eversus, 

wrote .u.oej for xv (T.) ib (T.) 

1 66 

Uionupc p. Uupguyc .;cii. an. p. 

Opopc p. Conpann i Uolopc p. Uuchoil .in. a. p. conpejnaue- 

Unen p. Unepc .in. 

Upao p. bapjoic .111. a. -| 6pot> .1 . a. p. 

Cinaeo p. Qilpm .;cui. a. p. 

Oomnall p. Qilpin .1111. p. i Cupcancan p. Cmaeoa .pp. a. p. 

Cteo p. Cinaeo .1. a. p. 

<5ipi5 mac Oungaile .jci. uel .111. a. p. 

Domnall p. Conpancin .jci. a. p. 

Conpcancin p. Qeo .;rlu. a. p. 

TTIaelcolaim p. Oomnaill .ijc. a. p. 

Cuilem p. llooilb p. Conpcanocm .1111. a. p. 

Cinaeo, uel Oub, p. TTlailcolaim .1111. a. p. 

Cuilem .1. Oimibom p. 

CinaeD p. Ouib. oclir a. p. 

niaelcolaim mac Cinaeoa -FFF- a. pej. 

Donocao ua TTIailcolaim .un. p. 

TTIacbeachao mac pin mic Laig .;rui. a. p. 

Lulach .u. mip. 

TTlaetcolaim mac Colaim mic OonncaiO lap pin. 


n Jlargot. In the Cliron. Pictorum, press. The Chron. Pictoruin gives Eocho- 

" Wrad filius Bargoit," where the Gaelic dius filius Ku, as the successor of Aedh 

genitive Bargo^ is another proof that fil. Cinaed, instead of Girig mac Dungaile; 

this document was copied from an Irish but adds " Licet Ciricium fil. [Dungaile 

original. (T.) is probably omitted] alii dicunt hie reg- 

Constantin, fil. Aedh. The list given nasse, eo cpaod alumpuus ordinatorque 

by Lynch (Cambrensis Evers. p. 94) omits Eochodio fiebat." Innes, vol. ii. p. 785. 

the three kings between this Constantin Pinkerton, vol. i. p. 495. (T.) 

and Domhnall fitz Alpin, which is proba- p Cuilein, fil. Ildoilb, i. e. son of Ildulf ; 

hly a mistake of his transcript, or of the instead of whom the Chron. Pict. makes 

i6 7 

Uidnust, fil. Uurgust, xii. annis regnavit. 

Drost, fil. Constatin, et Tolorc, fil. Uuthoil, iii. arinis conregnave- 

Unen, fil. Unest, iii. 

Urad, fil. Bargot", iii. annis [regnavit], et Brod. i. anno regnavit. 

Cinaed, fil. Alpin, xvi. annis regnavit. 

Domhnal, fil. Alpin, iiii. [annis] regnavit, et Custantan fil. Cinaeda 
xx. annis regnavit. 

Aedh, fil. Cinaed, i". anno regnavit. 

Girig mac Dungaile xi. vel. iii. annis regnavit. 

Domhnall, fil. Coristantini, xi. annis regnavit. 

Constantin, fil. Aedh , xlv. annis regnavit. 

Maelcolaim, fil. Domhnall, ix. annis regnavit. 

Cuilein, fil. Ildoilb p , fil. Constantini, iiii. annis regnavit. 

Cinaed, vel Dubh q , fil. Mailcolaim, vii. annis regnavit. 

Cuilein r i. [et] dimidio [anni] regnavit. 

Cinead, fil. Dubh, viii. annis regnavit. 

Maelcolaim Mac Cinaeda xxx. annis regnavit. 

Donnchad Ua Mailcolaim vii. [annis] regnavit. 

Macbeathad Mac Fin Mic Laig xvi. annis regnavit 

Lulach v. months. 

Maelcolaim Mac Colaim Mic Donnchaid after him. 


Indulphus himself the successor of Mai- r Cuilein. This king is called Cuilen- 

colm. See also Ogygia, p. 486 (T.) Eig in the Chron. Pict. (ap. Innes) Culeri 

'' Vel Dubh. The words uel oub are King (ap. Pinkerton), with a reign of five 

written over the name Cmeao by a later years. Lynch calls him " Constantin fil. 

hand. This is evidently the same king Culen uno et dimidio anno." In the No- 

who is called Niger, fil. Maelcolaim, in the mina Eegum Pictorum (Innes, vol. ii. 

Pictish Chronicle, with a reign of five p. 802) he is called Culin Mac Indutf, and 

years. Lynch's list assigns to this king a a reign of four years and a half is assigned 

reign of 24 years (T.) to him. (T.) 


XXXIII. bpinnm inpola occiani cm pionoam Olhnan nocpac, 
ochr. c. in. ceimenn ina pao .cc. ina leichean, ma cimceal.l imoppo 
.i.u.m. un. mojar po h-ochc ceafpaca. Ochr cafpaca .;r;r.ic 
inon, i .u. bepla, .1. Sa;rain bepla, -] bepla bpeacan, i bepla Cpuic- 
neac, -] ^aeoelj, 1 Laioean. 

Qnno .jcl. anre naciuicacem Chpipn .1. ceaepaca bliaoan pia 
n-gein Cpipc, canig <5 a ^ u P [ 1T1 ] in T bpeacan co papjaib a lonja 
1 a ploig in ceo peaclic, ~| co papgaib Labianup cpibpp pucpom 
pooeoig jialla inopi bpeacan. 

Cluiop Ceiypip in ceachpamao pig lap n-luil carng a n-inip 
bpearan co Vi-inip Ope. 

Qb incapnoacione Domini clui. TTlapcup Qnronup cona bpa- 
chaip .1. Cuicmo Ctupilio COTDHIOOO cpeinim imp bpeacan. 

Qib incapnaciome Domini .cl^^.ip:. Seuepup Qppep 'Cpipolo- 
ranup ram^ a n-inip bpeacan. Lei pip ainm na carpac ip in Qppaic, 


8 Britinia. This scrap of Latin, strange- 
ly perverted by the ignorance of the scribe, 
is taken from the opening sentence of Bede's 
history : nocpac I suppose to be an igno- 
rant corruption of the contraction no. 
epuc, and 1 have rendered it accordingly. 
Bede's words are: " Brittani oceani in- 
sula, cui quondam Albion nomen fuit, 

&c qua; per inillia passuuni 

octingenta in borcam longa, latitudinis 
liabet millia ducenta, exceptis dumtaxat 
prolixioribus diversorum promontoriorum 
tractibus, quibus efficitur ut circuitus 
ejus quadragies octies septuaginta (juin- 
que millia compleat." See above, sect. ii. 
p. 27, where the same statement nearly 
occurs (7'.) 

' Eight times forty. An attempt to ren- 
der literally Bede's "quadragies octies sep- 
tuaginta quinque millia." What follows 
about the five languages is also founded 
on a passage in Bede, lib. i. c. i (T.) 

u Gti/it-s, a corruption of Julius, i. c. 
Julius Cwsar. See above, p. 59. (T.) 

v The tribune. The word cpibJTpis evi- 
dently for cpibnp, i. e. cpibtmur-. See 
Bede Hist. lib. i.e. z. " Csusaris equitatu 
primo oongressu a Brittannis victus, ibi- 
que Labienus occisus est." (T.) 

w Ciui(b Ceissir, i. e. Claudius Ca>sar. 
He is called fourth king or emperor after 
Julius, evidently from Bede's words : 
"Claudius imperator, ab Aueusto quar- 
tus." o. 3. See above, p. 63. In the MS. 


XXXIII. Britinia 8 insola, oceani cui quondam Olbiian nomen erat, 
is eight hundred thousand paces in length, two hundred thousand 
in breadth, and in circumference five thousand seventy and eight times 
forty 1 . There are in it eight score cities, and five languages, viz. the 
Saxon language, and the British language, and the Cruithnian lan- 
guage, and Gaelic, and Latin. 

Anno xl m - ante nativitatem Christi, i e. forty years before the 
birth of Christ, came Galus" into the island of Britain ; he lost 
his ships and his army on his first expedition, and he lost Labienus 
the tribune v , but at length he took the hostages of the island of 

Cluids Ceissir, the fourth king after Juil, came into the island 
of Britain even to the island of Ore. 

Ab incarnatione Domini clvi. Marcus Antonus* with his brother, 
i. e. Lucidus Aurelius Commodus, devastated the island of Britain. 

Ab incarnatione y Domini clxxxix. Severus Afer Tripolitanus 
came into the island of Britain. Leipis was the name of the city in 
Africa where he was born ; he was the seventeenth king after Juil : 


the words " Ab incarnatione Domini, clvi." y Ab incarnatione Here again in the 

are joined to the preceding paragraph, as MS. the date is erroneously joined to the 

if they were the date of the invasion by preceding paragraph. The authority here 

Claudius ; but they are the words with is Bede, i. c. 5. "Anno ab incarnatione I)o- 

which Bede's fourth chapter begins, and mini clxxxix. Severus genere Afer, Tri- 

evidently belong to the reign of Marcus politanus, ab oppido Lepti, decimus sep- 

Antoninus. This correction has, therefore, timus ab Augusto imperiuin adeptus, Ac. 

been made in the text. (T.) .... Itaque Severus magnam fossam, fir- 

*Antonus. Bead Antoninus. Bede used missimumque vallum a mari ad 

no word equivalent to devastated. Cpei- m are duxit; ibique apudEvoracum oppi- 

6im is explained in the Leabhar Gabhala, dum morbo obiit. Eeliquit duos filios 

p. 37, to signify the breaking down or Bassianum et Getam Bassianus, 

demolition of ancient boundaries or fast- Antonini nomine assumpto, regno potitus 

nesses. (T.) est." (T.) 


I 7 

HI jcmi. jug iap n-luil; if oo oo ponao clao Sa;can ; aobach a caip 
Qbpog. Da mac oca bapianup -\ ^eca. ba peipio jio gab in pigi, 
amm DO Qncon. 

Qb incapnaciome Domini lap n-lul .cc.lpjrjr.ui. Dioclipcan in 
cpeap pig ap cpichao mp n-luil, -] TTla^imm, canig in n-inip bpea- 
can. Ipna h-aimpip po gab Capaupiup pigi bpeacan .1111. m-bliaona 
conao po mapb Gleccup, co po gab pioein pigi, cpi m-bliaDan, 
conaD po mapb Gpclipioocup, -| ba pig pioe pe .;r. m-bliaoari. 
Dioclipcen i n-aipuep in Domain ac ingpeim na Cpipcaige,-] TTlaip- 
cimen ma h-iaprap. 

Ip in injpim peo pop ooman Qlbain naem -] Qpon -| lull aipcin- 
oeach carpach teigonum ap an ampip pea aobacn. 

Conpcanpc pi bpeacan acliaip Conpcancin mic 6ilme .1. capac 
ban ConpcannDin, po pcpib Gocpobup conaD ann po gab Con- 
prancin piji ap cup a n-inip bpeacan ; Daig po gab a n-achaip 
placiup Ppanc ~\ Gppaine i m-beachaiD Oioclipcem. 

Ctb mcapnanoine .ccc.l^.in. ^paOianup cecpacba pig o luil. 
Ip na h-aimpip piDein po gab apaile TTla,rim pigi bpeacan. 


'Domini. The words lap n-lul are here or Erenach, in later times, was applied 
an evident blunder, and are therefore; almost always to an ecclesiastical officer, 
omitted in the translation. The date, as although not always one in holy orders; 
before, is joined in the MS. to the preced- but, as appears from this passage, it pro- 
ing paragraph. Bede is the authority, perly signified any chief, superior, or per- 
il. 6; and see above, p. 65. (T.) son in authority. In the Leabhar Breac 

a Albain Bede, ubi supr. c. 7. The (fol. iii. col. i), SS. Peter and Paul are 

City Legionum is supposed to be Caer- called the airchinneachs or chiefs of the 

Icon, the ancient Isca Silurum, on the Apostles: ipiac pin oipchmni^na n-app- 

river Usk, in Monmouthshire. Aaron and cal, .1. pecap -| pol. And again, quoting 

Julius are here called chiefs (apocmoeuc) Eccl. x. 1 6, " Vce tibi terra cujus rex puer 

of the city, although Bede calls them est, et cujusprincipesmauecomedunt,"&c. 

simply " cives." The word ardcinneach the writer adds: Ipe pocuinn malctpcu 


it was for him was made the Saxon ditch; he died at Caer Abrog. 
He had two sons, Basianus and Geta. It was he (the former) that 
succeeded to the kingdom by the name of Anton. 

Ab incarnatione Domini z cclxxxiii. Dioclistan, the thirty-third 
king after Juil, and Maximin, came into the island of Britain. It was 
in their time that Carausius held the sovereignty of Britain seven 
years, until Alectus killed him, and held the sovereignty himself for 
three years, until Asclipidotus killed him, and became king himself 
for ten years. Dioclistan, in the east of the world, was persecuting 
the Christians, and Maiscimen in the west. 

It was in that persecution over the Avorld that Saint Albain" 
and Aron, and Juil, chiefs of the city Leigionum at that time, died. 

Constanst", king of Britain, was the father of Constantino, son of 
Eiline (Helena), the concubine of Constantin. Etrobus wrote that it 
was in the island of Britain that Constantin took sovereignty at first; 
for his father had exercised dominion over France and Spain in the; 
life-time of Dioclistan. 

Ab incarnatione ccclxvi. c Gradianus was the fortieth king from 
Juil. It was in his time that a certain Maxim took the sovereignty 
of Britain. 


oonu cuaraib' -| oona cellaib ica mbic MCI eluding the reference to Eutropius, is 

pi$ -| na aipcmoiji; uccu uilpi DO cpaep -| taken from Bede, i. c. 8. At the word bi;i 

oo paebcnoechc in cpaejail: "This is the the transcriber of the MS. began a new 

cause of the destruction of the districts paragraph with a large capital letter orna- 

[i. e. chieftainries], and of the churches, merited with colour, as if beginning a new 

whose kings and chiefs \_airchinneachs] are subject ; such was his ignorance (T.) 
devoted to gluttony and worldly intempe- Q Ab incarnatione ccclxvi.-Read ccclxxvii. 

ranee." (T.) as in Bede, i. c. 9. This date is affixed 

h Constanst, i. e. Constantius, (or Con- in the MS. to the preceding paragraph, 

stantinus, as Bede calls him) father of Con- The next date is also misplaced in the 

stantine the Great ; this paragraph, in- same way { 

Z 2 

Clb incapnacione Domini .cccc.jrc.ini. Clpcacupi pii in Domain .1. 
Uoecaip in cpeap pi cecpacha lap n-Clusupcup. pilaaup 6pic Do 
jabail ipppi, 1 DO cogail na Cnipcaioe. 

Qb mcapnoarioine .5. cccc.ui. Cerjii bliaona cecpacaD pejpm 
oe bliaonaib o h-Golaip pig na n-^aedi pijaD ^paoian copaio a 
m-bpeacnaib, i mpoain Conprannrm mppin pi o amain incopa ma 
aip o inopacup conao po mapbConpacmupcomaep cpe [pjopconpa 
honopn. Came Conpranp a mac a mancainoe po gab piji. 

Ro bpip cpa T2oim mpnain in milipmo .c. \y. nn. m-bliaoan o po 
cumcaiceao; ip e pin cpich plachupa Roman pop imp bpeacan 
lap .cccc.l^. bliaoan, o pa ^ab n-luil imp 6peacan, pep Dibaoap 
Pomanaig imm a milrneach, -\ nip [pjapgaibpeac ojbaio no aep 
ea^nainoce, -) pugpac Romanaij, -j nip legpeac uaoaib ecip. 

Ip aipipin Do ponpac ^aeoil -[ Cpuichmg no Da cineD compoc- 
paib ipen bpuio i cpeir. 

Oo cuap o bpearnaib co n-ebaipc lib co Romancu ap Daij 
cobapra, 1 Dupuclir milnec calma cuccu Dap in n-mpi puachr 


A Arcatus, i. e. Arcadius : for .1. Coe- rendered unintelligible by the gross igno- 

cdip we should evidently read pil or me. ranee of the transcriber ; no sense am 

Ceocaip. Bede, ib. c. 10. (7'.) be made of it without extensive conjectu- 

c Forty-four years. For 5. read o., i. e. ral emendations. It is evidently intended 
Domini. This is all confusion. On com- to represent the following statement of 
paring it with Bede, ib. c. 1 1, it will be Bede, " IIujus [scil. Gratiani] loco Con- 
seen that the transcriber has given the stantinus ex infima militia, propter solam 
date ccccvi. instead of ccccvii.; that he spem nomiius, sine merito virtutis, eli- 
has omitted the name Honorius ; and has gitur." (T.) 

converted Bede's " loco ab Augusto qua- f Hume. Tliis paragraph is made up 

dragesimo quarto" into forty-four years ; from the following passages of Bede, i. 

the word pejpn is unintelligible, and cc. n, 12: " Fracta est autem Eoma a 

no attempt has been made to translate it. Gothis anno m.lx.iv. sua? conditionis, ex 

Nor has any attempt been made to translate quo tempore Roman! in Britannia regnare 

what is said about Constantine, which is cessarunt, post annos ferme quadringentos 


Ab incarnatione Domini ccccxciv. Arcatus d was sovereign of the 
world [son of] Toetas [Theodoaius], the forty- third king after Augus- 
tus. Pilacius [Pelagius] a Briton, adopted heresy, and destroyed the 

Ab incarnatione D. ccccv. Forty-four years 6 two years 

before Eolair [Alaric], King of the Gaeth [Goths'], Gradian the cham- 
pion is made king of the Britons ; and then Constantine, afterwards 

until Constantinus Comes killed him at the 

command of Honorius. Constans, his son, came from being a monk, 
and took the kingdom. 

Now Rome f was destroyed afterwards in the thousandth one 
hundredth and lxiv. th year from its foundation. That was the end 
of the Roman dominion over the island of Britain, after cccclxx. years 
from the time when Juil took the island of Britain. The Romans 
extinguished it as to its military power, and there were left in it no 
warriors nor men of learning, and the Romans carried them oiF, and 
would not suffer them to return. 

It was then that the Gaedhels and the Cruithnians, two border 
tribes, took captives and spoil. 

There went ambassadors from the Britons with presents 8 along 
with them, to the Romans, to seek relief; and there came to them a 
valiant army across the island, who attacked the Cruithnians and 


septuaginta ex quo Cains Julius Csesar turn patuit, utpote omnis bellici usus 

eandem insulam adiit." " Exin prorsus ignara, &c." The Irish is very 

Britannia in parte Brittonum omni arma- corrupt, but with the Latin before us we 

to milite, militaribus oopiis universis, tota cannot miss its meaning ( T.) 

norida; juventutis alacritate," [this seems s With presents. The words co n- 

to be what the Irish translator has sought ebaipc lib ought evidently to be co n- 

to express by the word milcneach] " spo- epipclib, for they represent Bede's "le- 

liata, qua? tyrannorum temeritate abducta gatos Romam cum epistolis mittentes," 

nusquam ultra domum rediit, prseda; tan- i. c. 12 (T.) 


Cpurrieac -] J5 aeDe ^ u > 1 Do cuaDap Dia 015 lapDain. PO ceDoip 
ronj;aoap namaio -| po cumpeacap bpeacam amail joprabaio. 

l?o paioic na rechcaipe Do apip -| Do pochc lejon DO cobaip 
bpeacan, -| po caifaijpeac ppia naiboib bpeacan i po h-acnaigic 
in clao leo Do pig [leg. pigne] in oala Seuepup; ba DO claoaib in 
peer pin .1. un. cpaigce na leice i .^11. ina aipDe o minp co muip ; 
a poam Da puaip, 1 DaingniujiD amail na cipoip Dopip Dia cohaip 
-| looap ap. 

Oo cualaoap ^aeoil -| Cpuirhnij amail cona alca po caipoib 
oo cuaoap pucib. 

Qb incapnaicior.e .cccc. ff. in. Ueochap mniop popr honopium 
in cearhpamaD pig .^rl. lap n-Qujupcup. 

h Mowed down Bede's words arc " et ' Theothas. " Thcodosius junior post 

quasi maturam segetem obvia qua?que Honorium quadragesimua quinlus ab Au- 

inetunt, calcant, transcunt." Ilj.(T.). gusto," \-c. J3ede, i. 13. It is curious 

'Stone*. The text reads claoa i b, which that the Irish compiler stops short just 

should evidently be clucuib, and is trans- before Bede's account of Palladius being 

latod accordingly (T.) sent to the Scots by Pope Celestine, pro- 

k \Vnlces. " Sicut enim ager a feris, bably for the same reason which led to the 

ita miseri cives discerpuntur ab hosti- omission of Nennius's section De Mirabi- 

hus." Bede, ibid. (T). libus Hibernia:, because there existed al- 


Gaedhels; and they returned to their home then. Immediately the 
enemy came, and mowed down" the Britons like a ripe corn field. 

The ambassadors were sent again, and a legion came to the assist- 
ance of the Britons, and fought against the enemies of the Britons, and 
the ditch which the second Severus made was repaired by them ; it 
was of stones' this time, i. e. seven feet broad and twelve high from sea 
to sea ; of sods they found it, and they fortified it so that they might 
not be required to come again to assist them; and they departed. 

When the Gaedhels and the Cruithnians heard this they came upon 
them (i. e. upon the Britons) as wolves* upon sheep. 

Ab incarnatione cccc.xxii. Theothas' junior post llonorium the 
forty-fourth king after Augustus. 

ready in the Irish language what the writer which the text of this work has been 

regarded as the better and fuller account principally taken. The many ignorant 

of these events. Tho, above abstract of blunders made by the scribe in this por- 

Bede is of no historical or literary value, tion of his work, prove that the persons 

and would be unworthy of publication employed in making these transcripts 

except as it forms one of the interpola- were often possessed of no literary quali- 

tions introduced into the Irish version fications for such a task, except the art 

of the Historia, in the manuscript from of penmanship. (T.) 



, 7 8 


[Go pearccai& caiRNic CINN so.] 

Q6QS Sappan jngi m-bpecan i a pram, -| jahaip neapc Safari 
1 Cpuirneac ; -] rug oo feci'j ingean pi Ctlban .1. babona mjjean 
Loaipno nnc Gipc; -\ m h-f ]io naipceo oo acr a pup .1. Gjic in^ean 
Coaipno jop cpulla la TTluijiebac mac Go^am thic Neill co h-Gpim> 

a The miracles of Cairnech. This legend 
is probably subsequent to A. 1). 1092, 
when the primacy of the see of Lyons was 
decreed; perhaps also to the synod of 
Cashel in 1172, which established canons 
of affinity; since its author accounts it 
a sin in Muirchertach to marry the widow 
of his maternal aunt's son. Though pos- 
sibly the sin of David, killing and th.>n 
marrying, may be what he complains of. 

11 After this. This legend occurs only 
in the Book of Ballymote, where it is in- 
serted between what I have numbered 
sections xiv. and xv., supra p. 75, i. u. 
immediately after the account of the com- 
plete subjection of the Britons to the 
Romans. The words " after this," how- 
ever, must imply some considerable time 
after the Romans had abandoned Britain ; 

for if Sarran had dominion, as the story 
goes on to say, over the Saxons as well as 
over the Picts, his reign must have been 
subsequent to the Saxon invasion, which 
is dated A. 1). 449 : and some time sub- 
sequent, for his father-in-law, Loam, 
king of Scotland, began his reign A. 1>. 
503. Ogygia, p. 471. The genealogy of 
Sarran or Saran, the father of St. Carnech, 
is thus given by Colgan from the genea- 
logy of the saints in the Book of Lecan : 
Saran, son of Colgan (or Colchuo), son of 
Tuathal, son of Fedhlim, son of Fiat-bra 
Cassan, son of Colla-da-Crioch. Acta SS. 
p. 783, n. i, and see also p. 713, c. 4. In 
another authority quoted ib. u. 2, Fedh- 
lim is made the son of Fechim, son of 
Fiach, son of Colla-da-Crioch; but the 
Hrst is more correct ; and as Colla-da- 
Crioch flourished from the year 297 to 



SARRAN assumed the sovereignty of Britain after this", and esta- 
blished his power over the Saxons and Cruithnians. And he took 
to wife the daughter of the king of Alban, viz., Babona c , daughter 
of Loarn, son of Ere". And it was not she that was married 6 to him, 
but her sister, viz., Ere, daughter of Loarn, until she eloped with 
Muiredhach, son of Eoghan, son of Niall, to Eri. and she bore him 


about 350, according to O'Flaherty's 
Chronology, we may reasonably suppose 
Saran to have reigned about the year 500, 
or somewhat later. ( T.) 

c Babona. Pompa or Babona, daughter 
of Loarn Mor Mac Ere, first king of Scots 
in Lorn called after him, circa A. D. 503. 
Ogygia, p. 471. Colgan, ActaSS. xxviii. 
Martii, p. 782. She bore to Sarran three 
sons: St. Carnech, St. Ronan, and St. Bre- 
can or Becan (ibid.), of which names the 
first only occurs in the following list. 
This Sarran was son of Coelchu, and fifth 
in descent from Fiachra Cassan, nephew 
to Colla Huas, 1 3Oth king of Erin ; and 
was one of the chiefs of Orgiellia or Oriel 
in Ulster. Ogygia, ibid, and p. 359, 363. 

d -Ere, or Ercus, as O'Flaherty and 
Colgan call him for distinction's sake ; for 
Ere occurs in this story as the name both 
of a man and of a woman (7".) 

e Not .... married. This contradictioti 
may perhaps be explained by reference to 
the irregularities prevalent in a much later 
age of Irish Christianity. So late as the 
time of Malachi of Armagh, contractum 

conjugiorum aut ignorabant aut 

negligebant. Bernard! Vita Mai. in torn, 
iv. p. 128, Mabillon. But, under his cor- 
rection, " concubinatus honestat celebri- 
tas nuptiarum," p. 130. The meaning of 
this is, probably, well explained by Dr. 
Lanigan as of the system of betrothals or 
sponsalia defuturo, not followed up by the 
contractus conjiigii, or actual marriage de 
A 2 


1 co jiuc ceicpi macu oo .1. TTlu]|iceajicac mac Gpca -| peapabac 
1 Ui^eapnac i TTIaion. 

Clanaip umoppo Sap pan babona co po cmprneab leo .u. meic 
.1. Cuipig -] Caipnech -] Gppcop Oallain "] Caemlac ; -] acbail 
iap copcup i mp m-buai6 i caij TTlapeam. 

Cuipig, imoppo, po gab iap fin, 50 n epecc a neapc pop Sa^ana, 
-) con n-epa cacaip poipecneac i uail maimpcpech Caipnic .1. a 
bpafaip. TTluipceaprac mac Gpca in can pin i uail pig bpeacan 


prcusenti: Irish Eccl. Hist, iv. pp. 64, 70-72 . 
In the very rude age of I Sarran anil Babona, 
we may understand how the latter was 
taken to wife, but not married, although 
the mother of three or four sons. (77.) 

r Four sons Ere, daughter of Loarn 

Mae Ere, was married to Muredach, son of 
Eoghan mac Niall Naoighiallach, and bore 
him four sons, Muirchertach, king of Erin ; 
Feradhach, Tighernach, and Maon. And 
after Muredach'a death she was remarried 
to Fergus, son of Conall Gulban, another 
grandson of Niall the Great, to whom she 
bore four other sons, Sedna (progenitor 
of the Gulbanian kings of Erin), Fedhlim 
(father of St. Columkille), Brendan, and 
Loarn. Ogygia and Colgan, ubi xiijim. 
(77.) See Additional Notes, No. XX11. 

8 Five son.? Only four are here men- 
tioned. In the Naemh Seanchus, or Genea- 
logies of the Saints, preserved in the 
Book -of Lecan, (in the tract which Colgan 
attributes to Aengus the Culdee, and fre- 
quently quotes, under the title of " Libel- 
lus de matribus Sanctorum,") only three 
sons of Baboua and Sarran are mentioned ; 

perhaps because three only were saints: 
pompa injen ^.oaipn macaip Chcupnijj, 
1 6pecain, meic Sapam, -| Ronain pin 
mic Sapcnn. "Pompa, daughter of Loarn, 
was the mother of Cairnech and Brwttn, 
sons of Saran, and of Konan Finn, son of 
Saran." (2'.) Saint Cairnech was the son 
of Saran and Pompa, or Babona. But 
of the other three the case is less plain. 
St. Dalian, according to Colgun, was the 
son of Colla (son of Ere, of the line of 
Colin Iluais, king of Erin), by a mo- 
ther named Forgail, A. SS. Jan. xxi.x. 
p. 203. His real name was Eochaidh. 
and he was surnamed Dalian, by reason 
of his blindness. lie was lineally descended 
from Colla Iluais, and was cousin-german 
to St. Muidoc of Ferns, their fathers, Colla 
Mac Ere and Sedna Mac Ere, being bro- 
thers. See Ogygia, iii. c. 76. Of Caemlacli 
I cannot say anything. But the word Lui- 
rig, if it were a name at all, would seem 
only to be a surname, for it is the Latin 
word lorica. Armour was not early worn 
in Ireland. At the battle of Seghais, in 
Leinster, Tighernach, aim. 709, the Britons 

four sons f , viz. Muircheartach Mac Erca, and Fearadhach, and Tigh- 
earnach, and Maian. 

And Sarran had issue by Babona ; and there were begotten by 
them five sons s , viz., Luirig, and Cairnech, and Bishop Dallain, 
and Caemlach; and he [i. e. Sarran] died after victory and after tri- 
umph in the house of Martin". 

Luirig then succeeded to the throne, and he extended his power 
over the Saxons, and he forcibly built a fort within the precincts of 
the monastery of Cairnech his brother. Muircheartach Mac Erca 1 


who served on Ceallach's side were re- 
marked for wearing the luirig. But it 
may be that the appellation is rather ob- 
tained by changing the orthography of a 
real name than in the way of a surname. 
See below, p. 190, note (H.) Lurach 
occurs as a proper name in Irish history ; 
but who the Luirig was who is described 
in the legend before us as a British or Cor- 
nish king, I do not know. (T.) 

h Martin. The house of Martin is 
Tours in France, which city he appears 
to have conquered, and bestowed the bi- 
shopric on his son, Cairnech. But nei- 
ther of those 1'acts appears otherwise than 

by implication (H.) Unless we suppose 

Tech-Martain to be the name of some 
place where there was a monastery dedi- 
cated to St. Martin ; if so, Sarran dying 
with victory and triumph may signify 
that he died a monk. There are two 
places called St. Martin's in Cornwall. 
But at that time, a little before the Be- 
nedictines, all Irish monks were of the 
Martinist foundation, and every monas- 

tery, in a certain sense, a House of Martin. 

> Muircheartach Mac Erca This mo- 
narch, called Mac Erca, from the name 
of his mother, Ere, daughter of Loarn, 
was king of Ireland from 509, according 
to Tighernach, but, according to the 
more probable chronology of the Annuls 
of Ulster, from 513 to 534. The ac- 
count here given of him is not very con- 
sistent with his reputation as the first 
Christian king of Ireland, " a good and 
pious sovereign." Lanigan, i. p. 435. We 
may, perhaps, suppose that the murders 
for which he was banished from Ireland 
in his youth, and the subsequent parri- 
cide of his grandfather, for which he was 
banished from Scotland, were committed 
before his conversion to Christianity. 
But the same excuse cannot be made for 
other immoralities attributed to him. See 
Petrie's Essay on Tara Hill, Transactions 
Koyal Irish Academy, vol. xviii. Antiq. 
p. 1 1 8, sq. The whole of this strange 
legend gives a curious picture of the loose 


15 pojlaim ^aipcm, lap na Dicup a h-Gpino ap na Cpoppana DO 
mapbaD, -\ lap na oicop mpcain a h-Qlbam ap mapbaD a pean- 
arap i. LoaipriD pig Qlban; conap capla Do coipeapcab a aipm in 
can pin co Caipnoec co mac Deiptipcarap a marap; co n-ebaipc 
Caipnec pip, boo pig Gpenn -| bpecan ru caiDci, ~| Do geba nearh 
lapoam ace co n-Dicuipea Lmpij DO neapc aca pop in n-eclaip. 
QnDpin luij mac Gpca 50 pi i acbepc a h-aifeapc lap puaccam 
.1. Na cumraij DO caraip i uail Caipnic eppcop. Oap mo Oebpoc, 
ap Luipic, ap calma popm in peaca aii allcai pil aicci anDap 
pem 1 in CoimDe ma n-anaip. UeiD mac Gpca ppux culu Caipnec 
mpcain ajup plopmip a h-aireapc. ^abaip peapj mop Caipnec 
oocain i DIJCIC, m'icci pomcoimDic ]iom Oia co pop in aobup na 
h-aiji pin po gaba ba|' -| leacpu a mic Gpca. h-Gpailip Caip- 
neach annpin ap mac Gpca cccc \>o Dicup a bparap, 1 gahaip 
Docain ap aeb conipac, "j ua luit) Di h-epail Caipnic DO Dicup in 
pijij. Co n-Deapna Oia mop mipbnili ap Caipneach anopin .1. cop 
paeb a^ n-allaij ap in c-pleib co h-aepecc inD pi^, gap Deplaip in 

notions of morality entertained by its au- tlie legend that he was attributing to his 

thor. It is not merely that Sarran is hero anything unbecoming the Christian 

represented as marrying one sister uiid character. -(?'.) 

living with another; that St. Cairneeh is J Grossana These were the cross-bear- 

represented as born in incest, and Muir- ers in religious processions, who also com- 

cheartach in adultery, for these things bined with that occupation, the profession, 

may have happened in a state of heathen- if we may so call it, of singing satirical 

ism without reproach to the hero of the poems against those who had incurred 

story; but St.Cairnech, a Christian bishop, Church censure, or were for any other 

is represented as instigating Muirchear- cause obnoxious. In this latter capacity 

tach to the murder ofLuirig; and exult- they often brought upon themselves the 

ing over the death of his brother in Ian- vengeance of the lawless chieftains whom 

guage very inconsistent with a profession they lampooned __ (!'.) 
of the Gospel; and all this without any k Judge __ The word Debpoc is explain- 

apparent consciousness in the writer of ed in the Leabhar Breac, fol. 14, a., by the 

1 83 

happened to be at that time with the king of Britain, learning military 
science, after he was expelled from Ireland for having killed the 
Crossans j , and after having been subsequently expelled from Alba, 
for having killed his grandfather, Loarn, king of Alba. It happened 
that he was at that time getting his arms consecrated by Cairnech, 
the son of his mother's sister ; then Cairnech said to him, Thou shalt 
be king of Eri and of Britain for ever, and shalt go to heaven after, 
provided thou canst but prevent Luirig from exercising his power 
against the Church. Then Mac Erca went to the king, and after he came 
he told his message, viz. : Build not thy city (said he) in the precincts 
of Cairnech the bishop. As God is myjudge k , says Luirig, I think more 
of the power of the pet Avild fawn he has, than of his own power, or 
of the power of the Lord God whom he adores. Mac Erca returned 
to Cairnech, and told him the result 1 . Great wrath suddenly seized 
Cairnech, et dixit, My prayer to my Lord, to my God, is, that that 
very fawn may be the cause of his death, and by thy hand, O Mac 
Erca! Cairnech then commanded Mac Erca to go forth and destroy 
his brother, and he [Jfac Erca] immediately took upon himself to 
light him ; and he went forth at the command of Cairnech to destn >y 
the king. And God worked a great miracle there for Cairnech, viz. 
he sent a wild fawn m out of the mountain into the king's assembly, 


paraphrase oap mo t)ia mbpuca, i. c. " by to Luirig. (2'.) 

my God of judgment." The meaning is: m A wild fawn. Meaning of course the 
" I would as soon attribute miraculous wild fawn already spoken of, for other- 
powers to the pet fawn that follows him wise the prayer of St. Cairnech would not 
as to Cairnech himself, or the God he have been fulfilled. Fawns and deer oc- 
worships." The word Coimbe, here trans- cupy a prominent place in Irish hagio- 
lated " Lord God," is the title generally graphy, and were the subjects of many 
given to Christ (2'.) miracles. St. Berach, of Cluain Coirphthe, 
' The result, Literally his desire, i. e. had a deer which was sent to him mira- 
what he had desired to be done in regard culously to carry his luggage, when he 


pluaj na 61016 ac in ]iij gona banoalaib'; -| Di^ic TDac Gpca, mac 
cialla cliach a cijeapna ppin clepeach 0015 buo pulli gach aim- 
neb lene in cumcacca ppi Luipi j. Qnopin pinoip TTlac 6pca in 
lopj; cara i plip in pij cop comr|iom ; -\ cupcaio 50 clepij ~| cent) 
laip pe comapra, ] oipc, ceno Do bparap DUID a Caipnic ; ec 
oi;cic Caipneach, leic oampa an cnairii, -\ comailpiu in pmip, i 
popia jac cpeap comapba puno co bpach ~\ in 6pmo. 

Ueccaip geill i neapc in cipi annpin, -\ Caipnec, ppi pecc 
m-blia6na, im mop pigi bpecan, -) Cac, -| Ope, -\ Sapcan. 

Co n-oenpna TTlac Gpca puillmb in peccaib .1. bean Linpic DO 
cabaipc mp carajaD i lap comlengaib co mop ppi pij Ppangc, a 
copnam a injene ppip, co n-nopcaip ic TTlac Gpca poDeoib in injen, 


set out in search of a suitable place for 
the foundation of his monastery. Vit. S. 
Berachi, c. 12. Colg. Acta SS. p. 342. 
Deer, at the prayer of St. Attracta, were 
made to carry timber to build the castle 
of the tyrant king of Connauglit. Vit. S. 
Attracta?, c. 1 3, ib. p. 280. A fawn, toge- 
ther with other wild animals, lived with 
St. Kieran of Saigher, " manserunt initis- 
sime apud cum et obediebant ei sccun- 
dum jussionem viri Dei in omnibus quasi 
Monachi." Vit. c. 6, ib. p. 458. A 
wild deer came daily to St. E mania to 
be milked. Vit. S. Fechini, c. 41, ib. 
p. 138; a miracle which was also vouch- 
safed to St. Crumtheris. Vit. Trip. S. 
Patr. iii. c. 74. The wild deer also obeyed 
St. Molagga of Teghmolagga. Vit. c. 19, 
20, Acta SS. p. 147, 148. A deer brought 
St. Columbkille his books which he had 
lost. O'Donnell, lib. i. c. 3. Trias Thaum. 

p. 407. St. Patrick found a deer suck- 
ling her fawn in the spot where the north- 
ern altar of the cathedral of Armagh now 
stands, and, taking up the fawn, the deer 
followed him " velut mitissima ovis." Jo- 
celin. c. 163. Comp. also Eleran. c. 86, 
Colg. Triad. Th. p. 46. And the same thing 
happened at Sabhall or Saul, Trip. iii. c. 
71. On another occasion St. Patrick and 
his companions passed through the hostile 
ambuscade of King Leogaire to Tara, the 
saint and his followers appearing to their 
enemies like eight deer, and the boy Benen, 
like a fawn, carrying a small bundle on 
his shoulder, which contained the sacred 
Bible of the saint. Vit. Trip. i. c. 60. To 
commemorate this miracle Saint Patrick 
composed the Lorica or Fedli Fiadha, first 
published by Mr. Petrie from the Liber 
Ilymnorum. Essay on Tara, p. 56, sq. 


and the host all went in pursuit of it except the king himself and 
his women. Et dixit Mac Erca, If you had been just, my Lord, 
towards your cleric, it is certain that it would give increased happi- 
ness to have the royal robe on Luirig. Then Mac Erca thrust his 
battle staff into the king's side, so that it was balanced": and IK; 
returned to his cleric, and the head of the king with him, as a 
token ; et dixit, Lo, here is thy brother's head for thee, Cair- 
nech. Et dixit Cairnech, Leave me the bone, and eat thou the 
marrow, and every third coarb shall be thine for ever, here p and 
in Eri. 

Then he (Mac Erca) took the hostages and the power of the 
district into his own hands, conjointly with Cairnech, for seven years, 
as also the supreme sovereignty of Britain, and Cat q , and Ore, and 

And Mac Erca then committed an additional sin, that is, he took 
to himself the wife of Luirig, after many battles and conflicts with 
the king of France, to take his daughter from him, until at last the- 


n Balanced That is, it passed through cularization of that sort is here offered liy 
the King's body, so that as much of the Cairnech, as a reward to Muirchertach tin- 
spear appeared at one side as at the other, killing his brother (//.) The word coarl >, 

Or it stood balanced in the wound, with- however, was also used to denote a succes- 

out falling (T.) sor in a civil office, as a king, chieftain, or 

Coarl. The comharb or coarb is the judge; and this may possibly be its signi- 

successor and representative of the original ficationhere; although the former is more 

founder in any prelacy, episcopal or con- probable, as the grant in this case comes 

ventual. The word seems here used for from the spiritual chief, in return for sup- 

the benefice itself. That the king was often posed services done to the church (7'.) 

the impropriator or commendatory of the P Here, i. e. in Britain ; for Luirig is 

coarbs, subject to the maintenance of the said to have been a king of or in Britain, 

clergy of the mother church, appears from and the scene of the legend appears to 

the Tribes and Customs of Hy-Many,p. 77, have been placed there (T.) 

note J ; Davis cit. ibid. An extensive se- q Cat Cat is Catanesiu or Caithness, 



1 cu jiuc ceirpi meic t>o .1. Conpccmcm, i ^ ael > ea ^ P 1 ^, caac 
puipij bperan -| pig bpeaccm Copno ; Nelleno a quo genp Nel- 


of which mention has already occurred. 
See p. 148, note f . (H.) 

' The daughter, i. e. the daughter of the 
king of France. I suppose the meaning 
to be, that Luirig's wife was the daughter 
of the king of France ; that after the 
death of her husband she was taken by 
Mac Eroa; that this led to wars with the 
king of France, and that Mac Erca finally 
succeeded in retaining her. If there be 
any history in this, it is difficult to trace 
it in such records as are accessible to me. 
It is probably a pure fiction, like many 
other things in this fabula perquam fu- 
tilis, Sjel joippjeth jjan ouch f-ipmne, 
as it is truly called in a note in the 
handwriting of old Charles O'Conor on 
the margin of the Book of Ballymote. 

s Constantine. It is to be inquired what 
Constantino is here named as the son of 
Mac Erca. The Britons had a great notion 
of some royal saint so called, but distinct 
from Constantine the Great. Out of the 
tyrant Constantinus, who assumed the 
purple in Britain, and wore it in Aries, 
and his son, Constans the Monk, they have 
formed the kings of Britain, Cystennin 
Vendigaid, i. e. Saint Constantine, and his 
sou, Constant Vanach, or Constans the 
Monk. They figure in the mythus of 
Vortigeru, and also in the heroic mythus 
that ensues, Cystennin being father, and 

Constant Vanach brother, to Emmrys 
Wledig and Uthyr Pendragon. Next 
comes Cystennin ap Cadwr, prince of 
Cornwall, who became king of all Bri- 
tain in 542, and to whom Gildas in 543 
or 544 addresses severe reproaches. The 
Brut of Kings affirms that he was slain 
in the third year of his reign, and buried 
in the Cor y Cewri, near Salisbury. It 
is observable that he was nearly the last 
king who could have been there buried, 
for in 552 Cynrie, son of Cerdic, gained 
the victory of Searobyrig or Sarum. But 
others make a Saint Constantine out of 
him. Mr. Kitson, in his Cornish Saints, 
annexed to the Life of Arthur, p. 165, 
gives " Constantine, king, monk, and mar- 
tyr, i ith March, 556. Domesday Book." 
Hector Boece asserts that he stole away 
to Ireland secretly, clam suis, received 
the tonsure in an Irish monastery, and 
suffered martyrdom while preaching to 

Pagans in Scotland Lib. ix. cit. Ussher, 

Brit. Ecclrs. p. 281. ed. 2. While John 
of Tinmouth says, that Constantine, kini/ 
of Cornwall, died peaceably in the mo- 
nastery of St. David of Menevia Cit. ibid. 

p. 282. I regard the whole story of his 
tonsure as a blundering fiction, having its 
origin in the history of Constans Mona- 
chus, son of Constantinus. The son of Cador, 
however, seems to have been the person to 
whom the legend of St. Constantine, king 

i8 7 

daughter' fell into Mac Erca's hands, and she bare him four sons, 
viz. Constantine 8 , and Gaedhal-Ficht (from whom descend the kings 
of Britain, and the kings of Britain-Conm') ; Nellenn (a quo gens 

. Nellan 

of Britain, and abbot of Kathain HuaShua- 
naigh in Westmeath, had reference. See 
Petrie on the Round Towers, p. 351, etc. 
Constantinus Rex Britonum regnuni ab- 
dicavit et peregrinationis causa venit Ra- 
theniam tempore S. Mochudda;. Cathal 
Maguire, cit. ibid. 353. This tale ob- 
tained such credit, as to have given the 
adjoining lauds the name of Muigh Con- 
stantin before the period (perhaps not 
very recent) when the legend about the 
bard Rumann which Mr. Petrie quotes, 
was composed. Mochuda died in 637, 
with no reputation of peculiar longevity. 
Lanigan, vol. ii. p. 102. It is, therefore, 
apparent, that Constantino ap Cador could 
not have known him; much less have 
been his coarb, as Maguire pretends. But 
the failure of synchronism will rather 
give fresh impeachment to the story than 
raise doubts as to the person who is meant, 
for the day of commemoration is the same 
(March 1 1 th) at Rathain as it was in Corn- 
wall. We may regard the Irish legend as 
an explanation of what is read in Boece. 
As to the other story, that Constantine of 
Rathen was Constantine Mac Fergus, king 
of Albania or the Crutheni, it is wholly 
absurd and forged. For Constantine 
Mac Fergus the Pict acceded in 788 or 789, 
and died king in 8 1 9. But he is not found 
in the text of the ancient Irish Festilogies. 

2 B 

Now of all these persons, it is evident 
that St. Constantine ap Cador, king, mar- 
tyr, and monk, should be the son fabu- 
lously ascribed to king Mac Erca. For 
that son was a Cornubian king ; and the 
date of Muirchertach, who died in 533, 
squares well with that of a son who (after 
a short reign) died in retirement in 556. 
Tighernach, aim. 588, mentions the Con- 
versio ad Dominum (tonsure) of our 
Constantinus, with no further explana- 

The name of Gaedhal Ficht is merely 
that of the nation of Gwyddyl Fichti, or 
North Picts of Britain ; and is far from un- 
important, as an Erse recognition of that 
Welsh appellation. The Scotch being also 
of Mac Erca's family, the whole of Bri- 
tain, by means of Constantine, of Guedhul 
Ficht, and of Loarn, is made, in aome sort, 
to derive itself from Ere, mother of 
Murchertach and Loarn. But such stuff 
will not bear a narrow examination 

1 Britain- Cornn, i. e. Cornwall. (7'.) 
The title of the Cornish saint, Iddawg 
Corn Prydain, is usually rendered Horn 
of Britain, in a personal sense, like Post 
Prydain, Pillar of Britain. But this pas- 
sage confirms my suspicion, that Com 
Prydain simply meant de Cornubifi or 
Cornubiensis, Corn-Wealh. (II.) 


Ian, -| Sccmoal in mac ele, a quo genp Scanoail .1. a n-Gpinn 6 caic 
clanna na oepi pin. 

Co n-DepnaD mop-nnol clepec n-Goppa co Copinip TTlapcan 
.1. pecc n-eppmc .pp?. aji .ccc. ma comanba peaoaip, Do paiib 
Caipnich eppcop Uoipmopi 1 bpecan-copnD, -| na n-uili bpeacnach, 
DO Dicup caca h-eippi, -\ Do ceapcu^un gaca cfpi immupr na 
h-ecalpa ; -| aDpopapc conoacc maprpa in beaca Do Chaipnech 
ap pob e a roa beara mapcpa ; -| pnaip Caipnech .III. eppcop Do 
romap map mailli pe Caipnnech Dia n-elecpf, 1 Do coib in Lien 
Da h-eilirpi .1. a Dualup TTlic Gpca -] TTluipeaoai. 

Do luiD CaipnDech perhe 50 bpecnaib CopnD no Capnciceon, ~\ 
po cumoaigeaD caroip po calmam laip ap Doij na paiciD pe cip 
na calum na h-eoip ; cop puillepraip nepc ~| piji TIlic 6pca pe 
hliaDna, -j co cdinic co n-6pinD peme, conaD h-e cec eppcop clamoi 
Neill i Uempacli, "| jop be ceo maiprfp -| ceD manach GperiD, ~| 
cecna bpeceam peap n-penD poj\ Q 

u Coarl a f Peter The coarb of Peter whom tliat country was converted. 

is the Pope. What follows is very oh- (//.) 

scure; but it seems to me to imply that There was a council held at Tours, in 

Cairnech and his clergy, in consideration the year 566 or 567, on the lyth of No- 

of his relationship to the heads of the Hy veinber, in the church of St. Martin, in 

Niall, were placed in possession of the which Euphronius, bishop of Tours, pre- 

metropolitan see of Lyons, which in the sided, assisted by eight other prelates. 

Council of Clermout, A. 1). 1092, was for- The object of the Council was the refor- 

nially established as the primacy of all mation of discipline, and its twenty-seven 

France. If so, we have now made him canons which remain all relate to that 

primate of France, of Armorica at Tours subject. They may be found in the printed 

(taking that construction of the House of editions of the Councils, and there is an 

Martin, above, p. 1 80), of Wales and Corn- abstract of them in Richard, Analyse des 

wall, and in effect, of Ireland, of whose Conciles, torn. i. p. 569, sq. 4. Paris, 1772. 

church he assumes the entire disposal. From this it would seem that there was 

The name Caruticeon, attached to Corn- here possibly some foundation of fact in 

wall, I believe to mean Carentociawn, the the mind of the writer of this legend. St. 

diocese or jurisdiction of St. Carentoc, by Cairnech was originally of Cornwall, and 

Nellan), and Scannal, the other son, a quo gens Scannail ; i. e. it is 
in Eri the descendants of the two last are. 

Now a great synod of the clergy of Europe was made at Tours 
of Martin, viz., three hundred and thirty-seven bishops, with the 
coarb of Peter", to meet Cairnech, Bishop of Tours and Britain-Cormi, 
and of all the British, to cast out every heresy, and to reduce every 
country to the discipline of the Church. And the chieftainship of 
the martyrs of the world was given to Cairnech, because martyrdom 
was his own choice. And Cairnech found thrice fifty bishops who 
made it also their choice to accompany Cairnech in pilgrimage, and 
that number went to Lien v in pilgrimage for the sake of Mac Erca 
and Muiredhach. 

Cairnech then set out to the Britons of Cornn or Carnticeon, and 
a city was built by him under ground, in order that he might 
not see the earth, nor the country, nor the sky ; and he increased 
the strength and sovereignty of Mac Erca for a year, and he (i. e. 
Cairnech) came to Eri before him, so that he was the first bishop of 
the Clann-Niall and of Temhar ( Jara), and he was the first martyr 
and the first monk of Eri, and the first Brehon" of the men of Eri 


may have been connected with the Arum- ecclesiastics of Cornwall. (?'.) 
rican Britons, whose affairs appear to have v Lien, probably Lyons.. ('!'.) 

formed a part of the business of the above- w Brehon, i.e. judge. The author of 

mentioned Council of Tours, for its ninth the legend was determined to concentrate 

canon prohibits the consecration of a Ko- in the person of his hero every ecclcsiasti- 

man or Briton to the episcopal office by cal perfection. This tale was either un- 

an Armorican bishop, without the license known to Colgan, or else he did not con- 

of the metropolitan (of Tours) or the com- sider it worthy of any notice. He makes 

provincial bishops. This would seem as no mention of any tradition that Cair- 

if the Armorican bishops were then seek- nech was a martyr, nor of any of the other 

ing to exercise an independent jurisdic- particulars here recorded Vit. Carnechi, 

tion, perhaps, in conjunction with the ad 28 Mart. p. 782. (T.) 


Cop carampeoap umoppo Ppaingc ~\ Sajram Oia eip ppi TTlac 
Gpca, i gop roglab a cpich -j a cafaip pe cian o'aimpp, -| gop 
milleab cpichab ~\ cumocca na cipi ha near^a Do pe mere a 


" Mmk war. The legend speaks only 
of the triumphs of Mac Erca, and con- 
cludes with his elevation to the sove- 
reignty of Ireland. For an account of his 
miserable death see Petrie on Tara Hill, 
pp. 119, 1 20, and the Four Masters, ad 
;inn. 527 ; also Cossgrave in Vit. S. Cuth- 
borti. c. i. ap Culgan, ad 20 Mart. p. 679, 
and the notes, p. 690. (T.) 

The writer of the legend might have 
gone on to say that St. Cairnech contri- 
buted to the cruel fate of King Mac Erca, 
by his bitter and not inoperative male- 
dictions on him and his house; and was 
to him what Saints Kuadan and Cbluin- 
kille were to king Diarmid Mac Cear- 
bhoil. See Cambrensis E versus, p. 74; 
Pi-trio on Tara Hill, p. 122. 

Ft remains to inquire what is meant by 
the legend of Sarran conquering, and his 
MIII Luirig governing, Britain, England, 
mid Pictland? Perhaps nothing. It is, 
however, true that, somewhere about those 
timos, an Irish force conquered the island 
i if Mona. or Anglesey. That island was 
recovered out of their hands by Cas- 
wallawn Lawhir, or the Longhanded, fa- 
ther to Maelgwn Gwynedd, king of Bri- 
tain, who defeated their leader, Serigi or 
Sirigi, at the place marked by the Cer- 
risr y Wyddyl or Stones of the Irishmen. 
Lhoyd and Powel, Descr. of Wales, p. 15; 

\Varrington, i. p. 40 ; Camden, ii. p. 60 ; 
Rowland's Mona, p. 147; Triads, series i. 
tr. 49 ; ser. ii. tr. 40. But Lhoyd, as well as 
D. Langhorne, Chro. Reg. Angl. p. 73, errs 
in saying that the Gwyddyl Fichti or Picts 
were in Mona, instead of the Gwyddyl or 
Irish ; which is contrary to the Liber 
Triadum, misquoted by Langhorne. The 
latter makes the further mistake of sup- 
posing Gwyddyl Fichti to mean Cruthe- 
nians from Clanboy. The troops of Gan- 
val the Irishman, says Triad 8, series 3, 
came into N. Wales, and settled there for 
twenty-nine years, until they were driven 
into the sea by Caswallawn ap Beli. But 
it is incredible, that the only two Cas- 
wallawns whose acts are recorded should 
both have driven the Irish out of North 
Wales ; or that an Irish inroad of the 
fractional duration of twenty-nine years 
should be referred to Csar's days ; and 
1 doubt not that the Irish settlers for 
twenty-nine years were those whom Cas- 
wallawn Lawhir expelled. They had taken 
strong hold of Mona. For Caswallawn, 
after his victory at the Cerrig, slew Sirigi 
at his town of Llan y Gwyddyl (Irish 
Church), now Holy-Head, which the 
Irish had built. Rowlands, ibid. Oval 
and circular trenches continue to be 
shewn in Mona as the ground plots of 
the Irish habitations, orcyttiau yr Gwyd- 


Now, after this the Franks and the Saxons made war x against 
Mac Erca, and he destroyed their country and their cities after a 
long contest ; and the country and the power of the territories adja- 

delodd. Rowlands, p. 27. If the Irish 
population were then expelled (and not, 
as I rather suppose, subjugated), the me- 
mory of its having been firmly seated 
there appears in Golyddan's division of 
the Irish of Vortigern's day, into those of 
Ireland, Mona, and North Britain, 

"Gwyddyl Iwerddon, Mun, a Plirvdyn." Arch. 
Myvyr. i. 156. 

But Einiou, father of Caswallawn, for 
whom his son reconquered Mona, was 
styled Anianus Rex Scotorum, i. e. Einiou 
Vrenin o Wyddelodd, king of the Irish- 
men. See Vaughan, cit. Camden, ii. 69. 
Now this Caswallawn is said to have 
reigned overGwynedd seventy-four years, 
from 443 to 517. But that chronology is 
tainted with the omission of two gene- 
rations, and the confounding of two dif- 
ferent Einions. His true pedigree is 
Cynedda, Einion Urdd, Owain Uanivyn, 
Einion Vrenin o Wi/ddelodd, Caswallawn 
Lawhir. See Rowlands, p. 155. Cam- 
bro-Briton, i. p. 247. The insertion of 
these generations may bring the date of 
Sirigi's death into the life-time of Mur- 
ehertach, for he obtained the crown of 
Ireland in 513, and reigned over it 
till 533. Now, it seems possible, that 
the conquest of Mona by the Irish, may 
be the conquest of the British island. 

so largely exaggerated in this piece; and 
that iheLuiriij subsequently slain in Bri- 
tain may be Sirigi, as most writers spell 
the name. Here we read that Mac Erca 
sinned in taking Luirig's widow for his 
wife; but in Lynch we read, that he pe- 
rished by the vengeance of Sin or Sheen 
(daughter of Sigh), whose father he had 
put to death. Cambr. Eversus, p. 74. In 
the prophecy of St. Cairneach it is said, 

" Sin is the woman who kills thee, 
O son of Ere, as 1 see:" 

and it enumerates her eleven names, I ait 
does not i>ive her father's name. See 
Petrie on Tara, p. 120. Sigh certainly 
approaches to Sirigh. If there be any 
truth at all in Muirchertach's having so- 
journed in Britain, it was probably enough 
among the Irish of Mona, and during tin- 
five years of anarchy, 508-13, preceding 
his accession, when Ireland had no kinsr. 
That Cairnech may have presided over 
the Irish Church or Llauy Gwyddyl. that 
he may have quarrelled with Sirigi con- 
cerning the fortifications of that place, 
and that both he and Muirchertach were 
considered instrumental to his destruction, 
are all possible circumstances. But whe- 
ther their suggestion throws any glimmer 
of light on this extravagant narration, I 
leave others to judge. (//.) 


curhacra ~| a nepc ; -| 50 canic lap pin a mop loin^eap DO gabail 
pii na h-Gpeno ; 50 oeipib ic pan na long pop boinD, jop loipcre 
laip a lonja .1. jjonao ua6a pon[na]lon^, -) gop mapbaD coijeD- 
ai na h-Gpeno lapcam, -\ 50 po j;aib a piji Do Dilep co bpac DO 
peiri -| oa cloinD. <5r Tnilleab cumacca -] neapc bpecan Dia h-eipi 

DO ]HCINt;ai& erceHN QN'OSO t)Q R6R 666QIR ^f-lHO t)Q- 


.1. Imp ^luaip a n-lppup Oomnann, ipe a h-aipoi, na cuipp be- 
pap inci ni lohaic irep, ace papaic a n-mjne ~| a puilr i oobep 500 
aen inci aicni ap a acliaip -| ap a penachaip co cian mp n-ejaib, 
1 ni lobann CID in peoil apcena cen pailliuD inn. 


' Fdii-na-lnng, i.e. the drawing up of the Antiquities of Ireland, by Harris, chap, 

ships. This place is now unknown (?'.) xxxiv. p. 227 (T.) 

' Wonders. The following account of a Glrn-iln-liM-hn The Book of Glenda- 

tlie wonders of Ireland is taken from the loch is not now known to exist. The book 

Book of Ballymote, fol. 140, b. Another which is preserved in the Library of Tri- 

tract on the same subject, but differing nity College, Dublin, and which was 

both in the number and order of the quoted by Mr. Petrie, in his Essay on Tara, 

"Wonders" described, is to be found in as the Book of Glendaloch, has since been 

the MS. Library of Trinity College, Dub- ascertained by Mr. Curry to be the Book 

lin, H. 3, 17, col. 725, the same volume of'Leinstcr (T.) 

from which the text of the Irish Nennius " I/n.t Ghutir, now Inish-jrlory, an island 

has principally been taken in the present about, a mile west off the coast of Erris, 

work. It shall be referred to in these County Mayo. See O'Flaherty's West 

notes by the letter D. as before. Connaught, and Mr. Ilardiman's note, 

The Mirabilia Hiberuia; are described p. Si ; also O'Donovan's Hy-Fiachrach, 

by Nennius, Giraldus Cambrensis, Kalph p. 492. O'Flaherty (Ogygia, p. 290) 

lligden in his Polychronicon, who relies makes this the seventh wonder. In D. it 

entirely on Giraldus; O'Flaherty's Ogy- is the sixth, and is thus described: Imp 

gia, part iii. c. 50, p. 289. See also Ware's ^lucup &penumo u n-lppop OomnunD a 


cent to him were also destroyed by the greatness of his power and of 
his strength ; and after this he came with a large fleet to take the 
sovereignty of Eri. He landed at Fan-na-long on the Boyne, where 
he burned his ships, from which circumstance comes the name of 
Fan-na-long y ; and he killed the provincial kings of Ireland after- 
wards, and took their sovereignty by right for ever, for himself and 
for his descendants. And then the power and strength of Britain 
was destroyed after him. 



I)A-LoCHA a . 

i. Inis-Gluair b in Irrus Domhnann ; this is its property, that the 
corpses that are carried into it do not rot at all, but their nails and hair 
grow, and every one in it recognises his father and grandfather for a 
long period after their death. Neither does the meat unsalted rot 
in it. 

ConnaceaiB na mcupb bio mnci noco 
bpenaio, i nocho lobaio, -\ papaio a 
pulcu, i a n-mjne, -| DO beip each 
aichne pop a muinocip pein inci. "Inis 
Gluair of St. Brendann, in Irrus Domh- 
nann in Connacht: the corpses that are 
in it do not stink or rot, and their hair 
and nails grow, and every one recognises 
his own relations in it." The island was 
sacred to St. Brendan, and still contains 
the ruins of churches dedicated to that 
saint. Giraldus mentions this miracle, but 
gives a wrong name to the island : " Est 
insula quredam in occidentali Conactia: 
soloposita, cui nomen.Ami, a sanctoBren- 

IRISH AECH. SOC. 1 6. 2 C 


dano, ut aiunt, consecrata. In hac ho- 
minum corpora nee huruantur, nee putres- 
cunt; sed sub divo posita et exposita 
permanent incorrupta. Hie homines avos, 
atavos, et tritavos, longamque stirpis sua; 
retro seriem, mirando conspiciunt et cog- 
noscunt." Top. Hib. Dist. ii. c. 6. Aran 
was not dedicated to St. Brendan, but to 
St. Endeus; see Cambr. Eversus, pp. 7, 8. 
Lush-glory is at present uninhabited ; but 
it contains the ruins of some very ancient 
dwellings; and leeks and other garden 
herbs, introduced by the Monks of St. 
Brendan, are found growing wild in seve- 
ral places on the island. (T.) 


.ii. Loc n-Gchach; ipi a aipoi, cpano cuilmn Do bepap mo ppi 
pecc m-bliaDnaib ip cloc a m-bi DC ip in gpian, -] ip ictpann na m-bi 
ip in uipce, cpano umoppo na m-be uappu. 

.111. Cippa loca Con i Connaccaib; ipi a h-aipoi ppi pin loc pil 
na compocup, cuij cpoijio ecuppu Do jpep, cia popbpio cia pepgaic 
in loc pechiopi he in cac aipoi Dib pin Do jpep. 

.iu. Uippa ^abla limn i n-Qipgiallaib; ipi a aipoi pinlc Dap 
arabap h-ic liaca po cerotp. 

c Loch n-Ed/ach, i. e. the lake of Eochach 
or Eochadh, now Loch Neagh. Ogygia, 
p. 292. It is very generally believed that 
this lake possesses the property of petrify- 
ing wood. Harris, in his edit, of Ware's 
Antiquit. p. 228, quotes Boetius, Hist. 
Lapidum et Gemmarum, for a statement 
respecting Lough Neagh exactly the same 
as that of the text, but says that it has 
been found to be certainly false. It is po- 
pularly believed, however, to the present 
day. Nennius describes the miracle thus : 
" Est aliud staguum quod f'acit ligna du- 
rescere in lapides : homines autem fingunt 
ligna, et postquam formaverint projictint 
in stagno, et manent in eo usque ad caput 
anni, et in capite anni lapis reperitur. 
Et vocatur Loch Echach." Comp. O'Fla- 
herty, Ogygia, p. 290, n. 3. In D. this is 
the second wonder, and is thus described : 
f/och n-Gochach, Do ni DO cpuno chml- 
lino a cino .un. m-bliaona conao lapann 
u m-bi be n calrnam, -| cloc a m-bi a 
n-uipci, -| cpano a m-bi op uipce. " Loch 
n-Eochach makes a holly tree at the end 
of seven years, so that the part that is in 


the earth becomes iron, and the part that 
is in the water becomes stone, and the 
part that is out of the water remains 
wood." Cambrensis has not mentioned 
this wonder, although he relates a story 
about the origin of this lake, which he 
says was originally a fountain, that was 
permitted to overflow the country, in con- 
sequence of the unnatural crimes of the 
inhabitants. And this too in Christian 
times, for he adds : " Quod piscatores aqua- 
illius turres ecclesiasticas, qusc more pa- 
tria; arctic sunt et altffi necnon et rotunda, 
sub undis manifesto sereno tempore con- 
spiciunt." Topogr. d. 2, c. 9. This story 
bears evident marks of a desire to brand 
the Irish with odious imputations ; but 
if we omit the accusation of unnatural 
crimes, and the insinuation that the event 
took place in Christian times, therestofth.e 
legend occurs, nearly as it is related by 
Cambrensis, in that curious collection of 
Irish historical and bardic traditions, the 

According to this Irish legend Lough 
Neagh is said to have broken forth in the 

ii. Loch n-Echach c ; its property is: a holly tree that is placed in 
it for seven years, the part of it that sinks into earth will be stone, 
the part that remains in the water will be iron, and the part that re- 
mains above water will be wood. 

iii. The well of Loch Con" in Connaught; its property is, with 
regard to the lake that is near it, there are five feet in difference of 
height between them at all times. Whether the lake swells or shrinks 
the well imitates it in each change continually. 

iv. The well of Gabhal Liuin e in Oirghialla; its property is, that 
human hair upon which it is poured will become immediately grey. 

reign of Lugadh Sriabh n-dearg, A. D. 
^J-VS; Ogyg. p. 289. See also Lynch, 
Cambrensis Eversus, pp. 132, 133 (T.) 

A The well of Loch Con This well is 
now unknown in the vicinity of Loch Con, 
a lake in the barony of Tirawley, County 
Mayo. There is nothing miraculous in 
this wonder, which is the ninth in O'Fla- 
herty's list. Ogygia, p. 291. 

District!) Mayo foris, atque Tirauliie in oris 
Loch Canis ad ripam, spatio remeabilis sequo, 
Exundante lacu, vcl subsidente, scaturit 
Proximus ; accessu fugiens, rediensque recessu. 

D. describes the seventh wonder Cippa 
locao [read loca Con, the scribe wrote 
o for 9, the contraction for con] a Con- 
naccaib cio mop a chuile -| cio mop u 
cape bio .u. cpai^ci acappu DO j;pep. 
" The well of Loch [Con] in Connaught, 
whether there is a great flood or whether 
there is a great drought, there are always 
five feet difference of height between them." 

e Gabhal Liuin. Now Galloon, a pa- 
rish in thebarony of Dartry, inMonaghan, 
which county was a part of the ancient 
Oirghialla, or Oriel. Giraldus places a well 
possessing the same wonderful property 
in Munster, and mentions another having 
an opposite efficacy in Ulster : " Est fons 
in Mornonia, cujus aqua si quis abluitur 
statim canus efficitur. Vidi hominem 
cujus pars barbaj, limphis istis lota, canis 
incanduerat, altera parte tota in sua natura 
fusca manente. Est e contra fons in Ulto- 
nia, quo si quis abluitur, non canescet 
amplius. Hunc autem fontem femina? 
frequentant, et viri caniciem vitare volen- 
tes." Dist. 2, c. 7. On which Lynch 
remarks : " De his fontibus id universim 
dico cum nee hodie nee memoria majorum 
fontes ejusmodi dotibus imbuti esse de- 
prehenduntur, nullam supetere rationem 
cur affectiones illis a natura insita; tempo- 
ris diuturnitate evanescerent. Ac insu- 
per addo, cum indefinite fontium loca de- 


.u. Tippet pleibe 6la6ma ; ipi a h-aipoi oia nop peja no Dia nop 
caiolea neach m an aep i colao pleochaiD co n-oencup oipppionn 
1 lobapca aicce. 

.ui. Uippa Rara boch i Uip Conaill; ipi a aipoe ppi gac n- 
buine arop a, mao poua a paejul epjio anaipo in a 01516, -| po jni 
conngup mop ppip. TTlao gaipic imonpo a pe pop leci pip Do plmc 
co jpian. 

.un. Uippa uipce pomblaip i caeb in Copainn. Ipi aipoe in 


signet, eum in non modicam erroris suspi 
ciouem venire." Cambr. Evers., p. 8, coinp. 
also p. 100. It is evident, however, from 
the present tract, that similar tales were 
current among the Irish themselves, and 
therefore that Cambrensis did not, in this 
instance at least, draw wholly on his own 
invention. InD. the well of Galloon is thus 
described, and stands eighth in the list of 
wonders: Cippajabpa luin un-Oipgiul- 
laiK liaruij na pulcu cap a rabuprup 
a h-uipce. " The well of Gabar [read 
Gabhal] Luin, in Oirghialla, it renders 
grey the hair on which its water is poured." 
.O'Flaherty omits this wonder. (T.) 

f Sliabh Bladhma, now Slieve Bloom. 
The irritable well here mentioned is the 
source of the River Bearbha, now the Bar- 
row, in the barony of Ily-Kegan, now 
Tinnahinch, in the north-west of the 
Queen's County. It floods the lower 
country for miles in the rainy seasons, a 
circumstance which probably gave rise to 
the legend in the text. In D. this is the 
ninth wonder, and the story is told thus: 
Cippa pleibe 6la6ma bin. t)o ni pleb- 

chcio mop bia ti-uicrep h-i 6 oume, ni 
coipceano on pleocab co n-bentap 10- 
baipc cuipp Cpipr aj5 on cibpaio. " The 
well of Slieve Bladhma then. It makes 
a great ilood when it is looked upon by 
a man ; the Hood does not cease until the 
offering of the Body of Christ is made at 
the well." Many similar traditions re- 
specting wells still prevail amongst the 
peasantry in every part of Ireland. Mr. 
()' Donovan, in a communication to the 
Editor, says: "To this day the Irish retain 
the notion that if a pure spring well, 
whether consecrated or not. be defiled by 
throwing any nauseous filth into it, or 
washing soiled clothes in it, it will either 
dry up or migrate to some other locality, 
and many examples of such migrations are 
pointed out in every county in Ireland. 
Thewell of Slieve Bladhma appears to have 
been more deeply vengeful than any of 
our modern wells, since the glance of a 
human eye, or the touch of a human hand, 
was an offence which threatened inunda- 
tion to the neighbourhood, and could only 
be expiated by the sacrifice of the Mass 


v. The well of Sliabh Bladhma f : its property is, if any one gazes 
on it, or touches it, its sky will not cease to pour down rain until 
mass and sacrifice are made at it. 

vi. The well of Rath Both 5 in Tir-Conaill: its property to every 
one who seeks it is, that if his life is to be long it rises up against 
him, and salutes him with a great murmur of waves. If his life is to 
be short it sinks down suddenly to the bottom. 

vii. A well of sweet water in the side of the Corann" ; the pro- 

itself." O'Flaherty does not mention this 
well in his metrical list of wonders ; but 
Cambrensis gives the following version of 
it, in which, as usual, he greatly improves 
upon the story : " Est fons in Momonia, 
qui si tactus ab homine, vel etiam visus 
fuerit, statim tota Provincia pluviis in- 
undabit : qufe non cessabunt donee saeerdos 
ad hoc deputatus, qui et virgo fuerit a 
nativitate, tarn meute quam corpore, Missa: 
celebratione in Capella (qua; non procul 
a fonte ad hoc dignoscitur esse fundata) 
et aquas benedictas, lactisque vacca; unius 
coloris aspersione (barbaro satis ritu et 
ratione carente) fontem reeonciliaverit." 
Top. dist. 2, e. 7 ; Comp. Cambr. E versus, 
pp. 8, 9 .-(T.) 

B Rath-Both, now Kaphoe, in the county 
of Donegal. This wonder, which is not 
noticed by Giraldus or O'Flaherty, is the 
tenth in D., and is thus described: Cibpu 
Raclia bocli a cpich Conuill mao paej- 
lac inci ceio DU peguo cibui^ cap a bpu- 
ach umach ; mao cpu imoppo, m cic 
cap a hop amach. "The well of Kuth- 
Both, in the Connell country : if the per- 

son who goes to look at it is long-lived it 
overflows out over its brink; but if he is 
withering it does not go forth over its 
edge." At Acha, or St. John's well, near 
Kilkenny, it was believed that the holy 
well overflowed at midnight on St. John's 
Eve; but no such property as that ascribed 
to the well in the text seems to be now re- 
membered at Kaphoe (T.) 

h The Corann, a plain from which rises 
Sliabh Gamh, near Colooney, in the county 
of Sligo ; on the side of which mountain 
this well is still pointed out, and the po- 
pular belief still attributes to it the pro- 
perty described in the text. Giraldus 
mentions this well, but he places it erro- 
neously on the top of the mountain ; " Est 
et in Conactia/iiRS fluids aquie in vertice 
inoutis excelsi, et procul a mari, qui die 
naturali bis undis deticiens, et toties exu- 
berans marinas imitatur instabilitates." 
Top. Dist. 2. c. 7. From the expressions 
marked in italics it would seem that Giral- 
dus had before him a copy of the Irish 
account of these wonders, or a translation 
of it. No marvellous story lost any of 


copccip pini Imu6 "| cpajao po aipoi tnapa, -\ ipcian o muip 

.uni. Cajin cpacca Gocaili; noco luja ic cichep e in can ip Ian 
ap in can ip cpaij, -] ceo muip cap na caipjib mopaib na muip- 
beac impi pan can. 

.ijc. Cloc pil i loc na n-Oncon i pleib i pail ^ 1nr11 Do l ca ; ipi 
a aipoe, Dia m-buailceap i DO plepc cpi inopaiOi pleochao -] jpmn 

.;r Ice annpo cpi h-ingancai Uempa .1. mac .un. m-bliaoan DO 


its wonders by passing through his hands, 
but it is evident that he copied from a na- 
tive original. In D. this is the eleventh 

The miraculous property of the earn of 
Trawohelly is spoken of in the Libellus 
de Mutribus Sanctorum, as Colgan calls it, 

wonder, and the story is told thus: Cibnn and which he attributes to Aengus the 

puil a cuib in Copmo DO nl cuile-| cpu- 
jjao po copmalmp in mapu. " There 
is a well in the side of the Corann, which 
(lows and ebbs after the similitude of the 
sea." A miracle similar to this has been 
already given amongst the wonders of 
Alan. See above, p. 121 (2'.) 

' The strand of 'Kothuil. The great earn 
on Trawohelly strand still remains, but 
its miraculous property seems to be DO 

Culdee. After enumerating the seven 
daughters of Dallbronach of Dal Con- 
chobhair in the Uecies of Bregia, and the 
long list of saints sprung from them, this 
document proceeds (Book of Leinster, fol. 
239, b. col. 4. MS. Trin. Coll. II. 2. 18.) 
Ocup cono puncutap imuculluim uile 
nu numi peo T cnpn Cpacca Goraile, -| 
co pin^pec uencait), -\ apbepcucap nech 
conpcepuo i culani a n-oenraio nu pic- 

more than this, that it is never covered by pao u unim nem, ~\ na biao a urjabcnl 

the sea. " Super ttuctus mirabiliter emi- 
nens," as O' Flaherty says, Ogygia, p. 174. 

i culmuin. Ocup in capnpti in pa com- 
pcncpem co ci muipocippoe h. piacpach 

It ib recorded in the account of the battle nu cicpuo cuipip. Ocup upbepc eppcop 
of Mttgh Tuireadh that this earn was ITInne. 
raised over Eochaidh Mac Eire the last 
king of the Firbolgs who was killed on 
the strand of Trawohelly by the Tuatha- 
de-Dunnan, headed by Nuadha of the sil- 
ver hand, A.M. 2737, Ogyg. part iii. c. 10. 
Keating in loc. 

Nee con pcepa oencuio ap noeb 
pec bio cloen bib mep 
ni aicpeba eulam cmo. 
ni pia a arum pop nem. 

" And ull these saints met in a synod 


perty of that well is, it fills and ebbs like the sea, though it is far 
from the sea too. 

viii. The earn of the strand of Eothail'. It is not the less seen when 
the tide is full than when it is at low ebb, and notwithstanding that 
the tide rises over the large rocks on the beach around it to and fro. 

ix. A stone in Loch na n-0nchon j , in a mountain near Glenn-da- 
Loch; its property is, if it be struck with a wand byway of assault, 
rain will ensue, and sunshine after. 

x. These are the three wonders of Teamhar", viz.: a youth of 


at the Cam of Tragh Eothaile, and they 
made a covenant of union, and they said 
of whosoever should break that union on 
earth, his soul shall not reach heaven, and 
he shall not recover his station on earth. 
And as for this earn at which we have 
met, the sea shall never cover it until it 
overflows the surface of Hy-Fiachrach. 
And Bishop Mane said, 

" Whosoever shall dissolve the union of our saints, 
AVhether he be degenerate, or whether he be mad, 
Shall not inhabit the firm earth, 
His soul shall not reach to heaven." 

See also the copy of the same tract pre- 
served in the Book of Lecan, fol. 43, and 
O'Donovan's Hy-Fiachrach, p. 1 1 7, note c . 
The earn of Trawohelly is the eighth in 
O'Flaherty's metrical list of wonders ; it is 
not mentioned in D (T.) 

J Loch na n-Onchon, i. e. the Lake of Ot- 
ters. This is the name of a lake in the hills 
near Glandaloch, perhaps the same which 
is now called Loch-na-hanagan. There is 
a stone called the Deer-stone in the Glen 
itself, on the south side of the lower lake, 

of which some similar tales are told ; but 
the original traditions are now so much 
corrupted by the ignorance of the guides 
and the folly of visitors to the lakes, that 
no dependence can be placed on them, as 
representing ancient thought (7'.) 

k Teamhar. The three wonders of Tarn 
are given separately in D. The first is 
there the nineteentli wonder, and is thus 
described : IDac .un. rh-bliaoan po l>ui 
a Ceampaij, -\ po tuipim clano pon 
aimpip pin. "A boy of seven years old 
that was at Tara, and begot children at 
that age." 

The grave of the dwarf is the fifteenth 
wonder in D., and is spoken of in theM! 
words: f'ljje in cibuic u Cempuij, cpi 
cpoigri mnci bo cuch ecup bej ~\ mop. 
"The grave of the dwarf at Teamhar; it is 
three feet long to every one whether great 
or small." The meaning is, that every 
one, whether a child or a full-grown man, 
who attempts to measure it, finds it ex- 
actly three of his own feet long. O'Fln- 
herty has thus versified this wonder, 


cupmio cloinne; -\ l^t in abuic .u. cpaijiD DO gac Duine ann cm 
heoip beca no mopa; -| in lia pail .1. in ctoc no seppeo F a c c ni 5 
ap paempao plara Uempac. 

.pa. Linn muilino pi i Cluain pepca TTlolua ; ipi a h-aipoe na 
oaine no oop pocpaic inci oca bpaigic na linne Do gnic lumu Dib. 
Nemipcoic ech irnoppo, oca pin puap. 

.pen. Qonacul TTlic Pupcainj i Ruipec i Cailli pollomain i 

which stands first in his list Ogygia, 
pp. 290. 

u Temoriae nani tumulum lapis obtegit, in quo 
Vir, puer aut infans tres, ct non amplius, reqnat 
( tnisque pedes longo ; numerum discrimine nullo 
Multiplicat minuitve pedum proportio dispar." 

See also Petrie on Tara Hill, p. 156 (7'.) 
Another form of this idea may be 
termed the Procrustean; where a grave 
(Giraldus, Itin. Camb. ii. cap. 3, Higden, 
p. 189, where read se conformem for decon- 
formem), or a bed (Sir J. Ware, Ant. Ilib. 
i;d. Harris, p. 63), fits the length of who- 
soever lies down in it. Such was the grave 
upon Crugmawr or Pen Tychryd Mawr, 
in the vale of Aeron, in Cardigan. 

" Which to the form of even- 
Visitor conforms itself, 
Where if armour be left 
Entire at nightfall 
Certainly at daybreak 
You shall find it broken." Higd 

The tychryd mawr, great house of 
shuddering, was the palace of the chief of 
the giants; and it is well if no atrocity 
wa? connected herewith. See as above 
cited, and Hynavion Cymreig, pp. 155,1 56. 

Compare the Ergengl Wonder, No. xi. 
pp. 1 1 8, 119, above. (H.) 

The Lia Fail is the seventeenth won- 
der in P., and is thus described: Cloch 
ril a Cempaij5 .1. lin pail, no fteifiD FO 
copaiB cuch uin no jabao pi^e n-fcpinb. 
"There is a stone at Tamhar, i.e. Lia Fail, 
which used to roar under the feet of every 
one that assumed the kingdom of Eri." 
For an account of this stone see Ware's 
Antiquities by Harris, pp. 10, 124 ; and 
Petrie on Tara Hill, p. 138, where the 
question is discussed whether this famous 
stone was ever removed from Tara, and 
whether it is the same which now forms 
the seat of the ancient coronation chair in 
Westminster Abbey, as is generally sup- 
posed (T.) 

' Cluain-fearta Molua, now Clonfertmul- 
loe, an old grave-yard, giving name to a 
parish dedicated to St. Molua, at the foot 
of SliabhBladhma, in the barony of Upper 
Ossory, Queen's County : " In confinio 
Lageniensium et Mumoniensium, inter re- 
giones Osraigi et Hele et Laiges," are the 
words in which the situation of the ancient 
Church is described in the life of St. 


seven years of age begetting children ; and the grave of the dwarf;, 
which measured five feet for every one, whether small or large; and 
the Lia Fail, i. e. the stone which shouted under every king whom 
it recognised in the sovereignty of Teamhar. 

xi. There is a mill-pond at Cluain-fearta Molua 1 ; its property is, 
the people who bathe in it at the neck m of the pond become lepers: it 
injures not if entered in any other place. 

xii. The grave of Mac Rustaing at Eus-Ech", in Cailli Follamhain, 


Molua, and they apply exactly to the site 
of the present grave-yard. Fleming, Col- 
lect, p. 374. Ussher, Primord. p. 943. 
Lanigan, vol. ii. p. 206. St. Molua's day 
was the 4th of August. No trace of the 
pond, or tradition of its wonderful pro- 
perty, is now to be found in the parish. 

In D. this is the eighteenth miracle, 
and is described thus: Qca lino muilinb 
o Cluam-pheupca ITlolua, -| clammy na 
oume ciajjaib innci ace munaij aenca- 
ouca TTlolua. Qca mno aile ipn linb 

ceona, DO cpaij oej acappu 

oenann pubuip mao ann pin ciajaip 
innci. " There is a millpond at Cluain 
Fearta-Molua, and the people that bathe 
in it become lepers, except the monks in 
communion with Molua. There is another 
place in the same pond, twelve feet distant 

and it doth no harm if it is 

at this place it is entered." The monks 
evidently put out this story to secure their 
own bathing-place from public intrusion. 

m Neck The word bpai^ic denotes 

the sluice or narrow canal through which 

IRISH AKCH. SOC. 1 6. 2 

the water flows from the linn or pond 
upon the wheel of the mill. Mr. O'Dono- 
van informs me that these words are still 
so iised in the County Kilkenny, and pro- 
bably in most other parts of Ireland. (T.) 

n Rus-Ech The old church of Kos- 

each, now Russagh, is still remaining, 
near the village of Street, in the north of 
the county of Westmeath, adjoining the 
County of Longford, but the grave of Mac 
Rustaing is no longer pointed out or re- 
membered. Mac Rustaing was the mater- 
nal brother of St. Coemain Brec, and was 
probably an ecclesiastic, as he is spoken 
of as one of the eight distinguished scho- 
lars of Armagh, about the year 740. See 
Mac Congliune's Vision, Leabhar Breac, 
p. 219. St. Coeman Brec, Abbot of Ros- 
each, died I4th September, A. I). 615 
(Ussher, Primord. Ind. Chron.), on which 
day he is mentioned in the Felire of 
.ZEngus. At the end of the month of Sep- 
tember, in the MS. of the Felire preserved 
in the Leabhar Breac, there is the follow- 
ing account of the grave of Mac Rustaing: 
Coeman 6pecc ITlac Nippe .1. o Ropp 



mioi nf cumaing ben a pegaD cen rnaiDm a Delma epci, no apo- 

501 pe m-baec. 

.jem. TTIacpab o Chailli poclao .1. t>i ingin, Cpebpa -) Leppa a 
n-anmann; po labpaiopec a m-bponnaib a mairpec, i ipeb apbepc- 

;, raip a naeb pacpaic i planaig pin. 

each hi Caille Polamam hi IDioe aca 
pioe, ocuplTlac Rupcamj map oen ppip, 
1 cluno oen machap eac a n-oip. No hi 
Ropp liac aca Coeman 6pecc, uc Oen- 
S up oicunc [sic], peo nepcio ubi epc 
Roppliacc. Qonocul oin Hlic Rvipcam^ 
i Ropp each hi ITlme. Ni chumamj 
nach bfn a pea^ao cen maiom a oelma 
epci no cen apojgaipe boech uipum, uc 

^-ije VTlic Rupcumj puioe, 
Hi Roppeuch cen imnaipe, 
cech ben baijio, 

Cpicun utnm ITIic Rupcuinj pain, 
^apbouipe amm TTlic Samum, 
Qmoiuipp up niuc Conjlinoe, 
Plop DO lumib DO pmoe. 

' Coeman lirccc Mac Nisse, i.e. at Ross 
Each in Caille Follaraain, in Meath, he is, 
and Mac Rustaing along with him, and 
they were both the children of one mother. 
Or it is in Ros Liag that Coeman Brecc 
is, ut Oengus dicunt [dicit], sed nescio 
nbi est Ros Liag. The grave of Mac 
Rustaing is in Ross-Each in Meath. No 
woman can look at it without a sudden ex- 
clamation, or a loud frantic laugh. Ut 

The grave of Mac Rustaing, I say, 

In Kos Each, without disgrace, 

Every woman who sees shouts, 

Shrieks, and loudly laughs. 

Critan was the name of fair Mac Kustaing, 

( iarbdaire was the name of Mac Samain, 

Aindiairr was Mac Conglinde, 

Many were the poems he made." 

Mac Rustaing's grave is the twentieth 
wonder in I)., and is thus spoken of: 
Q6n :cul mic Rupoainj noco peoann 
bean apejao jan ^aipe, no cpopc. 
" The grave of Mac Rusdaing; no woman 
can look at it without a laugh or scream." 

Cailli Foc/t/adlt, or the wood of Foch- 
ladh. Sec O'Donovan's Ily-Fiachrach, 
p. 463, where the situation of this cele- 
brated wood is ascertained. The story ot 
a voice from the wood of Fochladh is told 
in the Confessio of St. Patrick, the Hymn 
of St. Fiech, and all the Lives except that 
attributed to Probus. The Confessio does 
not speak of the voice as coming from 
children, and neither do the second and 
fourth Lives in Colgan. This was, there- 
fore, probably the original story ; but 
Fiech and the Tripartite Life speak of chil- 
dren; tnacpaio Caille fochlao (Fiech, 
n. 8); pueri in sylva Fochladensi, (Trip. i. 
c. 30); and the other Lives add to this 


in Meath, no woman has power to look at without an involuntary 
shriek, or a loud, foolish laugh. 

xiii. The children of Cailli Fochladh , viz., two daughters, Cre- 
bra and Lesra were their names; they spoke from the wornbs of their 
mothers, and what they said was, Come, O Saint Patrick ! and 
save us. 

that they were children yet unborn ; " vox 
infantium ex uteris matrum ex region- 
ibus Connactorum Hock aillilo fortaich 
[which Colgan interprets, heu, accede hue 
fer auxilium], (Vit. 3" c. 20); infantuli 
Hiberni maternis uteris inclusi voce clara 
clamantes," (Jocelin, cap. 21). The scho- 
liast on the hymn of Fiech gives us the 
names of these children, telling us more- 
over their number and their sex : he adds, 
that their voices were heard throughout 
all Ireland, and even by Pope Celestin at 
Home. " Ipse Coelestinus quando ordina- 
batur Patricius audiebat vocem infantium 
eum advocantium. Infantes autem, do 
quibus hie sermo est, vocabantur Crebrea 

et Lessa, dufe filia; Gleranni filii 

Nenii ; et hodie coluntur ut sanctffi, et ab 
ipso Patricio erant baptizatro : et in eccle- 
sia de Foreland juxta Muadium fluvium 
[the Moy] ad occidentem, requiescunt. 
Qua; autem tune in ventre matris exis- 
tentes dicebant, erant hasc: Hibernienses 
omnes clamant ad te. Et ha;c ssepius 
ab eis decantata audiebantur per Hiber- 
niam totam vel usque ad ipsos Romanes." 
Jocelin (c. 59) mentions the baptism of 
the daughters of Gleran, and tells us that 



they were the same who had called St. 
Patrick out of their mother's womb, and 
that they afterwards became saints ; but 
he does not give their names. The Tri- 
partite Life gives us their names, and al- 
though, in the place already cited, the 
author had called them pueri, and in ano- 
ther place (ii. c. 77) he speaks of mul- 
tos infantes in utero matrum existentes, 
yet here (ii. c. 86), he says : " Ibi vir sane- 
tus baptizavit, Deoque consecravit duas 
celebratse sanctitatis virgines Crebream et 
Lassaram, Gleranno viro nobili Cuminei 
filio natas. Ha; sunt qua; inclusre in utero 
materno, in regione de Caille-Fochladh, 
referuntur dudum ante in persona [i. e. 
in the name of, or on behalf of,] infan- 
tium Ilibernia; clamasse ad S. Patricium, 
dum esset in insulis maris Tyrrheni, 
efflagitando ut seposita mora ad Ilibur- 
nos convertendos acccleraret: earumque 
sacra; exuvia; ut patronarum loci, in 
summa veneratione in ecclesia de Kill- 
fhorclann juxta Muadium versus occi- 
dentem asservantur." See Ussher, Prim, 
p. 832. The children of Caille Fochladh 
are not mentioned among the wonders of 
Ireland in D., or by O'Flaherty (T.) 


.jriu. Sil in paelcon i n-Oppaigib aca. Qipoi ingnao acu. 
Oelbaic lac i conaib alcaio, ~\ ciagaic lac i conpeccaib, -| oia 
mapbfap me ) peoil ma m-belaib ip amlam bio na cuipp ap a 
na^ac; -] aicmc Dia muir.cepaib nap pogltiaipcep na cuipp, aip Dia 
ri-gluaipcep m ficpaopum cucu pempep. 

.jcu. Uopann mop no caitjecc i n-aimpip Oonncaib mic Domnaill 

' Descendants of the wolf. This story is 
given much more fully in D, where it 
stands as the twenty-second wonder: 
Qtaic apoile Dame a n-Gipmo .1. pil 
f.uijne paeluio a n-Oppaije, ciu^aio a 
pichemb mac cipe, in can ip ail leo, -\ 
mapbaio na h-mt>ile po bep nu mac 
tipe, -| pajbuio a cuppu pein, in ran 
ciajaio up na conpachcaibaichni^io bin 
mumcepaib can a coppu oocumpcujub, 
up DIU cumpcuiocep ni pecpuo ceachc 
capip up nu coppaib ; -] oia cpechc- 
nuiigcep amuich beio na cpecca pin nu 
coppuib unopna ci^aib -| bi^ in peoil 
oeap^j cuicam amuich ana piuclaib. 
"There are certain people in Kri, viz.: 
the race of Laiglme Faelaidh, in Ossory, 
they pass into the forms of wolves when- 
ever they please, and kill cattle according 
to the custom of wolves, and they quit 
their own bodies; when they go forth in 
the wolf-forms, they charge their friends 
not to remove their bodies, for if they are 
moved they will not be able to come 
;igaiii into their bodies ; and if they are 
wounded while abroad, the same wounds 
will be on their bodies in their houses; 
and the raw flesh devoured while abroad 


will be in their teeth." Giraldus Cambren- 
sis tells a story of two wolves who had 
been a man and woman of the Ossorians, 
but were transformed into wolves every 
seven years, in virtue of a jcurse imposed 
on their race by Saint Naal or Natalis, 
abbot of *Cill-na-managh, or Kilmanagh, 
in the Co. Kilkenny, who flourished in 
the sixth century. They had been ba- 
nished to Meath, where they met a priest 
in a wood, a short time before Earl John 
carne to Ireland in the reign of Henry II., 
and retaining, it seems, the use of lan- 
guage, they foretold the conquest of Ire- 
land by the English. The following is a 
part of what the wolf said to the priest: 
" De quodiun hominum genere sumus 
Ossyriensium ; vnde quolibet septennio 
per imprecationem saneti cuiusdam Nata- 
lis scilicet Abbatis, duo, videlicet, mas 
ft foemina, tarn a formis, quam tinibus 
exulare coguntur. Formarn enim huma- 
nam prorsus cxuentes induunt lupinam. 
Complete vt-ro septennii spacio, si forte 
superstites fuerint, aliis duobus ipsorum 
loco simili conditione subrogatis, ad pris- 
tinam redeunt tarn patriam quam natn- 
ram." Top. Dint. 2, c. 19. 


xiv. The descendants of the wolf are in Ossory. They have 
a wonderful property. They transform themselves into wolves, and 
go forth in the form of wolves, and if they happen to be killed with 
flesh in their mouths, it is in the same condition that the bodies out 
of which they have come will be found ; and they command their 
families not to remove their bodies, because if they were moved, 
they could never come into them again. 

xv. Great thunder happened in the time of Donogh q , son of 


Cambrensis, whose credulity was un- 
bounded, gave full credit to this strange 
tale. Not so Fyncs Moryson, who holds 
it up to ridicule; but it appears from 
what he says, that the tale was currently 
believed in his time: " It is rediculous," 
(he says), "which some Irish (who will be 
believed as men of credit) report of men 
in these parts [Upper Ossory and Or- 
mond] yeerely turned into wolves, except 
the aboundance of melancholy humour 
transports them to imagine that they are 
so transformed." Itin. p. iii., c. 5, p. 157. 
(T.) For the legends and facts con- 
cerning this strange and widely-diffused 
class of demoniacs or melancholies, con- 
sult Herodotus, iv. 105; Pliny, viii. 22; 
Olaus Magnus, de Gent. Septentr. lib. xviii. 
cap. 45-7 ; Gervas Tilbur. Otia Imper. i. 
c. 15; Marie de France, Lai du Bisclaveret, 
i. p. 178 ; William and the Werwolf, 
Lond., 1832; P. Lancre Tableau, etc. des 
Mauvais Anges, pp. 259,309; Hakewill's 
Apologie, i. cap. i. s. 6; Boguet Discours 
des Sorciers, cap. liii. ; Verstegan's Resti- 
tution, p. 237; Life of Nathaniel Pearce, 

i. pp. 287-9; " P- 34 ( H -) 

q Donogh. Donogh, son of Donall, son 
of Murrough, was king of Ireland from 
A. D. 770 to 797, according to O'Fla- 
herty's chronology, Ogyg., p. 433. The 
Four Masters have placed the great storm, 
here counted as one of the wonders of 
Ireland, under the year 799; their words 
are: Uapla jaech anbpoill, coipneac -| 
cemocpe:ic ip in lo pia peil puopmct: 
na bliiion i po, co po mapbuo oeicne- 
Bap ap mile hi epic Copcubmpcmo, -| 
co po punt> an muip oilen picue i cpi 
panociib'. "A violent wind, thunder, ami 
lightning occurred this year on the day 
before the feast of Patrick, so that a 
thousand and ten men were killed in the 
territory of Corco Bhaiscin ; and the sen 
divided the island of Fitae into three 
parts." The island of Fithi is a small 
island, now called Mutton Island, on the 
coast of the county of Clare, opposite Kil- 
murry Ibrickin. The two other parts of 
the original island are still to be seen 
near it; they are insignificant islets, or 
rather lofty masses of rock, close to Mut- 


rtoip. pep cen ceno ppi pe 
.1. TYlaelcamain. In call no 

jac laojia lam ~\ cop On. In 
pepp i ni clopp DO aonacul 

bpaena pola oepjje caipip, 

ime. Cuig cpai^i oej; ina 

mic TTIupchaiD pig Gpenn, ^up mapb .;rup. ap mill i epic Copco 
bcnpcino ~] co po pann innpi pici i cpi. 

.;rui. t~pi li-inganra la Cluam nuc 
pecc m-blia6an. Ince t>ucuc a amm 
reD pon SinainD co cabpao lep epcunj 
c-aonacul po clap i Cluain beup -] ni 
ann, i po ppic pep mop-ulcac im>, ~| 
bappac uip-beifi Do pcuabaib cenjail 
poo, i .ppF- cpoi^eD DO ralam uapu. 

.jeun. Loc Lai^ i epic Umaill la Connacco DO ehio yiap co 
muip nao bai De ace a larpach. 

ton Island. Mr. O'Donovan remarks, in 
a communication to the Editor, that the 
barony of Ibrickin was originally a part 
of Corco-Bhaiscin, before the Ui Bracain, 
or Mac Gormans, settled in that country. 
This i'act appears from the position of 
Mutton Island, which is here, and by the 
Four Masters, said to be in Corco-Bhais- 
cin, and also from the Life of St. Senan, 
who was the patron of the Coreo-Bhaiscin 
race. (T.) 

' Clonmacnois. The first of these three 
wonders is the twenty-third wonder of 
Ireland in D. : Ro bui on me u Cluuni- 
mic-noip, lup ceucc a cino oe cpe 
cpeblaiD, ~\ po bai .un. m-bliuona 'nu 
beardi^ lap pn, cpe nu liitioe, no cuin- 
j;eao biab -\ no caicliei b. " There was 
a man at Clonmacnois, after his head 
came off through disease, and he was 
seven years afterwards living ; through 
his trunk he called for food and con- 
sumed it." The same story is told by 

Tighernach, ad an. 549, and by Keating 
under the reign of Tuathal Maelgarbh 
(A. D. 533-544), who tells us that this 
headless wonder lived in that state for 
four years among the monks of Clonmac- 
nois, his head having dropped off at the 
fair of Tailten, in consequence of his 
having sworn falsely on the relic called 
the hand of St. Kieran. This story is 
certainly of great antiquity, and was once 
extensively believed; it probably origi- 
nated in a figurative mode of describing 
a loss of memory or reason, or some eccle- 
siastical or spiritual defect. In a note at 
August 4, in the Felire of Aengus, a story- 
is told of St. Molua, who went into a 
church with St. Comgall, and, to their 
astonishment, every one in the church, 
including Comgall and Molua themselves, 
appeared headless. The following expla- 
nation of this appearance is then given: 
Ip oe aca po ap Cornwall .1. m-anrnch- 
apapu arbuch, -| a cupu cen cheano, i 


Donall, son of Murrough, king of Ireland, which killed one thousand 
and ten persons in the territory of Corco Baiscinn, and divided Inis- 
Fithi into three parts. 

xvi. Three wonders at Clonmacnois r . A man without a head 
during the space of seven years. Inte Bucuc 5 was his name, i. e. 
Maltamain. The blind man who used to dive into the Shannon and 
bring forth an eel in each of the forks of his hands and feet. The grave' 
which was dug in Cluain, and it was not known or heard that there 
was an interment there, and there was a great-bearded man found in 
it, covered with drops of red blood, and a covering of green birch 
brooms about him. Fifteen feet long was he, and there were thirty 
feet of earth over him. 

xvii. Loch Laigh", in the territory of Umaile, in Cormaght. ran 
off into the sea, so that nothing of it remained but its place. 


u cachaipi cen chino; up if colano cen 
cheno bmne cen anmcapaic. " The 
reason of this," said Comgall, "is the death 
of my spiritual director; and I am with- 
out a head, and ye are without heads, 
because a man without a spiritual direc- 
tor is a man without a head." Comgall 
then appoints Molua his confessor, and 
immediately the congregation appears to 
him with heads as usual. (T.) 

5 Inte Bucuc. Keating calls him Aba- 
cue; the word inte signifies "the man," 
or " the individual," and is a title used 
much as we now use "Mr.," or as Domi- 
nus was used to monks and the clergy. 

' The grave. This and the foregoing 
wonder are omitted in D. The story of 
the blind fisherman is not told elsewhere, 

as far as the Editor knows. The legend 
of the giant's grave appears to be con- 
nected with the adventure of the poet 
Mac Caisi, which will be found in the 
note, p. 210 (T.) 

u Loch Laigh, a lake in the territory 
of Umhaile, the ancient country of the 
O'Malleys, anglicised " the Owles," a dis- 
trict comprising the barony of Murrisk 
(called uriiall uucepac, or the upper), and 
the barony of Burrishoole (called urhull 
loccpac, the lower), in thecounty of Mayo. 
See Q'Donovan's Hy-Fiachrach, p. 499, 
and the map. The disappearance of Loch 
Laigh is recorded by the Four Masters at 
the year 848 : Loc (,ao\% hi epic Lima ill 
la Connace DO eluo. " Loch Laoigh. in 
the territory of Umhaill, in Connaught, 
ran off," [or was evaporated]. (2'.) 


.;runi. Coc (,eibino DO puuo i puil pyii .ipr. oe cono pala i paip- 
cib cpo amail pcamu cec bpuifi. 

.jcijr. P|iop pola oo peprain i n-aimpip Qeoa mic Neill, co 
ppir a paipce cpo pola popp r.a muigib un Cianacc oc Oumu in 

.pp. In mac becc DO labpao i Cpaeb Laippe oia mip lap na 

copo cupca pcela imoa. 

.;r;ci. In apaili lo po bui in pib TTlac Coipi ic con boinn como pac- 


T Loch Leibhinn, now Loch Leane, about 
a mile from Fore, in the north-east of the 
county of Westmeath. The miraculous 
change of its waters into blood is recorded 
by the Four Masters at the year 864. 
f,oc\t 6ephmt> bo paob hi puil; u caplu 
cue com bo pmpce cpo amuil pcuma 
a imeaccaip. " Loch Lephinn was con- 
verted into blood ; so that it appeared as 
sods of gore, like entrails, all round its 
edge." Dermot, son of Aodh Slaine, 
king of Meath, and afterwards (A. D. 658, 
Ogyg. p. 43), in conjunction with Blath- 
mac, king of Ireland, had his residence in 
an island on this lake, in the time of St. 
Fechin of Fore. Vit. S. Fcchini, c. 23. 
Colgan, ad 20 Jan. p. 135 (T.) 

* Dumha Dessa, i. e. the monumental 
mound or tumulus of Dess, the exact site 
of which has not been ascertained; but 
Mr. O'Donov&n thinks it is probably si- 
tuated in Cianachta Breagh, near Duleek, 
in the county Meath. The bloody shower 
is thus described by the Four Masters at 
the year 875. "fiatr mop, ceinceac, -] 
coipneuc i n-Gpino a bliuoun p, -\ po 

peapub ppopa pola iapum, 5un Bo pop- 
peil puipre cpo -| polu poppna mai^ib i 
Ciciiiuccci oc Ouinumbeppu. " A great 
wind, lightnings, and thunder, in Ireland 
this year, and there fell a shower of blood 
afterwards, and particles of blood and 
gore were found on the fields in Ciann- 
achta, at Duinhan Dessa." (T.) 

x Craebh Lasre, i. e. Arbor Lassarse, the 
tree of St. Lasair, the name of a monas- 
tery near Clonmacnois, of which St. Air- 
meadhach (Krmedus or Hermetius), who 
died A.D. 681, was the founder and pa- 
tron. O'Clery's Calend. at ist Jan. Col- 
gan, Trias Thiturn., p. 172, n. 45. Four 
Masters, at the years 681 and 882. The 
Annals of Clonmacnois (Mageoghegan's 
transl.), record the birth of the wonder- 
ful child at the year 870, in these words: 
" There was a chield borne at Crewelas- 
ragh, near Clonvicknose, this year, who 
was heard to call upon God by distinct 
words, saying Good God in Irish, being 
but of the age of two months." This 
event is also recorded in the Annals of 
Ulster, at the year 883, and by the Four 


xviii. Loch Leibinn v changed into blood during nine days, so 
that it became sods of blood like unto parboiled entrails. 

xix. A shower of blood was shed in the time of Hugh, son of 
Niall, so that sods of blood were found about Cianacht, at Dumha 

xx. The infant boy who spoke at Craebh Lasre x in a month 
after his birth, and who disclosed many tidings. 

xxi. On a certain day the poet Mac Coisi y was at the Boyne, 


Masters at 882: lilac occ bo la bpaocc 
Cpaoibh aippe oia oa niiop lap na jei- 
nem. " A young boy spoke at Craoibh 
Laisro within two months after his birth." 

J Mac Coisi. This was probably intend- 
ed for the Erard or Urard Mac Coisi, who 
was chief poet to Ferghal O'Eourke, king 
of Connaught, and died at Clonmacnois, in 
the year 983, according to Mageoghegan's 
Annals, or in 990, according to Tigher- 
nach. There was another poet named 
Erard Mac Coisi, who died in 1023, ac- 
cordinsr to the Annals of the Four Mas- 


ters, and was chief poet to king Mael- 
seachlainn (or Malachy) II. See O'Reilly's 
Writers, ad ann. 990 and 1023. This is 
the 24th wonder in D., and is thus given: 
13 o bai in pile tTlap Coipi la ann pop 
bpu na &oinbe, co pacaio na h-ela pop 
f>omo copbib'puij h-en bib, in can bo 
pucaib appeao po bai ann bean ; cop 
i appaig in pilio 01 CID pobich ann puo; 
a n-galap qiom up pi DO buoup, -| ba 
b6i le muincep oo cuabup eg copum 
rucpac oemna ipm picrpa. Rue in pilio 
IRISH AliCH. SOC. l6. 2 

leip h-i i chu^ oa mumrip pein lap pin. 
" The poet Mac Coisi was once on the 
bank of the Boyne, when he saw the 
swans on the Boyne; he shot one of them, 
and when he took it up lie found that it 
was a woman. The poet asked her where- 
fore she was there. I was in grievous sick- 
ness, said she, and it was supposed by my 
people that I died, but demons put me 
into this shape. The poet took her 
with him, and restored her to her own 
people afterwards." Stories of this kind, 
in which the agents are supposed to lie 
the fairies, arc common to this day in 
every part of Ireland. A full and very par- 
ticular account of Mac Coisi's adventure is 
to be found in a legend transcribed by Mr. 
Eugene Curry, from a MS. in the posses- 
sion of Mr. John Kennedy, of Dublin. 
The story is too long for insertion here, but 
it differs very much from that given in the 
text, if indeed it be not a different adven- 
ture of the same poet ; it places the event 
in the reign of Congalach, son of" Maelmi- 
thigh (seen. 3 , p. 21 1). Mae Coisi was on the 
bank of Loch Lebhinu (now Loch Leane, 


caba in elcai n-eala co caplaicc cloic ooib, co po ben t>ap pceic 
eala Dib; pechip Dia jabail lapooain, ~\ oocep Do copoba ben, ~| 
coma poacc pcela uaioi cio Do pala t>i, -[ can imup tuaioi; -] ao- 
peopi, DO i n-jatap ba,olpi, ~| DO cep Do muinncip co n-epbalup, -| 
ipeb apaiDi ip oeamna pom aipcellpac teo ; -\ pop caoban in pill 
oia muincip. 

.;c;ni. Oa copup pileo i n-Qipcepaib o Gpt> TTlaca paip; mapb 
po cecoip in ci blaipep in Dala nai. Oia pillcep umoppo po cpi 
pop pin copup n-aili acpaig con baiDi in ci na n-oeca, conao aip nac 
lamaiD oaene a raoall ace minep cesmaD cpoich. 

.jf^in. Congalac mac ITIailmichij; bai in aenac ^xjillcen in 
apaili lo, co paccaio in loingiap pan aeop, co caplaic aen Dib 501 
i n-Diaio bpaccain; rappapaip in jae i piaonaipi in aenaij, co cainic 
t>uine ap in luinj ma DiaiD; in can po gab a inn anuap ip ann pojab 


was not to be found. This logond bears 
a curious resemblance to some circum- 
stances in Sir Walter Scott's beautiful 
fiction of the White Lady of Avenel. (T.) 
z Airtltera The district now called 
Orior, regio orientalium, containing two 
baronies of the Co. Armagh. The wells 
here spoken of are now forgotten, and 
have lost their terrors. This is the four- 
teenth wonder in D., and is somewhat 
differently described, thus : Qcnic ou 
cibpaio a n-Oippceapaib .1. o Qpo TTlcica 
foip, in ci ibeap uipci in oapa cibpao bio 
cpu, -| bio paejluch, in ci ibeap apoile, 
1 rii peap nechcap bib pec a ceile, conub 
aipe pin nu latnap uipce necruip oib 
o'ol. " There are two wells in Oirthear, 
viz., east of Ardmacha ; the person that 
drinks the water of one of the wells will 

near Fore, Co. Westmeath), when he saw 
a beautiful woman, of great size, "beyond 
that of the women of the time," dressed 
in green, sitting alone, and weeping bit- 
terly. He approached her, and she told 
him that her husband had that day been 
killed at Sidh Chudail, and was buried at 
Clonmacnois. Mac Coisi mentioned this 
to king Congalach, who set out to Clon- 
macnois to test the truth of the story. 
The clergy there could give no account 
of it; but a monk died that night, and on 
digging his grave they found fresh blood 
and leaves, and at length, buried very 
deep, with his face down, the corpse of a 
giant twenty-five feet in height. They 
put the body down again, and the next 
day, on opening the grave, which to all ap- 
pearance was as they had left it, the corpse 

21 I 

where he perceived a flock of swans ; whereupon he threw a stone 
at them, and it struck one of the swans on the wing. He quickly 
ran to catch it, and perceived that it was a woman. He inquired 
tidings from her, and what had happened unto her, and what it was 
that sent her thus forth. And she answered him: "In sickness I 
was," said she, " and it appeared to my friends that I died, but really 
it was demons that spirited me away with them." And the poet 
restored her to her people. 

xxii. There are two wells in Airthera 2 , to the eastward of 
Ardmacha. He who tastes of the one of them is immediately dead. 
If the other well is gazed upon three times, it immediately swells, 
and drowns the person who so gazes. Hence it is that people dare 
not toucli them, except wretches [i. e. the desperate] alone. 

xxiii. Congalach", son of Mailmithigh, was at the fair of Taill- 
ten on a certain day, and he perceived a ship in the air. He saw one 
of them [the crew] cast a dart at a salmon. The dart fell down 
in the presence of the fair, and a man came out of the ship after it. 
When his head came down it was caught by a man from below. 


be poor, and the person that drinks the twenty-fifth wonder in D., and is thus 

other will be rich ; and no one knows one related: 6ai Conjaluch mac muilmi- 

of them from the other, and therefore no ehij co popmnu peap n-Cpeano uime la 

person dares drink the water of either of arm a n-aenach, co pacaoap in luinj 

them." (T.) upunaep co capplaij peap aipoe, .1. appin 

a Congalach He was king of Ireland luinj, jablach a n-oeagaij bpuoain; 

from A. D. 944 to 956, in which year he co cappld ann pin n-oipeoccup in pij. 

was killed by the Danes. Ogyg. p. 435. "Congalach, son of Mailmithigh, with 

The fair, or rather public sports of Taill- the greater part of the men of Eri around 

tenn, now Telltown, near Navan, in the him there, was at the fair, when they saw 

county of Meath, were celebrated, and con- a ship in the air, and a man out of it, 

tinued to be frequented by all ranks, until i. e., out of the ship, cast a fork against a 

the reign of Eoderic O'Conor, who died salmon. There happened to be there an 

A. D. 1198. This unmeaning story is the assembly of the king." (T.) 

2 E 2 


in pep anip. Co n-Debepc in pen anuap, acacap icom haouo a|i 
pe. Cec uair no ap Congalac, -j lecaip pimp -\ ceio uaiDib pop 
pnam lapcain. 

.perm. Gpaili ailicip DO ^aiDelaib DO pala Do Uoipimp TTlap- 
cain ic ciaccam o Roitn, coino pacca a maraip ic pooail loma ~| 
peola DO boccaib in coimt>er>, cocall uaiDi popcle in mniDi i m-boi 
in loim, i po bai ica tappaiD ina piaonaipi; ~\ m oecaio in macliaip 
innonn erep ace a Pop ailirip DO pigni a pooail; i ap onoip TYlap- 
cain Do jiigne, ~\ pi Ccnncigepn maraip liui Oanjail mic baeramnap 
Do pijne in poocul; ~\ po caipperi Dia maraip in paipcle lap m-blia- 
Dam lap COIDCCC anall DO, -| cue pi aicm paip, ~\ ba cuimpi Dia 
muibi pen, coniD DC pin ap pollup j^ac poDail Do jnirep a n-uaim 
Tllapcam co n-jeb j^peim i Uoipinip TTlapcam. 

.pr^u. In lanamain beo ppi Cluain ipaipoanaip. 6ablu -] 6iblu 
a n-anmann 

.^ui. Cloc pil i all i n-UUcaib, ipi a li-uipci, Dia cpeccap in 
cell puil Dei reipeppm epn cpi cpar poimi. 

.jrprini. (.oc Suini Onjiam i pleib 5 l)a n ie e ^ l1D co n-oechm6 ip 

in Pebail. 


^Torinis of Martin, i. c. Tours in France. Cantighern, tliiughter of Guaire O'Loclit- 

The uaimli, or Cave of St. Martin was nain, and wile or mistress to Flaini 

probably Desertmartin, in the county of O'Maelsheachlain. Guaire, her father, was 

Londonderry, where the memory of St. a lector in Clonmacnois, and died, ac- 

INIartin was held in great veneration. Of cording to the Four Masters, in 1054. 

Uadangal, son of Baethamhnas, mentioned The third was Caintighern, a daughter of 

in this legend, nothing is known. In the Cellach Cualann of Leinster. She died, 

ancient tract on the names of celebrated according to the Four Masters, in 728 

Irish women, preserved in the Book of (T.) 

Lecan (fol. 193-202), three women of the c Jiablu and Biblu. Nothing is known 

name Cantighern are mentioned. One was of this couple beyond what is here said, 

the wife of Fiaclma, son of Baedan, king The meaning probably is that they conti- 

of Ulidia, who was killed, according to the nue still alive, like the tradition about 

Four Masters, A. D. 622. Another was Nero, Arthur in Avallon, &c. (T.) 


Upon which the man from above said, " I am being drowned," said 
he. " Let him go," said Congalach ; and he was allowed to come up, 
and he went away from them, swimming in the air, afterwards. 

xxiv. A certain pilgrim of the Gaedhelians happened to arrive 
at Torinis of Martin, on his way from Rome. There he saw his 
mother distributing milk and flesh meat to the poor of the Lord. 
He took away from her the cover of the muidh [vessel] which con- 
tained the milk, and she was looking for it in his presence. Arid 
the mother had not gone thither at all, but it was in Eos Ailither 
she made her distribution at home. And it was in honour of Martin 
she made it. And it was Cantighern, mother of Ua Dangal, son of 
Baethamhnas, that made the distribution. And he shewed the cover 
of the vessel to his mother in a year after his coming home, and 
she recognised it, and it fitted exactly her own muidh. So that 
it is manifest from this that every distribution of alms that is made 
in Martin's Cave is as effectual as if distributed at Toirinis of 

xxv. The couple [man and wife} who are alive to the east of 
Clonard. Bablu and Biblu c are their names. 

xxvi. There is a stone d in a church in Ulster whose practice 
it is to shed blood three clays previous to a plunder of the church. 

xxvii. The lake of Suidhe Odhrain e , in Sliabh (i-uaire, migrated 
and went into the Fabhal. 


d A stone. This is the twenty-seventh dered." (T.) 

wonder in I), where it is thus given: e Suidhe Odhrain, i. e., Sessio Odrani, 

Qcu cloc anu paile ceall u n-Ullcuib, now anglicised Syoran or Seeoran, is a 

-| cij pull dp in cloc in cun uipjceap in townland in the parish of Kuockbride, 

chill, no pe nu n-apjuin. " There is a barony of Clankee, county Cavau. Sliubh 

stone in a certain church in Ulster, and Guaire, now Slieve Gorey, is the name 

blood comes out of the stone when the still given to a mountainous district, in 

vhurch is plundered, or before it is plun- the same barony. The Fabhal (read pu- 


. Cpop cloici mop bai pop paicci Slaine i m-bpejaib DO 
cumjabail ip in aeop, ~\ a combac ip in aeop, gup pancacop a buip 
1 a bloga Uaillcin -| Cempaij -| pinoabaip n-aba. 

.jcjrijc. Cippa TTlailsobannillai^nib; in Dec plepcac a h-cnnm; 
op abairin dpi aca ; pi a h-cnpoi in plepc uinopenO cupcap inci 
DO ni plepc cuill, Di po cecoip, maou coll pocepDap inci ip uinopi- 
nn DO poaig epn. 

.fff. Cloicreach ceneab Do aicpin ic 17up Dela ppi pe .ijc. 
n-uap,i coin Duba Diaipimoe ap, ~\ aen en mopecuppu, ) no cegDip 


bull, for Pebal, in the Irish text,) is the 
name of a stream tributary to the Boyiie. 
The emigration of this lake is thus re- 
corded, at the year 1054, by the Four 
Masters: 6och Suibe Oopam hi Sleib 
^uuipe u eluo in oeipio oioce peile 
niicil con-Oeacuio ip in peulxull, ^up 
blio hionjnub mop la each. " The lake 
of Suidhre OJhrain, in Sleibh Guaire, 
migrated on the latter part of the night 
of St. Michael's eve, until it came into 
the Fabhall, which was a great wonder 
to all." See also the Annals of Ulster at 
A. D. 1054. There is no lake, or tradi- 
tion of a lake, now in this townland 

! Slaine, now Slane, a village on the 
Boyne, county Meath, in the ancient dis- 
trict of Bregio (T.) 

8 Finnabhair-abha, i. e. the Bright Field 
of the Kiver, now Feunor, a townland 
giving name to a parish in the barony of 
Duleek, county Meath. Several places in 
Ireland were called Finnabhair, which 

Jocelin, Vit. S. Patr. c. 94, translates, 
"albus campus;" the place there spoken 
of, and in the Tripartite Life (part iii., 
c. 4), was in the diocese of Clogher; but 
Fiunabhair Abba was evidently in Meath, 
as appears from its being mentioned in the 
text in connexion with Slane, Telltown, and 
Tara; and in the following passage from 
the Calendar of the O'Clerys, it is said to 
be on the Kiver Boyne: 2 Mali. Neuc- 
cuin, oeipjiobuilpuopuic, o CiUUmche 
i j-Connuillib muipreirhne, -| o pion- 
nabalp obu pop bpu ftomne. Plluc DO 
f,iariinm puip puopmc e. " Mail 2. 
Neachtain, a disciple of St. Patrick, of 
Gill Uinche in Conaille Muirtheimhne, 
and of Fionnabhair-abha, on the banks of 
the Boyne. He was the son of Leamhan, 
the sister of Patrick." In a gloss on the 
name of this place in the Felire of Aengus 
(ad 2 Mail), it is said to be i m-6pea- 
jaib, "in Bregia;" so that Finnabhar- 
abha is completely identified with the 
modern Fennor in Meath. See Ordnance 

2I 5 

xxviii. A great stone cross which was on the green of Slaine f , 
in Bregia, was taken up into the air, and was shattered in the air, so 
that its shreds and fragments were carried to Tailten, to Tara, and 
to Finnabhair abha s . 

xxix. The well of Maell-Gobhann", in Leinster. The Deach- 
Fleseach [the wand transformer] is its name. Over the River Liffey 
it is. Its property is: the ash wand that is put into it is immediately 
made into a wand of hazle ; and if it be hazle that is thrown into it, 
it will be ash at coming out of it. 

xxx. A belfry of fire' which was seen at Ross Dela, during 
the space of nine hours, and black birds, without number, coming out 
and going into it. One great bird was among them, and the smaller 


Map of Meath, sheet 19 (T.) 

h Mael- Gobhann. This well has not 
been identified, and the name is now ob- 
solete. It is the twelfth wonder in D, 
and is thus described: Gibpa pil a pleib^en, placcuill inori, plat umopeann 
cic aipoe; no umnpeann innci -| plac 
cliuill aipoe. "There is a well in a 
mountain in Leinster ; a rod of hazle put 
into it, conies out a rod of ash ; or ash 
put in, and a rod of hazle crimes out of it." 

' A belfry of fire. Cloicceac ceneao, 
i. e. a steeple, or belfry of fire, a column 
of fire: the word cloicceac is the name 
given to the round towers in every part 
of Ireland. Ros Dela, the place where 
the miraculous tower of fire was seen, is 
now Ross-dalla, a townland in the parish 
of Durrow, near Kilbeggan, county of 
Westmeath. The phenomenon is thus 

described by the Four Masters, at the 
year 1054: Cloicceacn ceneo DO puipcc- 
pm ipm aep uap T?op oeala ota oorhnac 
peile Jjuipgi ppi pe coij nuap eom ouBu 
oiaipmioe mo -\ app, -j aori en mop inu 
meoon, -\ no ceijio nu heom beja po 
ueicib' pioe an can ceiccoip ip in cloicc- 
rench. " A belfry of fire was seen in the 
air, over Ross-deala, on the Sunday of the 
feast of St. Guirgi [George] for five hours; 
blackbirds innumerable passing into and 
out of it, and one large bird in the middle 
of them, and the little birds went under 
his wings when they went into the bel- 

In the year 1054, the feast of St. 
George was on Saturday; the annalist 
must, therefore, mean the year 1055, un- 
less we suppose him to speak of the day 
after as " the Sunday of the feast of St. 


na h-eoin bega po clumaib in can no cegeo ip in cloicceac, -| can- 
carap in aenpecc uile amac "] conup gabpac coin leo na n-ingmb 
i n-aipoe, ~| no lecpec pip co calam uaiOib, -) lac mapb. Luiopec 
in enlaic ap lapcain, -| in caill pop pa n-Depioap o'elligporu co ca- 
larh, ~\ in oaipbpi pop pa n-oepio in c-en mop uc po puc laip cona 
ppernaib a calinam, "| m pep cio imluaiO. 

.ftp. Imp loca Cpe i epic Gib ; nip lamair ecame boinenoa 
no anrnannai boinerma t>o mil no Do 6uine, ~[ m epil pecfac inoi, ~| 
rn cumacap a aonacul ince. 

.;r;c;ni. TThnlenn Cilli Cepp i n-Oppaigib; m meileab i n-t>om- 
nac ace na n-oegeb; ~\ m ineil nac [poca] i n-gaioi, ~\ m lamair mna 
reacc mo. 

.^pn. Cacain bnoi Senl.oro Colmain ; cia Dopapcap in nn- 


J Locli Cre This lake is HOW dried up, Cambrensis, who mentions also another 
but the island re-mains, surrounded by a island in the same lake called, Insula Vi- 
bog, and contains the ruins of a chureh, 
which still exhibit a beautiful specimen 
of the architecture of tin- eleventh cen- 
tury. The bog is now called, from the 
island, ITloin nu li-iri]-e, " the Hog of ihc 
Island," and the name i:> anglicised Muna- 
hinsha or Monainsha. It is situated 1.1 a 
townluncl of the same name, in the parish 
of Corbally, barony of Ikerrin. which was 
formerly a part of the district of Kile, in the 
Co. Tipperary, about two miles S. E. of the funninei sexus aliquod animal intrare po- 

ventium (imp na m-beo), in which no 
man could die, but in the ti'Xt both pro- 
perties appear to be attributed to the 
same island: " Est lacus" (he says) "in 
Momonia Boreali, duas continens insulas, 
unam majorcm et alteram minorem. Major 
ecclesiam habet antique religionis. Minor 
vero capellam cui pauci ca-libes quos Coc- 
licolas vel Colideos vocant devote deser- 
viunt. In majorem nunquam fuumina vel 

town of Roscrea. The church is figured in 
Ledwich's Antiquities of Ireland, p. 115 
(2nd edit.), and appears to have been de- 

tuit, quin statim moriretur. Probatum 
est hoc multoties per canes et catos, alia- 
que sexus illius animalia, qua: periculi 

dicatcd to St. Ilclair, or Hilary; see the causa frequenter advecta statim occubue- 

Calendar of O'Clery, at Sept. 7. The 
storv of the island in which no female 

runt, tc In minor! vero insula 

nemo unquam mortuus fuit, vel morte 

could live is as old as the time of Giraldus natural! mori potuit. Unde et Viventium 

21 7 

birds used to nestle in his feathers when they went into the belfry.- 
And they all came out together. And they took up dogs with them 
in their talons, and they let them drop down to earth and they dead. 
The birds flew away from that place afterwards, and the wood upon 
which they .perched bent under them to the ground. And the oak 
upon which the said great bird perched was carried by him by the 
roots out of the earth, and where they went to is not known. 

xxxi. The island of Loch Cre j , in the territory of Eile. No 
female bird, or female animal, whether beast or man, dare enter 
upon it. And no sinner can die on it, and no power can bury him 
on it. 

xxxii. The mill of Cille Cess k in Osraighibh. It will not grind 
on the Lord's day, except for guests. And it will not grind even 
a handfull that has been stolen. And women dare not come into it. 

xxxiii. The ducks of the pond of Seanboth of Colman 1 . Though 


Dist. 2, c. 51. But the peculiarity of 
excluding women is ascribed by Cambren- 
sis to the mill of St. Fechin, at Fore, 
in Westmeath. Ibid. c. 52. The word 
poru inserted between brackets in the 
text, is added by a later hand, and signi- 
fies a handful. This is the twenty-first 
wonder in D, and is thus decribed: 
ITluiUeanD Chille Ceipe a n-Oppai^ib 
nocu meleano oe oomnaij ace cuic 
na n-aijea6, ) ni meleunn upbup jaioe 

Insula vocatur." Dist. 2. c. 4. From the 
mention of Culdees in the above passage, 
Ledwich has taken occasion to connect 
with Monaincha some of the most absurd 
of his speculations. See Lanigan Eccl. 
Hist. vol. iv., p. 290 (T.) 

k Cill Ceis. This place has been iden- 
tified by Mr. O'Donovan, who proves that 
it is the same which is now anglicised 
Kilkeas, and still called in Irish Cill 
Ceipe by the neighbours. It is a parish in 
the diocese of Ossory, barony of Knock- 
topher, in the county of Kilkenny. The 
well is spoken of by Giraldus, who calls 
it the well of St. Lucherinus : " Apud 
Ossyriam est molendinum Sancti Luche- 
rini abbatis, quod diebus Dominicis nihil, 
de furto vero vel rapina nunquam inolit." 

IRISH ARCH. SOC. 1 6. 5 

oo spep. " The mill of Cill Ceise in 
Ossory; it does not grind on the Lord's 
day except the share of the guests ; and it 
will not grind stolen corn at any time." 

1 Seanboth of Colman A church dedi- 
cated to St. Colman, which Mr. O'Dono- 


pope aioci mapaen la h-mpce na linoi i caipi pop cenib aa no 
loipcoip peoa in caiman pon coipi pin ni h-aupcoicij, -] ni ceg in 

jcjtyiu. Ni aicpebaic ono, loipcino no nacpaca t n-6pinn uili, 
1 cia co bepcap a h-maoaib eili mci aplaio po cecoip, -| ipeb pon 
po oepbao, ace luc pael ~\ pinnae ni bai ~\ ni bia nac n-anna [n-an- 
nianna] aupcoicech inci -\ ip mepaip ap cep -| ap puacc. TTluip 
caipppi .1111. m-bliaona pe m-bpach. pinic. Ctinen. ptnic. 


van has shewn to be the same which is 
now called Templeshanbo, in the diocese 
of Ferns, situated at the foot of the moun- 
tain called in Irish Suijhe. ^aijliean, 
and in English, Mount Leinster. The 
situation of this church, which was un- 
known to Archdall and Lanigan, is thus 
described in the Life of St. Maidhoc, c. 26, 
published by Colgan (Acta SS. p. 21 1): 
" Quodam die vcnit S. Moedoc ad monas- 
terium quod dicitur Seanbotha, juxta ra- 
dices montis qui dicitur Scotice Snitrhe 
Lagen, id est Sessio Laginensiuni." The 
monastery was founded by St. Cohiuin 
O'Fiachrach, whose memory was there ce- 
lebrated on the 2 yth of October. Colgan, 
ibid. p. 217, n. 26, and p. 210, n. 46. The 
story of St. Colman's ducks is now for- 
gotten in the neighbourhood, but it is 
told by Cambrensis, Top. Ilib. Dist., 2, 
c. 31 ; it occurs also in the following note 
on the Felire Aenguis, at the 27th of 
October: Colman ua fiuchpach .1. hi 
pfnbothaib pola i n-Llib Cfnopelaij^. Ip 
na chill acauc na lachuin, -| ni lamaip 
ear; ap cia pocepcap i n-impoll aioche 

i n-upce pop cenio cia po loipccheu 
peoa in Domain pon coipe ni rhfij in 
upce co capcap lucpam app ipm lino 
cfonai. " Colman O'Fiachrach, i. e. at 
Senbotha Fola, in Hy-Cennselaigh ; it is 
in his church are the ducks, which are 
not to be touched; for although they are 
cast by a mistake made at night, into 
water on the fire, though the woods of nil 
the world were burned under the pot, the 
water would not be heated until they are 
taken out of it and put into the same 
pond from which they were taken." (T.) 
m Tested. The popular belief ascribes 
this peculiarity of Ireland to the prayers 
of St. Patrick ; an opinion which is de- 
fended by Dr. David Roth, in his Eluci- 
dationes in Jocelinum, published by Mes- 
singham, Floril. p. 127, sq. But it is 
rejected by Colgan, Append, v. ad Acta 
S. Patr. c. 20 (Trias, p. 255), and by La- 
nigan (vol. i. p. 252, n. 108), who main- 
tain that there never were any venomous 
reptiles in Ireland. In D. this freedom 
from venomous creatures is also men- 
tioned last, as the twenty-eighth wonder: 


they were put by mistake of night, with the water of the pond, 
into a pot upon a fire, and although all the woods of the earth were 
burned under that pot, they would not be injured, nor would the 
water become hot. 

xxxiv. There live not then, toads nor serpents in all Eri, and 
even though they be brought from other places unto it they die im- 
mediately; and this has been tested. Except the mouse, the wolf, 
and the fox, there has not been, and there shall not be, any noxious 
animal in it. And it is temperate of heat and cold. The sea n icill 
come over it seven years before the day of Judgment. Finit. Amen. 
Finit . 


Gp mjnuo nr.op dile a n-epm& .1. can 
nachaip -j can leoman -| can loipceann 
innci -| can peipr neimnj ace pmnai -| 
mic cipe, i oa chujcap moce a rip aile 
ciagaio ej po cecoip mod can puipeach ; 
conao lac pin ppim injuncu Gpenn uile 
conuige pm. " There is another great 
wonder in Eri, viz., there are no snakes, 
nor lions, nor toads in it ; and there are 
no venomous beasts except the fox and 
wolf, and if they are brought into it from 
another country they die in it immedi- 
ately without delay. These are the prin- 
cipal wonders of all Eri we know." (T.~) 

n The sea Ralph Iligden (Polychron. 

lib. 5, c. 4) has recorded the tradition 
that St. Patrick obtained for the Irish 
this privilege, that no Irishman shall be 
alive during the reign of Antichrist. This 
serves to explain the expectation that the 
sea shall cover Ireland seven years before 
the day of judgment. In the Leabhar 


Breac (fol. 14, b.) there is an account of 
St. Patrick's expulsion of the demons 
from Ireland, and of the seven requests 
which he obtained of the Lord. The first 
three of these were: Cipe DO pepuib 
Gpenn DO gne aicpiji pe m-bap, cio ppi 
pe en uaipe, na po h-iacca ippepno puip 
i m-bpach;-] cona po aitcpe bao ecc- 
paino in mopi; -| co ci muip catppi .uii. 
m-bliuona pia m-bpar. " Whosoever of 
the men of Eri repents before death, even 
the space of one hour, hell shall not be 
shut on him at the judgment; and fo- 
reigners shall not inhabit the island; and 
the sea shall come over it seven years be- 
fore the judgment." It is evident that 
this last is regarded as a blessing to the 
Irish, because, by that means, Ireland 
shall be saved from the persecution of 

Antichrist (T.) 

Finit. In D. there occur the follow- 
ing wonders, not mentioned in the fore- 



maelmupa Ocna .cc. 

Canam bunaoap na n-jaeoel 
jaiji cloc n-jlfofno 

going list; the numbers prefixed denote 
the order in which they stand in the 
twenty-eight wonders of which the list 
given in D. consists. 

i. Loch 6ein ; ceuclipu chipcillu 
uime .1. cipcall poam, -| chipcnll luai^i, 
1 chipcall lapino, -| cipcullurnu. " Locli 
Loin; four circles are round it; viz., a 
circle of tin, and a circle of lead, and a 
circle of iron, and a circle of copper." 
This is the first of the Irish wonders men- 
tioned byNennius: " Est ibi stagnum 
quod vocatur Loch Lein, quatuor circu- 
lis ambitur. Prirno circulo gronna stanui 
unibitur, secundo circulo gronna plumbi 
ambitur, tertio circulo gronna ferri, quar- 
to circulo gronna a;ris ambitur, et in 
eo stagno multa- margarita; inveniuntur, 
quas ponunt reges in auribus suis." This 
is the tenth wonder in O'Flaherty's me- 
trical list, Ogyg. p. 291. Loch Lein, 
now the upper lake of Killarney, but an- 
ciently both lakes were regarded as one, 
and called Loch Lein. 

3. 6och Riach onn. diupjmb ill 
oura in juc lo. " Loch Riach, [now 
Lough Keagh, near a town of the same 
name in Galway.] then ; it takes many 
colours every day." This is O'Flaherty's 


twelfth wonder. 

4. t)ipna in Oajoa bon .1. cloch DO 
bepap up in tnuip DO caech po ceooip 
co puib pop bpu in cobuip ceonu. " The 
Dirna of the Dagda, viz., a stone which is 
taken out of the sea, it returns imme- 
diately, and is found at the brink of the 
same well." This resembles the third 
wonder of Man. See above, p. 12 1. The 
word Dirna denotes a stone weight. 

5. lubuip nnc n-Qinjcip u n-eup 
mui^i uc citheup a peach cip up in 
n-uipci co pollup i ni peccup h-e pem 
pop cip. " The yew tree of the son of 
Aingcis at Eas Maighe; its shadow is 
seen below in the water, and it is not 
seen itself on the land." Eas Maighi 
is the cataract of the river Maigue, at 
Cahirass, in the county Limerick. Jt does 
not appear who the son of Aingcis was. 
This is O'Flaherty's eleventh wonder. 

13. Cippu pleibe <5 avn i ca ' xln inncl 
.]. lun oo pal goipc, i Ian o'pip uipci. 
" The well of Slieve Gamh; two fulls are 
in it [i. e. it is full of two things], viz., 
full of salt sea-water, and full of pure 
water." The well of Slieve Gamh, or the 
Ox Mountains, county Sligo, is still well 
known. OTlaherty describes it as his 



Mceelmura of Othairi* cecinit. 

Let us sing the origin of the Gaedhel, 
Of hic;h renown in stiff battles, 

fourth wonder. 

16. Copp mnpe jei6 no h-aemip o! o 
copach Domain can chuipp aile papia. 
" The crane of Inis Geidh has been alone 
from the beginning of the world, without 
any other crane with her." Inis Geidhe, 
i. e. Insular Sancta? Gedhias, now Inishkea, 
or Inishgay, is an island about three miles 
oiT the coast of Erris. See O'Donovan's 
Hy Fiachrach, and Map. Very little is 
known of the saint who has given her 
ilame to the island, but the existence of 
the lone crane of Inishkea i still firmly 
believed in by the peasantry. This is 
O' Flaherty's sixth wonder. 

21. Ciunan naimlin^ maipi can lo- 
B'IO can bpenao co no ballaib ocaib con 
pap puilr i mngean. " Cianan of Daimh- 
Hag [Duleek] remains without corrup- 
tion, without stinking, with his members 
perfect, and his hair and his nails grow." 
This curious tradition is mentioned in the 
notes to the Felire Aennuis, at the 241!) of 
November ; it may, perhaps, be understood 
as communicating to us the fact that the 
whole body of the saint was preserved as 
a relic at Duleek. St. Cianan was one of 
the earliest Irish Christians, to whom St. 
Patrick, according to Tighernach, gave 


his own copy of the Gospels: ip DO cuj 
pucpoic a poipcela. He died A. D. 489. 
Tigern. in anno. (7 1 .) 

p Duan Eireannach. I have given the 
name of Duan Eireannach to this poem, 
for convenience sake, as it seems of the 
same nature with the Duan Albannach, 
which is already known by that name to 
the students of Irish and Scottish his- 
tory. Although quoted by O'Flaherty 
(Ogyg. iii. c. 72), and by Keating, this 
ancient poem has never been published, 
and may be said to be unknown to an 
historian. It is here printed from a very 
good copy in the Book of Leinster, in 
the Library of Trin. Coll. (H. 2. 18), com- 
pared with two other copies, one in the 
fragment of the Book of Lecan, which 
remains in the same Library (II. 2. 18), 
and the other in a paper MS. in the hand- 
writing of Tadhg O'Neaehtain, also in the 
Library of Trin. Coll. (H. i. 15, p. 27), 
which seems to have been copied from the 
Book of Leinster. Mr. O'Reilly (Trans, 
of Gaelic Society, p. Ivi.), speaks of " a 
very fine copy of it", which was in his 
own possession ; but if he alludes to this 
it turns out to be only a transcript in his 
own hand-writing made from the copy in 


cctnap rapla conogup oilfno 
oocum n-fpfno. 

Cicne in pfpano in jio rpebpac 

cuippfp pfne 
cib oop puc i cfpce rfpe 

no puiniuo 5]iene. 

Ciappo cucaic jiooop pojluaip 

nem DO capciul, 
in DO feceD, no in DO cfnac, 

no inD' 5apciuo? 

Ciao e ap oilpiu ooib pop Domun 

inD a raeoin 
Dm n-anmrnjuD in a n-acpeb 

Scuicc no 



H. i. 15, the worst of the three copies 
from which the text is here printed. This 
transcript is now in the Library of the 
Royal Irish Academy, but is, of course, 
of no authority. In the following notes 
the readings of the Book of Lecan will be 
distinguished by the letter L., and those 
of O'Naghten's copy by N __ (T.) 

q Maelmura of Othain, or of Fathain 
(the F being aspirated and omitted), now 
Fahan, near Loch Swilly, in Inishowen, 
Co. Donegal. See an account of Maelmura 
in O'Keilly's Irish Writers (Trans. Gaelic 
Soc.. p. Ivi.). See also the Four Masters, at 
the year 884, and the Leabhar Gabhala of 
the O'Clerys, in the Library of the Royal 

Irish Academy, p. 207, where, after men- 
tion made of the historical poem written 
by him for Flann Sionna King of Ireland, 
his death is thus recorded : ITlaelmopae 

F el P n an F' 1 - 6 FT cc ^ e F'P eola cr ca1 P l6e 
epjna on bepla Scoireccoa Do ecc ipn 
ochcmao bl. DO plaicri plomo c-Sionna 
884. " The same Maelmura, a learned, 
truly-intelligent poet, an historian skilled 
in theScottic language, died in the eighth 
year of the reign of Flann Sionna, A. D. 
884." The writer then quotes a poem 
in praise of Maelmura, which is too long 
for insertion here. (T.) 

r Mighty stream- Conojup, compound- 
ed of tono, a wave, and ^up, powerful. 


Whence did the mighty stream' of ocean 
Waft them to Eri ? 

What was the land 5 in which they originally lived, 

Lordly men, Fenians 1 ? 
What brought them, for want of land, 

To the setting of the sun ? 

What was the cause that sent them forth 

Upon their wanderings ? 
Was it in flight, or for commerce, 

Or from valour"? 

What is the proper name 1 for them, 

As a nation, 
By which they were called in their own country V 

Scuit or Gaedhil ? 




In the preceding line, gleceno is ren- 
dered battles, on the authority of O'Clery's 
Glossary, where jlecen is explained jleo 
[battle], and gleo teann [stern fight], 
For canap capla, line 3, L. reads can oop 
pala (T.) 

5 What was the land. Ceppi uppano. 
L. "what was the division." (T.) 

' Fenians. Alluding to the story of 
Fenius Farsaidh, King of Scythia, and 
the school of learning established by him 
under the superintendence of Gaedhal, 
son of Eathor. See Keating (Haliday's 
Transl. p. 225), and O'Donovan's Irish 
Grammar, p. xxviii. sq. Cop is a lord, 
a chief (in the oblique case cuip): cuip- 

pep (which in the plural would be better 
written cuippip) will therefore signify 

noble or lord-like men (2\) 

u Valour. "Did they leave their former 
habitations in flight from their enemies, 
or for the sake of commerce, or from a 
spirit of adventure and love of conquest ?" 
L. reads (ciapi cucaic in po poj^lump), 
pern lap caipcuil? (T.) 

v Name. The language here is very 
rude, and perhaps has been corrupted by 
transcribers. L. reads, 

Ce oiae apa oipliu oml> 

cinom cuioen 

oia n-ammeouj ma n-oaipnib 
pcuir no jaeioil. (T.) 


Ciamoip pfne aclejicha 

oo anmuriu ooib 
acup jaeoel anoop jleio 

can ooppoiO. 

610 nup pelpapu cam pa 

cop ba cipech, 
11015 ir eolach i ppeir pfnra) a 

mac TTlilfD. 

Ulan ail oo Dia bio mniu ouic 

TII ba niapoch 
opo pfncapa mac TTlileo 

peib po jielad. 


2 5 

N<ie ndip laper 
ip uao ap ciniuo 
oo jpecaib oun conap m-bunuo 
conap n-objiio. 


w Fene L. reads, 

pene apa m-beapoair 
mbu amm ooib 
ocup in jaeioil pup j^leij 
ccm oop pobij. (7'.) 

x Ignorant The word cipech occurs 
again, line 146. In L. tlie following stanza, 
which does not occur in the other copies, 
is inserted here: 

Cione pemeno poppa poboup 

pmch pepgach 
no cia mac oo niaccaib FTlileuD 

cuip a m-beappchap. 

" What adventure were they upon 

In their angn,' course, 
Or what sons (if the sons of Mileilh 
Are they to be traced to?" 

And then follows: 

6uo leip noo pelu oum uile 

cop bo cicheach 
Qp ba peappoa appeich peancapa 

mac niileao. 

" It is all clear to me, 

And it is visible, 
For I am excellent in the stream of history 

Of the sons of Miledh "_ (TV) 

1 Willing. vmio coip le Oia, L.: and 


Why was Fene" said to be 

A name for them ? 
And Gaedhil which is the better, 

Whence was it derived ? 

Although thou revealest it not to me, 

But leavest me ignorant", 
For thou art learned in the stream of history 

Of the sons of Miledh, 

Yet if God be willing*, thou shalt have to-day, 

Not to-morrow, 
The order of the history of the sons of Miledh, 

As it happened. 

The royal son of righteous 2 Noah, Japheth, 

From him is our descent, 
Of the Greeks' are we, in our origin, 

In our laws. 


2 5 



in line 28, peib cmpulao (!'.) 

'* Righteous. nai|i, omitted in L. (T.) 
" Ch'eeks, The alleged Grecian origin 
seems to require a descent from Japhet 
through Javan, whose name was anciently 
identified with laon, the open form of 
Ion; curb ct 'lojuaj/ov 'lutvia Kcil 7ryr<;"EA- 
Xrivif. Josephus, i. vi. I. But if Fenius 
Farsaidh was the great-grandson of Japhet 
by Magog, as Mr. O'Flaherty found it 
(Ogyg. p. 9, 10), and as the Scythian 
mythus requires, why are Miledh's sons 
said to be of the Greeks ? (H.) The 
author of the life of St. Cadroe (Colgan, 

Acta SS. p. 494) has given a legend of 
the origin of the Scots, in which they 
are said to have been a colony from a city 
called " Choriscon," situated on the river 
Pactolus, between the regions of Choria 
[Caria] and Lydia. The inhabitants of 
this city having discovered the superior 
fertility of Thrace, set out, "junctis sibi 
Pergamis et Lacedffimoniis," with their 
wives and property, to take possession of 
that country, "ut cupitam terrain pos- 
sessuri peterent." They were driven, 
however, by terrific storms, out of their 
course, through the Straits of Gibraltar, 



Oon cpeib if ampu po ^abpac 

plan up puilec 
pop bic bpofnac; o cupcbail jjpeme 35 

co a puineo. 

plaicein cpoon pojab in rhbic 

ri-glfpac ri-jlespac; 
Nembpor a amm pfp lap nofpnao 

in cop ofptnap. 4 

Cum pfniup cliuice ap in Scicia 

pop pluajao, 
pfp aipejoa ccnaio eolac 

bpufmap bagach. 

foa ofn bepla bof ip in oomun 45 

in po jjabpac, 
nri bepla Dec ap cpi picbcib 

can po pcappac. 


and then up to Iivlnnd (whicli the author son of ./Eneas (i. e. Fenius), a Lacedemo- 
reprcscnts as being then inhabited by nian, who was one of their leaders. See 
Picts gentem Pictaneorum rcpeviunt). Colgan's notes, 11.39,40, ib. 502. I he 
They landed under Cruach an eile, now author of the Life of St. Cadroe is sup- 
Cruach Patrick, in Clew Bay, Co. Mayo. posed by Colgan to have written A.I). 
They proceeded thenee to Clonmaenois, 1040. The common story given by Col- 
then to Armagh, Kildare,Cork,Bangor, and gan (note 2, ad Vit. S. Abbani, 16 Mart, 
cventolona; in short, they obtained pos- p. 621) represents the migrations of the 
session of the, whole island (particularly of Scotic colony to have been from Egypt to 
its ecclesiastical cities, although so long be- Greece, thence to Spain, and thence to 
fore Christianity), and they called it first Ireland. (T.) 

Choriscia, from the name of their native u In this world. Uap bir bpomech, L. 

town, and then Scotia, from Scotta, daugh- c Nembroth, i. e. Nimrod. L. omits pep 

ter of the king of Egypt, and wife of Niul, in line 39, and writes the name Nebpoch. 


Of the most illustrious people that ever enjoyed 

A bloody sovereignty 
In this world" of woe ; from the rising of the sun 35 

To its setting. 

A valiant prince took dominion over the world, 

The wide-spread, noisy world; 
Nembroth" his name, a man by whom was built 

The very great tower. 40 

Fenius came unto him d out of Scythia, 

Upon an expedition, 
A man illustrious, wise, learned, 

Ardent, warlike. 

There was but one language in the world c 45 

When they met, 
Twelve languages and three score f 

When they parted. 


N. has Hempo& (2'.) renders this stanza thus : 

* Unto him. Keating, who quotes V. " Egressum Scythia Fenius numerosa secuta est. 

41-52 of this poem, omits chuice, which Turba virum; studiis nimirum addictus, ctarmis 

occurs in all the other copies : in L. it is Mix illc fuit > necnon vir mente sagaci."_(r.) 

written cliucai. The omission is neces- f In the ivorld Keating reads, baoi 

sary to the metre. In line 42, L. reads pan oorimn, and in the next line, map 

pop pa pluaijeo, and Keating popp an DO jabpac. L. reads moio jabpac. Dr. 

pluajab, which is also required by the Lynch has paraphrased this stanza thus : 

metre. In line 44, for bajacli, warlike, " Ingressis turrim mortalibus, unica lingua 

L. and Keating read buuouc, victorious; Nota fuit, digress! septuaginta loquuntur 

and N. buajac, which is wrong, unless Et binas linguas." 

it be intended for buabac. Dr. Lynch, In line 43, N. and Keating read picio for 

in his unpublished translation of Keating, pichrib. (T.) 

a. MS. in the possession of Mr. O'Donovan, f Twelve and three score, i.e. 72. The 


Scol mop la pafrmir ic pojlaim 

in cec fp^na, 
pfp apD aorna po bfo co ampa 

in cec bfplu. 

t>pfra mac DO pafmup pajipaio 

ba Dual co bpnr, 
ap cumcac in cuip la cuaich caiman 

Nel Oapogpao. 

17ancarap pcela co popaim> 

la mfc h-5pfra, 
Nel mac Paeniupa ica piler 

bepla in beclia. 

6pefa Nel pa ofp in 651 pc 
pern n-5inpm n-glfpe, 




number of Noah's sons and their posteri- 
ties, as enumerated in Gen. x. and i Citron, i. 
is 73. from which arose the number of 72 
languages, both among Jews and Chris- 
tians. Philistim being omitted, as having 
boon introduced parenthetically (Gen. x. 
14, i Citron, i. 12.), not as one of the 
original tribes, but in reference to a later 
subdivision. Peter Comestor, in his Scho- 
lastic History, has said, " Texuntur ex eis 
72 generationes, 15 de Japhet, 30 do 
Chem, ct 27 de Sem." fol. xiv. But Vin- 
cent of Beauvais mentions both reckon- 
ings thus : " Fuerunt ex tribus Noe filiis 
gentes 73 (vel potius ut ratio deelarat72), 
scilicet 1 5 de Japhet, 3 1 de Cham, et 27 de 

Sem, totidcmque lingua; esse coeperunt." 
Spcciil. Doctrina, i. c. 44. The angels 
whom Jacob beheld ascending and de- 
scending the ladder were 72 in number, 
and they were the angels of the 72 na- 
tions. Simeon ben Jochai, cited Bartolocei 
Bibl. Uabbin. i. p. 228-9; Reuchlin de 
Verbo Mirifico. p. 938. This idea is agree- 
able to the Greek version of Deut. xxxii. 
8, "according to the number of the angels 
of God." The Mahometans likewise adopt 
the number 72 as that of the nations di- 
vided at Babel ; and in analogy to that 
division they boast of their religion being 
divided into 72 sects, while they allow 
only 71 to the Christians, and 70 to the 

A great school was founded by Fenius, to instruct 8 

In all knowledge, 50 

A man deeply learned, who excelled 
In every language. 

A son was born to Faenius Farsaidh, 
Who separated" from him for ever, 
On the building of the tower by the men of the world, 55 

Nel, whom he loved. 

News came to Forann' 

With great eclat, 
Of Nel, son of Fenius, who knew 

All languages of the world. 60 

Nel was carried southwards to Egypt, 
Heroes j of dark blue weapons, 


Jews. See Rycaut's Turkish Empire, h Separated. t)uul is now obsolete ; 

p. 1 1 8. Compare also Keating, Hist, of but seems to signify separated. In the 

Ireland, p. 61, and O'Flaherty, Ogyg. next line L. reads oo rucncli; grammar 

part ii. p. 63. (//.) would seem to require cuaraib, but it 

2 To instruct L. reads etc pojlaim la would be inconsistent with the metre; 

Pemur, and gives lines 51 and 52 thus : cuaich is the reading of all the copies, anil 

,-, . , , is used asrain in the same sense, 1. 8r (T.) 

pep apo ampa co mbuaio oc each 

1 Forann, i. e. Pharaoh. This stanza is 
ma beplu. 

quoted in Haliday's edition of Keating, 

Keatinggives them thus: p. 233, and in the manuscript copy by John 

Peap a6urhpaeanui6eolac[or mlrhop] Torna O'Mulconry, but it does not occur 
in jac beupla. in Lynch's translation. For la ver. 58, 

Dr. Lynch paraphrases this stanza thus: Haliday and O'Mulconry read 50 (T.) 

J Heroes pein, cognate with renmo, 
" se calcntissimus artis 

Cujusvis Fenius, lingua et cujusvis peritus a soldier, a hero ; or the word may be the 

Evasit, multis in lingua quaque Magister ( T.) same as pine, a tribe, a nation. " A people 

2 3 

DO bpfch injfn phopaino 
Do Dap epe. 

Rue Scocra pcfc mac DO Neol 65 

ap n-Diil in 
fpp cfc cafa 

pip plara pfgelc. 

pfm o pliafniup ay 1 a m-bepcop, 

clu cfn Docca, 70- 

(^ueDil o ^aeoiul slap gapca 

Scuirr o Scocra. 

Sfo mop i m-bacap la phopamo 

la mfic n-nabai]i ; 
popoap Duanaic i ri-oalaih 75 


Sluag cuare De leicfp 
uaD ap omun, 

pop a plicc co opfmun 80 

co muip Romup. 

or heroes of dark blue weapons" is possi- reason. 5^ e r denotes weapons, arms; the 

bly a deseription of the Egyptians; but it word is thus explained in a glossary jlepe 

may perhaps better be taken in apposi- .1. jlepu .1. inble no apma. (7 1 .) 

tion with Nel, as descriptive of his ful- k Daughter __ L. inserts her name Scoca: 

lowers ; his son Gaedhal is by some said and in line 65 the same MS. reads pu^ 

to have been called jlap, or green, from Scoca injen DO Nml, an error which has 

the colour of his armour (Haliday's Keat- been corrected by an ancient hand which 

ing, p. 237); the weapons of the follow- has written no mac over the word injen. 

ers of Nel may therefore be here called (T.) 

, i.e. dark blue or black, for a similar 1 A hundred fights L. reads eppiccoca, 


The daughter" of Forann was given 
Unto him afterwards. 

The beauteous Scota bare a son to Nel, 65 

After his arrival in Egypt, 
A hero of a hundred fights', Gaedhal Glass, 

Endowed with sovereign righteousness. 

The Feni from Faenius are named, 

Not small their renown". 70 

The Gaedhil from Gaedhuil Glass are called. 

The Scots from Scota. 

In great peace were they with Forann, 

And in great pride ; 
They recited poems in their assemblies, 75 

They recited battles 11 . 

The hosts of the people of God Forann permitted 

To go forth from him through fear, 
He followed in their track fiercely 

To the sea Romhuir . 


a hero of battles ; and in the next line ties; or perhaps we should render lines 75, 

ppi placa peijele (T.) 76, thus : "They were poetical [fond of 

m Renown. L. and Keating (Ilaliday's poetry] in their assemblies ; They were 

ed. p. 238,) and O'Flahcrty (Ogyg. p. 349,) warlike [or numerous]". For popoap, in 

read bpi jan (or can) bocca, which lines 75 and 76, L. reads niboop, which 

O'Flaherty renders " res manifesta satis." includes a negative ; and in line 73, pch 

Can ooccais, literally, without difficulty. map pom buoap la Popano (T.) 

(T.) "Bomhuir muip pomuip, a corruption 

n Battles. They recited duans (histo- of mare rubrum. L. reads oe mmp po- 

rical poems), and tales or histories of bat- muip instead of co. Haliday (p. 245) 


6dcip popamo a b'n uili 

aobul caipDoe, 
cfpna cuac Oe Da cfp, 

nf pop baiD ino p 

Qcpai^pec clanna Niuil peps popainD, 85 

combcap bponaij, 
06115 nac Decacap oon nijail 

lap in copaio. 

Cio in can na rfpna popamo 

Don piao paenach, 90 

cuara 6jfpc ecla la claino Neoil 

ma n-oaepau. 

Uallparap libfpna popaino 

a cfp cpebpac, 
in aiocln uaip Dap belac 95 

mapa puaio paippec. 

Paipec pec InDe pec Qppia, 

ap Don pfppiD, 
Don Sana, co m-bpfj n-uaj'ail, 

Da cfp pfppm. 100 


absurdly translates mapa poirmip, "the conjectural. The word caipoe, which has 
great sea," and in the same place he also been rendered chariots, is now obsolete, 
makes the stupid blunder of rendering and the meaning assigned to it is very 
cuara Oe (line 75), " Uannan's tribe."- doubtful. (T.) 

q Reached. L. reads pola (T.) 
Chariots __ This translation is entirely ' People of Egypt. Lines 9 1 and 92 are 

2 33 

Forann was drowned with all his multitude 

Of mighty chariots' 5 ; 
The people of God reached" 1 their own country, 

The sea did not drown them. 

The children of Nel raised Foran's ire, 85 

So that they were sorrowful, 
Because they joined not in revenge 

Along with the champion. 

But when Forann returned not 

From his onward journey, 90 

The people of Egypt" were dreaded by the sons of Nel 

Lest they should enslave them. 

They seized the ships 8 of Forann, 

They deserted' their country ; 
And in the night time over the track 95 

Of the lied Sea they passed". 

They passed by India, by Asia, 

The way they knew 1 ; 
To Scithia, with noble might, 

Their own country. too 


thus given in L. : aopaijpecap cuara and in the next line pop f r DO P ( 

ei^epr, ap oia n-aepao, " the people of " Passed. peppao, they sailed, L (T.) 

Egypt attempted to enslave them." (T.) * They knew L. reads, 

5 Ships. tibepna, evidently the Latin Reppao pech Inoia, pech Clippie, 

Liburna navis, a swift boat, or galley. apa pepm, 

_ (T.) oochum Sceichia, com-bpij uapail, 

1 Deserted. L. reads huachip peppao, cia rip peptn. (T.) 


pop Tinuncino nmpa Caipp jabpac 

cenpn nilip 
papacpac 5^ a rF in Coponip 

ap muip Libip. 

Spu mac 6ppiu mpcanaib 
ba cfn mipppi 

cimchell ncuam cpom co oace 
plebe 17ippi. 


17o jab a 

y Surface. mumcinn is explained tiuc- 
cup by O'Clery. (T.) 

z Band. L. reads, cuclmi|i n-oilip, 
" they took a desirable fortress." In the 
next line, for popacpac, L. has po gubpac. 

a Coronis, i. e. they left Glas dead at 
Coronis. In the margin, after the word 
Coponip, the scribe has written n. loci, 
i.e. "nomen loci." L. reads Copcuip. 
According to the historical poem of Giolla 
Coemhain, preserved in the Leabhar 
Gabhala, the descendants of Nel or Niul, 
after leaving Egypt, remained in Scythia 
for a considerable time, contending for the 
sovereignty of the country ; but being at 
length expelled, they formed a settlement 
on the Caspian Sea, where Aguoman, the 
seventh in descent from Niul (see Ogy- 
gia, page 67). died. After remaining 
there a year they set out again, passed 
through the Lybian Sea, and Glas, the 


1 10 


son ofAgnoman, and brother of Lamhfinn 
and Elloth, died at Coronis. The poet's 
words (Leabhar Gabhala, p. 61) are as 
follow : 

Runjucup muip ,ibip lun. 
peolao pe pamltnre plun, 
^jlap mac Qjjnomam nupoip 
an acbach i Coponip. 

" They reached the full Lybian Sea, 
They sailed six full summer days : 
(lias, son of Agiinnian the wise. 
Died at Coronis." 

The prose account in the Leabhar Gabh- 
ala (p. 58), states that their settlement 
at the Caspian Sea was in an island : that 
they remained there a year, and on the 
death of Agnoman set out through thr 
Lybian Sea to an island called Coronis, 
where Glas, son of Agnoman, died, after 
they had been there a year. Keating calls 
this island " Coronia in the Pontic Sea." 

2 35 

Over the surface* of the Caspian sea they passed, 

A faithful band 2 , 
They left Glas in Coronis a , 

On the Sea of Libis. 

Sru, son of Esru b , went afterwards, 

He was without dejection , 
Round by the gloomy north rapidly 

To Slieve Eiffi. 

He settled in fiery Golgatha", 
A noble deed' ; 


I 10 


Haliday's edit. p. 251. The Glas here 
spoken of, therefore, is not Gadhael Glas, 
but Glas, son of Agnoman, the eighth in 
descent from him. Coronis is most pro- 
bably Gyrene on the Lybian Sea. " Ab 
ea parte qua; Lybico [mari] adjacet," says 
Pomponius Mela, "proximaest Nilo pro- 
vincia quam Cyrenas vocant." De Situ 
Orbis, 1. i. c. 7. And his annotator, Joh. 
Olivarius, adds, "nunc dicta Corena." 
See also Herodotus, 1. iii. and iv. 

b Si-u, son ofEsru. Sru, son of Asruth, 
was the grandson of Gadheal Glas, and the 
leader of the descendants of Niul in the 
expedition from Egypt to Scythia. But if 
the preceding stanza relates to the death of 
Glas or Lamhglas (as Keating calls him), 
who was the sixth in descent from Sru, 
it is evident that there has been some con- 
fusion or transposition. The error, how- 
ever, occurs in all the copies of this poem 

2 H 

which are accessible to me (T.) 

c Without dejection,- N. reads cen mip- 
p.i, a mistake for cen mippi or mib'pi. 
But L. reads ap in pceici, " out of Scy- 
thia." (T.) 

d Golgatha ^oljocham, L. 
ora, N. O'Flaherty calls it 
on the authority of the poem of Giolla 
Coemhan already referred to (Leabhar 
Gabhala, p. 60). The prose account, ib. 
p. 59, gives it the same name; cf. v. 117. 
It is very doubtful what place is intended 
by this appellation ; some suggest Gothia 
(Keating, p. 251), others Galatia, but 
O'Flaherty prefers Getulia (Ogyg. pp. 66, 
67). This stanza is probably a continua- 
tion of the adventures, not of the original 
expedition under Sru, but of that under 
Lamhfinn and Elloth, the brothers of 
Glas, son of Agnoman, who died at Coro- 
nis. According to Keating (p. 247, Hali- 
day), Sru and his followers went no far- 

anaip ano a chlanD cen Dijjna 
Da cer m-bliaona. 

bpach mac Oeagacha Dop n-amich 

pi5Oa ippera, 
apin co h-em egpaio pochuaio 

i cuapcepr m-beacha 

6a oe jabaip lap n-^aechlaigib 

co h-inDpib 
pijoa a loinjpm capcnam mapa 

Uappian cpillpich. 

Do Chpfic DO Shicil pop pfppar 
pop pi cinpftn 



ther than Crete, where lie left a colony 
and died. But the account given in the 
Leabhar Gabhala majtes him pass down 
the Red Sea, into the Ocean, by the island 
of Taprabana [Ceylon], the Kiphxan 
mountains, and so to Scythia. (2'.) 

Slieve Riffi (line 108) is Mount Rhi- 
phseus in Scythia, now called the Ural 
mountains, which the Irish antiquaries 
undoubtedly connected with the name of 
Riphath, grandson of Japhet, Gen. x. 3. 
Josephus, however (i. c. 6), says, 'Pupddqg 
ct 'PttftaQaiovGt TOVG \laff>\ayuvovc \fyo[itvov(;. 

e Deed. L. reads comaen n-gpiunou. 
N. has ou cec jpiunoa, which is an evi- 
dent mistake. Authorities differ as to 
the number of years that the posterity of 

Lamhfinn remained in Gaethluighc. The 
old copies of the poem of Giolla Coemh- 
ain read thirty (see Haliday's Keating, 
p. 251 ; Ogyg. p. 72), but the O'Clerys, in 
their copy of this poem in the Leabhar 
Gabhala (p. 62), have 300. Keating, 
(loc. cit.), prefers 150, on the ground that 
Brath, the leader of the expedition from 
Gaethluighe to Spain, was the ninth in 
descent from Lamhfinn, who first settled 
at Gaethluighe. But this would be allow- 
ing less than twenty years to a genera- 
tion. Our author assigns 200 years to 
this interval, another proof that this 
stanza describes the adventures of Lamh- 
finn, not of Sru son of Esru, and that 
some stanzas are probably lost. O'Fla- 
herty adopts the term of 500 years, and 

2 37 

There dwelt his descendants without disgrace 
Two hundred years. 

Brath f , son of Deagath, performed 

A royal journey, 
From thence with great speed northwards, 

To the north of the world. 

It was then he passed from Gaethligh 8 

To the islands; 
Royal his fleet, ploughing the sea 

Of sparkling Tarrian h . 

By Creid', by Sicil, they sailed 
In their course, 

1 20 

points out the source of the difficulty in 
the legend, that Niul, or Nel, son of 
Fenius Farsaidh, was contemporary with 
Moses, which he could not be without ex- 
treme longevity, as the genealogies make 
him only the fifth in descent from Noah; 
Ogyg. p. 72. O'Flaherty, therefore, places 
the settlement of Lamhfinn at Getulia, 
about the year A.M. 2245 (i. e. about 200 
years before Moses), and the expedition 
of Brath from Getulia to Spain about 
A.M. 2767. Ogyg. p. &2.(T.) 

< Brath This stanza and the next are 

added from L. They do not occur in the 
other MSS. Brath, son of Deagath or 
Deagfath, as Keating calls him (see also 
line 125), was the leader of the migra- 
tion from Gaethluighe into Spain, about 

the time of the destruction of Troy ; Ogyg. 
p. 82. He was the nineteenth in descent 
from Fenius. The course here assigned 
to Brath is northwards, which is scarcely 
consistent with any of the opinions on the 
situation of Gaethluighe with respect to 
Spain. (T.) 

8 Gaethligh. The same place which was 
called Golgotha, line 109. See above, 
p. 235, note d ._(T.) 

h Tarrian Muir Tarrian, or the sea 
Tarrian, is the Mediterranean (T.) 

1 Creid, i. e., They sailed by Crete and 
Sicily, through the Straits of Gibraltar, to 
Spain. Immediately after this stanza the 
Book of Leinster gives the stanza begin- 
ning 6a mbpencpacc DO pala, which it 
repeats again (lines 137-140). N. gives 

pec colomna hfpcuil aobuil 
ohGppam inolib. 

Ua Oeaca pumo Don pigpam 

pigDa in popano 
gebfp Gppam in pfp popoll 


in c 

am in na 
na cec naipecli, 

it here, but does not repeat it in the 
second place. It is evidently misplaced 
here, and has therefore been omitted. 

J PcitiiiHiilur .The word inolib is per- 
haps from moe, a point. And if so, it 
will signify here "Spain the pointed," that 
is, running out into a point, peninsular. 
It might signify also herds of cattle, and 
then the meaning would be " Spain rich 
iu cattle," which might perhaps allude to 
the classical fable of Hercules seizing the 
cattle of Geryon. But this latter trans- 
lation is not so probable as the former 


k Deatha The father of Brath, who 
was mentioned before under the name of 
Deagath, which is only a different spell- 
ing. See line 1 1 3, and note. This passage 
is very corrupt in all the copies. L. reads 
hua beacha bin pijpum. N. has uabe 
acu puaib bon piojpuib. The meaning, 
however, is evidently what I have given 
in the translation, although I cannot alto- 



gether correct the text (T.) 

^ His companions. popanb is an ancient 
form of puipenb, the crew, attendants, or 
companions. L., however, reads pi^ba 
tpebuno, a royal chief, or tribune ; and 
N. reads piojba in poplann, "royal the 
power or force." (T.) 

m The man. For the meaning of in ci, 
see above, p. 207, note f . Breogan, son of 
Breath (see above, p. 237, note '), succeeded 
his father, as king of the Spanish posses- 
sions of the tribe, according to O'Flaherty, 
in the year of the world 2767. Ogyg. 
p. 83 ; Keating (Haliday's Edit.), p. 255. 

n Brigantia The Flavium Brigantium 

of antiquity is the port of Betanzos in 
Spanish Gallicia; and it would have been 
as completely unknown in Ireland as any- 
other port in Spain, but for a passage in 
the first Book of Orosius, copied into 
the third of those geographical epitomes, 
which usually bear the name of Jithicus 
Ister: "Secundus angulus circium in ten- 

2 39 

By the columns of the mighty Hercules, 
To Espain the peninsular j . 

The grandson of the red Deatha k of the royal line, 

Royal his companions 1 , 
Took Espain, the very great man, 

The man m Bregond. 

Brigantia" was the name of the city 
Of an hundred chieftains; 

I2 5 


dit ubi Brigantia Callecitc civitas sita, al- 
tissimum pharum, et inter pauca memo- 
randi operis, ad speculum Britannia? erigi- 
tur." Oros. p. 26, /Ethic, p. 61. Ed. Gro- 
novii. The farum, or pharos, light-house, 
is the Tower of Breagon (v. 131 ), and the 
words " ad speculum" gave rise to the ab- 
surd notion that Ireland was visible from 
Betanzos. They were probably written 
when those who did not wish to be burn- 
ed in their beds kept a sharp look out 
for vessels from Britain. However, the 
story hath its foundation in the cited 
passage of Orosius, and in one subse- 
quent, which mentions Ireland, and is as 
follows: "Hibernia insula, inter Britan- 
niam et Hispaniam sita, longiore, ab 
Africo in boream, spatio porrigitur. Hu- 
jus partes priores intents; Cantabrico 
oceano Brigantiam Callecise civitatem, ab 
Africo sibi in circium occurrentem, spa- 
tioso intervallo procul spectant ; ab eo pras- 
cipue promontorio, ubi Scenaa [Shannon] 
rtuminis ostium est, et Velabri Lucenique 

consistunt." p. 28. Havercamp. 

Observe the progress of falsehood. This 
excellent writer simply says spectant, the 
shores of south-west Ireland looked or 
facedin that direction ; and states (perhaps 
falsely, but possibly with truth), that the 
tower of Betanzos was erected for the pur- 
pose of watching these islands, " ad pecu- 
lum Britannia;" ; and hence, we are told 
by Malmura, that " Erin was seen from 
the Tower." Being discovered on a win- 
ter's evening, it would seem to have been 
peculiarly visible in the dark. 

The Brigantes were, perhaps, the great- 
est of the tribes or nations inhabiting 
Britain; and their country reached from 
shore to shore, from the mouth of the 
Humber or Trent, to that of the Eden. 
Therefore, if the names Breagon and Bri- 
gant could be shewn identical (which they 
cannot), it would be sufficiently apparent 
from whence the former came into Ire- 
land. ( 


cop rh-bpfsom appaiDe in pubac 
poppa puioea. 

SaipcuaiD ap cup accfpp hGpinn 

DO me Lumnig; 
pfpcup gfmpiD pop puaip Ich 

mac bpfjoin 

6a m-bpfnepacc DO pala, 

co luce a rejlaij, 
cecna mapb Dia cenel congbaiD 

bebla Slemnaib. 

Saipofp bpfclia Ich in Gppdm 

lap na bpfgaib 
cpfn Dollocap meic mil TTlile 



Tower of Breogan See the story in 
Keating (Haliday's edit. p. 261). This 
tower, intended as a sort of pharos, or 
watch-tower, is said by Keating (p. 255) 
to have been erected in Corunna. See 
Dr. Wilde's communication to the Royal 
Irish Academy on the remains of the 
Pharos of Corunna. Proceedings of the 
Academy, May 13, 1844. In L., line 130, 
is cecaib aipeach, and in the next line, 
for appaioe in pubac, we have a puibe 
pubach (T.) 

P Was seen poocep, L (T.) 
q Luimnech. oep h-iap poipino, L. In 
the next line, for pop L. reads pop, and 
omits buionig in line 136. The land of 


Luimnech was the country at the mouth 
of the Shannon, from the present city of 
Limerick to the sea. (T). 

' Brentracht. The plain called Magh 
Ithe (or the plain of Ith, son of Breogan), 
through which flows the river Fin ; it is 
the district now called the Laggan, Co. 
Donegal. Keating calls it bpenrpacc 
mhaije Ire (Haliday's edit.), p. 262. See 
also the Book of Ballymote, fol. 20, b., 
and the Leabhar Gabhala of O'Clery, 
page 69. There is another place called 
Magh Itha, in Leinster, which, accord- 
ing to another account, was the place at 
which Ith first landed; and the northern 
Magh Itha received its name from being 


The tower of Breogan , his delightful seat 
On which he sat. 

North-east from the tower was seen p Eri, 

As far as the land of Luimnech q ; 
On a winter's evening was it discovered by Ith, 

Son of Breogan, ruler of troops. 

It was at Brentracht 1 he landed 

With the people of his household, 
He was the first of his conquering tribe who died, 

He died at Slemnaibh 8 . 

South-eastwards Ith is carried to Spain, 

His strength being gone', 
With might the sons of brave Miledh returned 

To revenge him. 



the place where Ith was interred. Keat- 
ing, p. 26 7 .-(Z T .) 

5 Slemnaibh. Keating says, that some 
historians mention Drumlighean, (now 
Drumleen, on the Foyle, near Lifford), as 
the place of Ith's death ; but others assert 
that he died at sea, and that his body was 
carried to Spain to excite his relatives to 
revenge. Keating, p. 267. Leabhar Gab- 
hala, p. 70. This latter account appears 
to be adopted by our author. Where 
Slemnaibh is I do not know; but the 
scribe has added, no. loci, i. e. nomeu loci. 
L. reads pop pu penmuip, and in line 138, 
lim a ceglaich. The following account 
of Ith's death is given in the Book of Le- 
can (fol. 12): Celebpuip hlr ooib, -j cfie 

IRISH ARCH. SOC. 1 6. 2 

oocum a luinje. lappin po lapec poplin 
na noiaij co pon jonpac a ITluij Icha. 
Ro piacr cneoach puilcepeppnec oo cum 
a luinje, -| aobarh mpum pop muip. t)o 
opcacap oemna pep DO mumcip hlra .1. 
OlUim a amm ipe ceo mapb Gpfnn DO 
pil ^aioil. " Ith took his leave of them 
and went to his ship. After that they sent 
a company after them, and they wounded 
him in Magh Itha. He reached, wounded 
and blood-dropping, his ship, and lie died 
afterwards on the sea. Demons killed a 
man of Ith's people, Ollum was his name. 
He was the first dead in Eri, of the seed 
ofGaedhal." (T.) 

c His strength being gone, i. e. being 
killed or mortally wounded. L. reads 


Oono Colprct Qmaipsfn glun gel 145 

pfp c pf n cfpec 
Ip pceo Gbfp hfpimon 

pe meic TTlileD. 

TTlac Irha Cugaio cam cpecac 

copcpach carhac 1 50 

Oap Ifp lechan Dolluio 

DO oigail a arhap. 

bui bpfgain bpufmapa beota, 

peib pop pfme 
6loD, Copp, Cualgne, Ri^bapo 155 

Uigfpn mac 

bacap cechpi achij piece 

nip bo uabop 
ic ippai nappij cfn haigul 

pop pin c 

SluinDpecpa Duib uili a nanmano 160 

map Dop paepaig 
lap na n-apim boi t)iap Oi'b 

i pail cec ofnpip. 


iap mbap mbpijaich, " after a becom- here evidently the signification of en- 

ing death ;" and in the next two lines, dowed with lands, wide-ruling; in which 

DO looap meic Niul mic 6ile, floj sense it is applied as a surname to Aongus 

oia oijail ; " the sons of Niul, the sons Tirech, King of Munster, so called because 

of Bile, came, a host, to revenge him." he was fabled to have made extensive con- 

Bile was the father of Milesius, and a quests in Europe. Book of Munster (MS. 

descendant of Niul (T.) Royal Irish Academy), p. 32. (T.) 

u Wide-ruling. The word cipec has v Descendants. The MS. reads bui, 


Donn, Colptha, Amergin of the white knee, 145 

A hero mighty, wide-ruling"; 
Ir and Eber, Herimon, 

The six sons of Miledh. 

The son of Ith, Lugaid, the fair, the plundering, 

Victorious, warlike, 150 

Over the wide sea passed 
To avenge his father. 

The descendants v of Breogan, ardent, vigorous, 

As we enumerated them, 
Blod, Corp, Cualgne, Eighbhard, 155 

Tighern, son of Brig. 

There were also four and twenty plebeians' 1 , 

Who were not proud, 
To attend on the chiefs without fail 

In the expedition. 160 

I shall recite unto you all their names, 

As I have y received them, 
After their enumeration; there were two of them 

In attendance on each chieftain. 


which is also followed by N., but L. Milesius, was the son of Breogan. Ith 

reads heu. I have ventured to translate was also the son of Breogan. Therefore, 

as if the reading was hui, the descen- Lugaid was grandson, and all the others 

dants, grandsons, posterity, a conjectural mentioned in the text, great-grandsons of 

emendation suggested by Mr. O'Donovan, Breogan (T.) 

which seems necessary for the sense. The * Plebeians This quatrain is omitted 

adjectives bpucmapa and beooa, being in L (T.) 

plural, require a plural substantive. For y As I have L. reads ap pono po epij. 

beo&a L. reads pip. Bile, the father of (T.) 

^ 12 


Qione Qile CIppal TTlicce 

TTlopba TTlioe 
Cuib Cliu Cfpa Saip Slan Lije 

Lipe Line. 

Ligfn Upaij Oollocap Gipe 

Nai Ofpp Ctine 
pea popuaip mfnlec rh-bpogai 

pfmin pfpa. 

pop Dailpec clano bpeojam buionec 

ba jfn mibail, 
comnp po^naimche na cpfnpip 

DO na pijaib. 

Rue Cpuifne mac Cinje a mna uaoib 

poppap n-Dipec 
mge Uea hfn hfpimoin, 

mic TTlileo. 

TTlop paechaip cepaic uili 
pop cac rh-buuDpe 





1 Obtained. L. reads peu po uaip min 
jel in poja. The twenty-four names are 
very corruptly given in L. They are as 
follows : Gione, Qi, Qpal, ITleioi, ITIop- 
ba, niioi, Cuip, Cliu, Cepu, Seip, Slun, 
6156, tipe, /'-iSjan, Cpai5, Dul, Qpao, 
Qipe, Nac, Cep, 6ne, peu, peimin, 
pepa. Other variations occur in the list 
given by Keating, p. 307, who makes the 
number of chieftains much more than 
twelve, and says nothing of two servants 

being assigned to each. Forty-one names 
are given in tho poetical list of the chief- 
tains enumerated in the verses beginning 
Coipp'gh MU lomjpi cap lep, " The chief- 
tains of the ships over the sea," attri- 
buted to Eochy O'Flynn, and preserved 
in the Leabhar Gabhala of the O'Clerys, 
p. 7 1 ; and U'Flaherty says, " Duces pr- 
cipui Ilibernicse expeditionis erant nu- 
mero quadraginti." Ogyg. iii. c. 4, p. 1 82. 


Aidhne, Aile, Assal, Mitte, 165 

Morba, Mide, 
Cuib, Cliu, Cera, Sair, Slan, Lighe, 

Life, Line. 

Ligean, Traig, Dollotar, Aire, 

Nai, Dess, Aine, 17 

Fea, who obtained 2 a fertile territory, 

Femin, Fera. 

The sons of the fruitful Breogan decided, 

It was done without deceit, 
That these stout yeomen" should be attendants 175 

Upon the kings. 

Cruithne, son of'Cing, took their women b from them, 

It is directly stated, 
Except Tea, wife of Herimon, 

SonofMiledh. 180 

Great labour 6 did they all undergo 

In every tumult, 


1 Yeomen. On the word na is the note represents the King of Britain as settling 

in the margin no in, i.e. "or in." (T.) the Scythian Peohtes in Catenes (Caith- 

b Took their women. The other accounts ness). But the Britons scorned to give them 

represent the women as having been wives. So they asked and obtained women 

given to Cruithne with the consent of from Gilla Caor, King of Ireland. And 

Herimon. Our author seems to intimate 

Thurh tha like wifmen .... 
here that they were taken by force. Comp. That fo]e gan w spelien 

lines 215-218. Tea, wife of Herimon Irlondes speche. . 10069. 
was daughter of Lughadh, son of Ith. 

(21) I may snatch occasion to note This assumes as notorious the fact, that 

here, what I ought to have said Addit. they did speak that language. (H.) 

Notes, line 1 9, page xli. Old Layamon c Great labour. This is very obscure ; 


la mna bpfppe la mnd bap pe 
la mna buaigne. 

banba a pleib TTIipp co na pln 

yipiuc ruiplec 
p6cla in Gblinne apnac 

hGpiu in Uiynpic. 

Qoocoppac Uuafa Oea 

cnia cfpc clirac, 
o cfp riDac oap noi ronnaih 

oon lip leran. 

l?o gab hepimon colleic in 

lap n-upo rolgoai 
cimcell acuaio ba jfn mfpgle 

o'mbfp Cholpfai. 




the meaning seems to be, either that the 
Picts had to sustain great labours and 
contests in order to obtain their wives ; 
or that, after obtaining them, they had to 
endure great labour before they acquiied 
a permanent settlement. See Add. Notes, 
p. Ixx., and Keating (Haliday's ed.), 

P- 317 (r.) 

d Banba This quatrain is quoted by 

Keating, p. 288. Banba, Fothla, and Eire, 
were the three queens of the Tuatha De 
Danaan, wives of the sons of Carmad, 
who held the sovereignty of Ireland on 
the arrival of the Milesians. Sliabh Mis, 
which still retains its name, is a moun- 
tain south-west of Tralee, in the county of 
Kerry. Sliabh Ebhline, now Sleibhte 


Ebhlinue, is a range of mountains begin- 
ning in the barony of Owneybeg and Coo- 
nagh, in the county of Limerick, and 
extending in the direction of Nenagh and 
Cashel, in the county of Tipperary. Uis- 
neach, or Usnagh, is a hill still bearing 
the name, about four miles from Ballymore 
Lough Sewdy, in the county of West- 
meath. In line 184. L. reads pepech 
cuipleao. N. reads fipiur cuipleac (a 
mistake, probably, for cuipleac)and Keat- 
ing (in Halliday's edit.), peirpeac, ruip- 
leac. These differences are merely dif- 
ferences of spelling ( T.) 

* Sent them, i.e. sent the Milesians away. 
In line 1 88, L. reads cpe chepr cpechach, 
" with plundering might," i. e. irresisti- 


With the wife of Bress, the wife of Bass, 
And the wife of Buaighne. 

They fought Banba d at Sliebh Mis with her hosts, 

Faint, wearied; 
They fought Fothla at Ebhlinne, murmuring, 

Eire at Uisneach. 

The Tuatha Dea sent them" forth, 

According to the laws of war f , 
From the firm land over nine waves 

Of the broad sea. 

Herimon went s forth with half the host 

In proud array, 
Round the north (it was without sorrow), 

To Inbher Colptha". 




ble. In the next line the same MS. has 
o chip rhaichlech, "from the pleasant 
land." (T.) 

f Laws of war. The story here alluded 
to is given by Keating, p. 291. The Mile- 
sians demanded a settlement in the coun- 
try, or a battle. The Tuatha De Danaan 
offered to leave the decision of this ques- 
tion to the Milesian judge, Amergin, who 
was bound to give judgment according 
to law. He decided against his own bre- 
thren; but enjoined that the Milesians 
should re-embark, and go to sea, a dis- 
tance of nine waves, and that then, if they 
could effect a landing against the forces 
of the Tuatha De Danaan, the country 

should be their's. This was agreed to by 
both sides. The words in which Amergin 
is said to have pronounced his judgment 
are preserved in the Leabhar Gabhala of 
the O'Clerys, p. 72, where they are inter- 
preted by a copious gloss, being in an 
ancient and nearly obsolete dialect of 

Irish. (I*)- 

8 Went. L. reads lu ID : and in the next 
line lap cumo colc&a, "upon the proud 
waves." In line 193 the same MS. has 
cimcheall an cuaio bam cun mepjjja. 

h Inbher Colptha. The bay of Colpa, son 
of Milesius,who was drowned there : Keat- 
ing, p. 293. This is the name still given 


l?o gab Oono t>o pin leir aile 

lap n-upo innaipp 
ba mapb ic apcnam cfn comaip 

ofpcfpc h-ippaip. 

Co cuapcbao copn la lia a cfneoil 

ap lip lerac 
pfn rpeb roncec conio cec Ouinn 

DC t>on japap. 

ba h-epin a h-eoacc anbul 

t>ia claino cecaich 
cucum Dotn oc cippaio uili 

lap bap n-ecaib. 

Ic inbiup Scfne po paupper 

peel cfn Dunan 

ppuu Dian ofpmap in pop pofpaic 
bfn Lujoac. 



2 IO 


to the mouth of the river Boyne at 
Drogheda. (T.) 

1 Without strength. Cen cunjaip, L. 
For the story of Donn's shipwreck see 
Keating, p. 293. (T.) 

i Irnis. From this it appears that the 
south-western promontory of Kerry was 
anciently called Irrus, or the western pro- 
montory, for it was there that the ship- 
wreck, according to all tradition, took 
place (T.) 

* Tech Duinn, or the House of Donn. 
See above, p. 56, note . It would be very 

desirable to ascertain whether the islands 
at the mouth of Kenmare river, one of 
which is now identified by tradition with 
Tech Duinn, contain earns, or other traces 
of a pagan burying ground. From their 
inaccessible situation it is not likely that 
any rude monuments they may contain 
have been much disturbed. The words 
" stone of his race" probably allude to a 
custom of later date, when an inscribed 
stone, marking the name, family, or rank 
of the deceased, was placed over his grave. 
For co cuapcbao, line 199, L. reads ap 


Donn went with the other half 

In progressive order, 
He died as he was sailing, without strength', 

At the south of Irrus 3 . 

There was raised for him a cairn with the stone of his race, 
Over the broad sea, 200 

An ancient stormy dwelling; and Tech Duinn", 
It is called. 

This was 1 his great testament 

To his numerous children, 
" To me, to my house, come ye all 205 

After your deaths." 

At Inbher Scene m they landed, 

The story is not concealed, 
The rapid great stream in which bathed 

FiaP, wife of Lughadh. 2 1 o 


cocbab ; and in line 200, uaiple ap lain- of Amergin, who was there drowned. See 

cheach ; also in the next line poncec, bold, Keating, p. 296 ; Duald Mac Firbis, Genea- 

daring, for contec, boisterous, wave-bea- logies (Marquis of Drogheda's copy), 

ten C^ 1 -) P- 45- Inbher Skene was the ancient 

l Thiswos. L. reads Combai cfcachrao- name of the mouth of the river Corrane, 

bul. From this quatrain it appears that the in the Co. Kerry (T.) 

island called Tech Duinn was believed to " Fial. The following account of the 

be the burial place of Bonn's posterity. I death of Fial, who was the daughter of 

am not aware that it has ever been exa- Milesius and wife of Lughad, son of Ith, 

mined by any competent antiquary, with is given in the Leabhar Gabhala, p. 74 : 

a view to test this tradition (T.) lp m oioche i canyioap meic TDileo 

m Inbher Scene, the mouth of the river in Cpinn, comaoim loch Cuijoeach po 

Skean ; so called from Scene Dulsaine, wife cip in iap ITluriiain. Oiu mbaoi 

IKISH AECH. SOC. 1 6. 2 K 

2 5 

Rop oailpfc po h-Gpint> opaij 

map acbfpio 
Snfpfc copa ppi pipu 6olg 

ppi clano Nemio. 

Nip bacap mna poipbe pofpe 

ce a noglea 
dp n-jaic a m-ban jabpac clfmnap 

Uuac Oea. 

Oo bpfc t>6ib lech cec apba 

co muip meobap, 
mpp in capooine coip comofp, 

lapp in clfmnap. 

Ro jab hfpimon in cuapcfpc 

Du Dia cinnio, 
Co na pfncup, co na poluo, 

co na 

21 5 




mac locha ja pocpaij ipm loch, -| Fial 
mjfn IDileo a bean occa pocpai^ ipn 
loch. Do luio fyujab juy an ou i 
mbaoi an m^fn of e nocc ) opo pU paip 
pamlaio acbail oo naipe po checoip, -\ 
ap uaire anmnijcep an abann con a 
mb'ep. " It was on the night on which 
the Milesians landed in Eri, that Loch 
Luighdheach [in Kerry] broke out of 
the earth in West Munster. Lughaidh, 
son of Ith, was bathing in the lake, and 
Fial, daughter of Miledh, his wife, was 
with him bathing in the river that runs 

out of the lake. Lughaidh came on shore 
where the woman was naked, and she 
thought it was another man, and died of 
shame immediately. And from her the 
river and its mouth have their name." 
Then follows, in the Leabhar Gabhala, a 
poem, said to have been composed by 
Lughaidh on the occasion. See Keating 
(Haliday's Edit.) p. 96. (TV) 

Tuatha Dea. According to this ac- 
count, the Milesians formed alliances with 
all the tribes in possession of the country. 
This fact, which, if true, would account for 

They spread themselves through Eri, to her coasts, 

As is recorded, 
They made an alliance with the Firbolg, 

And with the sons of Nemhedh. 

There were no charming, noble wives 2 1 5 

For their young men; 
Their women having been stolen, they made alliance 

With the Tuatha Dea c . 

Unto them was given" the half of all the land, 

To the boisterous sea, 220 

After this just and judicious league, 
And after this alliance. 

Herimon took q the north 

As the inheritance of his race, 
With their antiquity, with their prosperity, 225 

With their rights ; 


the difference of race so manifest in the cona cholach, cona olijeao. After line 

mere Irish population, is not mentioned 224, there is an omission in N. of eighty- 

by Keating or other popular historians. eight lines. All the ancient Irish writers 

L. reads in v. 216, cia po njlea; and for agree that Herimon possessed the north- 

ap njaic, in the next line, capojapc ern, and Heber the southern parts of 

(T.) Ireland, and yet Giraldus Cambrensis re- 

p Was given. Oopaca, L. For apba verses this division in his Topographia 

the same MS. reads popba, which is evi- Hiber. D. III. e. 6. Camd. p. 737: "Pro- 

dently the meaning ; and in the next line, cedente vero tempore duo istorum nomi- 

tneblap for rneobap. In line 221, lap natissimi Hibernis scilicit et Herymon 

pin chaipc Tnichmm chombpup (T.) duas in partes asquales, regnum inter se 

q Took. 5 a ^ a T' 1". In the next line diviserunt. Herymoni cessit pars Aus- 

L. has cona ch mean, " with his race ;" tralis: Hebero quidem Aquilonaris." To 

and in lines 225, 226, cona peanchop, this day, however, the people of Munster 


Co na n-ounib, co na cacaib, 

jaipse pfgre, 
co na n-oebchaige rpia oibhne, 

co na cechpe. 230 

17o gab Gbfp ofpcfpr nhGpenn, 

opD po cinmup, 
co na urmaille, cona covnmup, 

co na binniup. 

Co na buaoaib, co na h-uile, 235 

co na aege, 
co na ofppaiDe cpia oupe, 

co na chame, co na Dene. 

Do claino hfpimom DO Cajnib 

luar co clocoa, 240 

Lech Cumo, Connacc, Niall pappe, 

Nial inD pocta. 


are called Sliocc Gibip. " Errat autcm " With its pride, with its wars. 

Giraldus in dimidio Austral! tribuundo %* fc ahoute of distress, 

Heremoni, &c., cum omnes antiqui uno With its failures from its rashness, 

... . With its wings." (T.) 
ore ei tribuant Borealcm, et Hcbero Aus- 

tralem." Dr. O'Conor, in Ann. 4 Mag. s Power. The MS. here reads cun 

p. 10, note i. (T.) cornmup, but the context shows that the 

r Fortresses Here again in the text scribe intended to write cona, and I have 

we have cona nounib, " with their for- altered it accordingly. L. reads cen cho- 

tresses," which is inconsistent with the map, " without power." (T.) 

context, and ought to be con a ounib. ' Harmony. Alluding, perhaps, to the 

L. reads : legend, which will be found in Keating, 

Con u oiumap, con a chaochai p. 306, of Cir, son of Cis, the poet, having 

JJaipchup 615 been allotted to Herimon, and Onee, the 

Cona cheipchich cpia opni harper, to Heber. (T.) 

con a eicpi. " Grandeur. L. reads cona umla, 

2 53 

With its fortresses r , with its troops, 

Fierce, active; 
With their rash fights, 

With their cattle. 

Eber took the south of Eri, 

The order was so agreed on, 
With its activity, with its power 5 , 

With its harmony 1 ; 

With its victories, with its grandeur", 

With its hospitality, 
With its vivacity combined with hardiness, 

With its loveliness, with its purity. 

Of the race of Herimon are the Lagenians*, 

Of fame renowned y , 
Leth-Cuinn, Conacht, Niall of the south, 

Niall of the North. 


2 35 


humility, or submission ; and, in the next 
line, cona peiji; in line 237, for cpia 
oupe, L. has cen ouipi, " without harsh- 
ness," and in line 238, cona peile, " with, 
its festivity," omitting cona chaipe. (T.) 
K Lagenians, i. e. the families of Lein- 
ster. Ugaine Mor, king of Ireland, whose 
reign commenced, according to O'Fla- 
herty, A.M. 3619, was a lineal descen- 
dant of Herimon; and to his son, Laeghaire 
Lore, are traced the O'Conors of Offaly, 
O'Tooles, O'Byrnes, Mac Murroughs, 
Mac Gillpatricks, and all the great fami- 
lies of Leinster. Ugaine is also the ances- 
tor of Con of the Hundred Battles, and 


of all the septs called Hy Niall, seated in 
Meath and Ulster ; also of the families of 
Leath Cuinn, or the northern half of Ire- 
land, with the exception of the Clanna 
Rudhraighe, and some minor families. 
The great families of Connaught also, as 
the O'Conors, O'Flahertys, O'Dowdas, 
O'Heynes, O'Shaughnessys, &c., who are 
chiefly of the race of Eochaidh Muighmh- 
eadhoin, and therefore belong to the family 
of Ugaine Mor, and the line of Herimon. 

y Renowned. L. reads luao can cloch- 
na. The word pappe, in the next line, is 
explained in Cormac's Glossary, .1. oeip- 


porape, na Ofpi, TTloj Lama, 

la cuji Cuatnje, 
pip Oalpiacai, Co]ica pinne, 

ip Copcu pofoa. 

I?i5paio clainne Gcac uili Oomblfn, 

cuip Docelaib, 
Ip pijpao Qipjiall a buicne, 

co loch pebail. 


cipc, i. e. the soutb, and lias been so 
translated ; but L. reads here, Niall 

pino paichle (T.) 

' The Fotharlf These were the de- 
scendants of Eochaidh Finn Fothart, son of 
Fedhlimidh Rechtmhar, King of Ireland, 
A. D. 164. He was banished from Meath, 
then the seat of the kings, by his nephew, 
Art Aenair, who began his reign, accord- 
ing to O'Flaherty, A. D. 220. Ogyg. iii. 
c. 64. The posterity of Eochaidh Finn Fo- 
thart settled in various parts of Leinster, 
and the baronies of Fothart or Forth, in 
the counties of Carlow and Wexford, still 
retain their name. The Deisi were the 
descendants of Fiacha Suighdhe, son of 
Fedhlimidh Rechtmhar, and were, there- 
fore, of the senior line of Ugaine Mor. 
But they were set aside by Con of the 
Hundred Battles, and afterwards expelled 
from Meath by Cormac O'Cuinn, his grand- 
son, who began his reign A. D. 254 

Ogyg. iii. c. 69. They settled in the dis- 
trict now called from them Decies, in the 
County Waterford, and in the barony of 



Middlethird, County Tipperary. (T.) 

a Mogh Lamha's race. Mogh Lamha 
was the father of Conaire II., King of 
Ireland, A. D. 212, who married Saraid, 
daughter of Con of the Hundred Battles, 
and was the father of the three Cairbres, 
from one of whom, Cairbre Riada, or Riogh- 
f hada, the Dal-Riada, or race of Riada, 
are descended. The district of Dalriada, 
now called tiwRout, in the county Antrim, 
takes its name from the race that inhabit- 
ed it. See Reeves's Eccl. Antiq. of Down, 
and Connor, and Dromore, note FF. p 3 1 8, 
el seq. The genealogy of Mogh Lamha is 
thus given in the Book of Conquests, p. 1 47 : 
He was the son of Lughaidh Alladham, 
King of Munster, son of Coirpre Crim- 
chuin, son of Daire Dornmhair, son of 
Cairpre Fionnmhor, King of Munster, son 
of Conaire Mor, King of Ireland (T.) 

b Cualgne For la cup Cualjne, L. 
reads la cope jaela. Cuailgne is a 
mountainous district in the north of the 
county of Louth, now Cooley ; the ce- 
lebrated Cuchullin, of the race of Heri- 

2 55 

The Fotharts", the Deisi, Mogh Lamha's* race, 

With the warrior of Cualgne", 
The men of Dalriada, Corco-Rinne c , 

And Corco-Roeda d . 

The kings of the race of Eochaidh Doimhlen', 

The pillars of his houses, 
And the kings of Argiall f , from Buichne 

To Loch Febhail 8 . 



mon, was the champion of Cuailgnc, and 
perhaps he is here particularly alluded 
to. Core Gaela, mentioned in the read- 
ing of L., was king of the country now 
called Eile, or Ely, in Ormond. He was 
married to Ele, daughter of Eochaidh 
Mac Luchta, and his descendants were 
the Corco Gaela. The three Fotharts were 
his chief representatives, through their 
mother Finche (T.) 

c Corco-Rinne L. reads copco chu- 

pano ; but I know not who were the 
Corco Einne, or Corco Churann. There 
is propably some corruption of the text 
in all the copies (T.) 

d Corco-Raeda These were the de- 
scendants of Fiacha Eaide, son of Fiacha 
Suighdhe, already mentioned as the an- 
cestor of the Deisi. The Corcoraidians oc- 
cupied the barony of Corcaree in the coun- 
ty of Westmeath Ogyg. iii. c. 69 (T.) 

f Eochadh DoimMen He was the son of 
Cairbre Liffeachar, King of Ireland, and 
father of Colla Huais, King of Ireland 
Ogyg. iii. c. 75. L. omits uili in line 247, 

which is evidently redundant: and in the 
next line the same manuscript reads cuip 
oia chelaib. He is called "a pillar of 
his houses," i. e. of the houses or families 
descended from him, because he was the 
common ancestor of the O'Kellys of Hy- 
Many, Maguires, Mac Mahons of Oriel, 
O'Hanlons, &c. (T.) 

f Kings of Argiatt. L. has simply na 
h-Qip^ialla, the Argialla. They were 
the descendants of the three Collas, the 
sons of Eochaidh Doimhlen Ogyg. iii. 
c. 7 6.-(7 T .) 

From Buichne to Loch Febhail. L. 
reads ocha 6uaibnich. The meaning is, 
that the authority of the Argialla extend- 
ed over the district, from the River 
Buichne to Loch Febhail or Foyle. In 
St. Patrick's time the Argialla had pos- 
session of all the country about Loch 
Foyle and the now counties of Monaghan, 
Armagh, a great part of Tyrone, and of 
the barony of Slane in Meath. Where 
the Buichne is I do not know, but it ap- 
pears to be the name of a river. ( T.) 


2 55 


pip Oajial o 5r^ iri co Copam 

cfn nac nofmfpp, 
oeg meic TTlaine bpfpail piacpaig Dalian, 

acup Oomlen oilfp. 

Dubne oolup cfmen [potmb] 

porhuo aipjnec, 
CtenDia Upennia, 

Cofnnia caippoec. 

Copppe Gpao, Qpat Cipe, 

Qpat) Cliacac, 
Larapn bfnncpaige Inmanaig, 

Oal pino Piarac. 

Ogyg- P- 3 2 9- Tne names Aendia, Tren- 
nia, and Coennia, lines 257, 258, are 
other names given to the three Fothads, 
Airgtheach, Cairptheach, and Canann. 

1 Corpre Arad. In the margin another 
reading is given thus : no Copppe cliac, 
liacain, piogemo, pono mbiacac ; and 
the same reading occurs also in L., both 
readings being inserted together, so as to 
give this stanza the appearance of contain- 
ing six lines : 

Caipbpi each C/iatan, piogenio, 

pono mbiacach, 
Caipppi Qpao, Qpao Chipi, 

Qpao Cliach, 
6achaipni, 6eanncpaiji Inmanaich, 

Oal pino piacach. 

" Coraid. Fer da Ghiall, i. e. Eochaidh 
Ferdaghiall, the ancestor of the Hy-Many, 
in Connaught, whose territory extended 
from Grian to Coraidh. See 0' Donovan's 
Genealogies, Tribes, &c., of Hy-Many, 
pp. 7, 10, 25, 66, 130, 134. For copuio, 
in line 251, L. reads copaich, and in 
the next line cenoach nimeap. In line 
253 the words oejj meic are omitted. 

' Greyness, The word pooub is in- 
serted from L., and is necessary to com- 
plete the metre ; it signifies, literally, half 

k Fothads The three Fothads were the 
sons of Lugadh Mac Con, King of Ireland 
A. D. 250, according to O'Flaherty's dates. 
They were called Fothad Airgtheach, Fo- 
thad Cairptheach, and Fothad Canann. 


Fir da Ghiall, who dwell from Grian to Coradh", 

Without contempt, 

The good sons of Maine, Breasail, Fiachra, Dalian, 
And Domhlen the faithful. 

Blackness, darkness, dimness, greyness 1 , 

The Fothads", the plunderers 
Aendia, Trennia, 

Coennia of chariots. 

Corpre Arad 1 , Arad Tire, 

Arad Cliathach, 
Latharn m , Benntraighe, lonmanaich, 

Dal Finn Fiatach". 

2 55 



Cairbri, Cach [read CHach], Liathan, Fidhgenidh, 

Of the fertile soil, 
Cairpri, Arad, Arad Thiri, 

Arad Cliacli, 
Lathairn, Beanntraighe the beloved, 

Dal Finn Fiatach. 

Cairpri Arad, Arad Thire, and Arad 
Cliach or Cliathach, are the tribes set- 
tled in Duharra, and the adjacent terri- 
ritory in Tipperary. See O'Donovan's 
Book of Rights, published by the Celtic 
Society, p. 46, n. (T.) 

m Latham. The district of Lame, Co. 
Antrim, in the ancient territory of Dala- 
radia, which derives its name from Lathair, 
one of the sons of Ugaine Mor. The Benn- 
traighe are the descendants of Beann, son 
of Connor Mac Nessa, according to some 
accounts ; or of Congancnis, of the Er- 


neans of Munster, according to others. 
See M'Firbis, pp. 381, 503. They were 
settled at Bantry Bay in the county Cork, 
and also at Bantry, on the borders of the 
counties of Wicklow and Wexford. The 
lonmanaich were descended from Colla 

Meann in Mughdhorne Book of Leacan, 

fol. 88, 6,6 (T.) 

n Dal Finn Fiatach. The descendants 
of Fiatach Finn, who, according toTigher- 
nach, began to reign in Emania, as King 
of Uladh or Ulidia, in the year A.D. 108, 
and in 116, according to O'Flaherty's 
Chronology, became king of Ireland 
Ogyg. p. 142, and p. 301. He was of the 
race of Herimon, of the family of the 
Ernai, or descendants of Oilioll Aroun, 
who settled in Ulster. Ogyg. p. 266. 

2 5 8 

poola Copppe pceo 

ba roipm cfpech, 
pluaj; bale buaoac, munnp hfpimom, 

mic TTlileD. 

TTlaiccne Gbip Gojjanacca, 

uili apoaic, 

Gni, loc Lein, Capel, ^lenoamain, 



Gocu l?airlinne cfn 

cam culao, 
Goganacc cec ou i ccic, 

la bpigu TTluman. 

TTlafe Odl Chaipp Oal Cein cecaig, 

2 75 

" Corpraiyhe Over the word Copppe 
in the text, tlie MS. has the correction 
no Copppuijje in a later hand ; and over 
Cparpa^e, the correction no tJapcpotje, 
which have been adopted in the trans- 
lation. L. reads poolci Copbpuioi pceo 
Oapcpaioi, and in the next line copno 
Dipeoch. The Corpraighe are the de- 
scendants of Carbre LifFeachar, son of 
Cormac Mac Art, King of Ireland, A. D. 

279 Ogyg. p. 341. The Dartraighe were 

a tribe situated near Loch Gill, in the 
barony of Carbery, Co. Sligo, descended 
from Lugad Cal, of the family of Ith. 

Ogyg. p. 3*9 (*".) 

p In every place: i. e. in every place 

where the Eoghanachts are to be found, 
of which the poet proceeds to enumerate 
the principal. The Eoghanachts were the 
descendants of Eoghan, son (if Oilioll 
Olum, KingofMunster, A. 0.237 Ogyg. 
p. 326. There were various septs of them 
in the south of Ireland, as the Eoghan- 
acht Ani. or O'Ciermeics, at Ani, now 
Knockany, in the Co.Limerick ; the Eogh- 
anacht Locha Lein, or O'Donohues, at 
Loch Lein, now the Lake of Killarney, 
barony of Magunnihy, Co. Kerry; the 
Eoghanacht Caisil, or Mac Carthys, of 
Cashel ; the Eoghanacht Euis-airgid, near 
the river Nore in Ossory; Eoghanacht 
Rathlenn, or O'Mahonys, in the barony 

2 59 

The families of Corpraighe and of Dartruighe, 

Fertile is their territory, 
A mighty host, victorious, the race of Herimon, 

Son of Miledh. 

The descendants of Eber are the Eoghanachts 

In every place p , 
At Ani, Loch Lein, Caisel, Glendamain, 

And Ros-argaid. 

Eochaidh of Raithlinne q , without oppression, 

Magnificent their apparel, 
The Eoghanachts wherever they are found 

In the lands of Mumhan r . 

The nobles of Dal Cais s , Dal Cein the numerous, 
Of illustrious valour, 



2 75 

of Kinelmbeaky, Co. Cork ; the Eoghan- 
achts of Glendamnach, or O'Keeffe's coun- 
try, in the Co. Cork; the Eoghanachts 
of the island of Arann, in the bay of Gal- 
way ; and other branches which settled in 
Scotland. Ogyg. p. 328. The MS. reads 
cloenoabcnp in line 269, for which the 
reading of L. has been adopted in the 
text, as being more correct (T.) 

q Eochaidh of Kaithlinne : i. e. the Eog- 
hanachts of Rathlenn, or O'Mahonys. See 
last note. (T.) 

r Mumhan: i. e. in the lands, or farms 
(bpiju), i. e. settlements of Munster. In 
line 271 L. reads 6ochu Roichlmo apu 
cen oponja; and in line 273, each rhip 


icaic (T.) 

s Dal Cats. The posterity of Cais, son 
of Conall Eachluadh, King of Munster, in 
the fourth century Ogyg. p. 386. The 
title of Dal Cais was given to the inhabi- 
tants of Thomond, including the great 
families of O'Brien, Mac Namara, Mac 
Mahon, O'Curry, &c. The Dal Cein or 
Ciariachts, are the posterity of Cian, son 
of Oilioll Olum (Ogyg. p. 328), including 
the families now known by the sirnames 
of O'Carroll (of Ely), O'Meaghcr (of Iker- 
rin, Tipperary), O'Conor (of Glengiven, 
Co. Londonderry), O'llara and O'Gara, 
in the diocese of Achonry, Mac Cormac 
of Bregia, &c. For oal cein L. reads cen- 



Dal TTloja, Oal Cuipc, Oal Ceaca, 

cech Du icar, 
(,115111 im Dualaic, 
Lugaio Cage, Cujuipne, 
acuy 1 TTlojo Nuaoair. 

Nuall clainne Lugoac mic Ira, 
Oil cono pubpaj, 



each, and in line 277 oal mancha, oal 
cuipc, oal cfca cianachca. (7 1 .) 

' Dal Mogha The race of Mogh Nuad- 
hat, or Eogan More, father of Oilioll Olum. 
Tlie Dal Ccata are unknown, but the Dal 
Core are probably the descendants of Core 
mac Lughach, Prince of Minister, the 
reputed ancestor of the Stewards of Scot- 
land ; of the Eoganacht of Loch Lein ; 
and of the Cuircne, in Westraeath 
Mac Firbis, p. 165. (T.) 

u Galerif/fi. The Galengs were a branch 
of the Dal Coin (Ogyg. p. 328), compris- 
ing the O'Haras, O'Garas, O'Cathesis, 
and O'Hcnessys, in Connaught and Meath. 
They were descended from Corinac Galen- 
gach, great-grandson of Oilioll Olum, King 
of Munster. The MS. reads in line 278 
Ruling Delnai, but the reading of L. has 
been substituted as more correct. The 
Delbhna were a branch of the Dal-Cais, 
descended from Lugadh Dealbhaodh, son 
of Cas. To this tribe belong the families 
of Coghlan of Garry castle, King's County; 

Mac Conry (anglicized King) of Conne- 
mara ; O'Finnellan of Delvin, in West- 
meath, &c. From the different branches 
of this tribe seven different districts or 

baronies take the name of Delvin Ogyg. 

p. 327 (T.) 

x Tratraiyhe L. reads t)aprpoioi. The 

Tratraighe were seated in the rural dean- 
ery of Tradry, in the barony of Bunratty, 
Co. Clare. They were of the Firbolg, but 
the territory became the inheritance of 
Lugaidh Dealbaith, who was driven out 
of it by the intrigues of his daughter, 
and forced to lly into Meath. It is also 
stated that Trad was the name of his 
daughter's husband, and hence Trad- 
raiij/ie. M 'Firbis, pp. 59, 654 (T.) 

The Luiylmi. These were a branch of 
the Gailenga (Ogyg. p. 328), and gave 
their name to the barony of Luighne 
(Leyny), in the Co. Sligo, and to the 
barony of Luighne (Lune), in the Co. 
Meath. (T.) 

* LugaidLage The brother of Oilioll 

Dal Mogha 1 , Dal Core, Dal Ceata, 
The Galengs", the Delbhna. 

The Tratraighe* wherever they are found, 
The Luighni y are of the same race, 

Lugaid-Lage z , Liguirne, 
And Mogh-Nuadhait a . 

The fame of the race of Lugaidh son of Ith>>, 
As a great straight rotting wave c , 



Olum, who slew Art, monarch of Ireland, 
after the battle of Magh Mucroimhe, near 
Athenry, Co. Galway. A. D. 270. Ligh- 
urn, the grandson of Eochy Finn Fothart, 
was the companion of Lugaid Lage in the 
battle, and joined him in the slaughter of 
King Art Ogyg. p. 328. 

" Mogh Nuadhat The father of Oilioll 

Olum, and head of all the race of Heber. 
He compelled Con of the Hundred Battles 
to divide Ireland with him, from which 
the southern half of Ireland was called 
Loath Mogha, or Mogha's half. Ogyg. 

p. 315 (T.) 

b Lugaid son oflth. Our author having 
mentioned the principal septs descended 
from Herimon and Ileber, the sons of 
Milesius, now .proceeds to celebrate the 
race of Lugaid, son of Ith, who was the 
leader and instigator of the Milesian in- 
vasion. His posterity were settled in the 
diocese of Ross, south-west of the county 
Cork ; but the principal family of the race 
now extant is that known by the name of 

O'Hedersceol or O'Driscoll. O'Flaherty 
says that the family of Mac Cathlin, now 
Campbell, of Argyle, in Scotland, is of 
this race, being descended from Fothadh 
Conann, son of Lughadh Mac Con, King 
of Ireland. Ogyg. pp. 329, 330. There 
is a curious historical tract on the history 
of the race of Lughaidh Mac Ith, in the 
Book of Leacan, fol. 122, which is well 
worthy of publication, for the valuable 
light it throws on the topography and 
history of a part of Ireland hitherto very 
little known. The word nuall, line 283, 
has been translated fame ; it signifies lite- 
rally a shout, and metaphorically may be 
taken to denote fame or celebrity. In the 
Feilire Aenguis (i Feb.), St. Bridget is 
called ftpigio ban bulcc nuullun, " Brid- 
get, a woman of great shouting ;" and the 
gloss says: .1. nuull ann, no nuall un, no 
uupul, no nuall an .1. ip mop, -] ip an 
nuall caich ocumchio icje pop &PIJIC. 
No ip mop nuall celebapchu oc &PIJIC, 
ic; i.e. "nuall ann, a shout there ; or 


Gpne Gpbpcuge TTlur'ca bapcan, 
ineic Cugoach. 


Opcre Lu^cno J5 a ^ a > 
Ofp^a Ofn aible, 
pi Ouin Chfpmna beppe, 


Lcm in liGpin t>o clamo Ip, 

rriic TTHleo, 
TTliDip Puopaije pf pacrna parac, 

cona ciniuo baioe. 

Ciap a ceirhfpn Gemmae cona 
maine inuach, 


2 95 

nuall an, a noble [shout] ; or nuall an, 
i. e. great and noble is the sliout of the peo- 
ple asking requests of Bridget ; or great is 
the shout of celebration with Bridget" 
[i. e. celebration of her festival], &c. 

c Wave L. reads oiU cuino cupaio; 

puopaj means straight, direct. (T.) 

d Bascan. The Ernai, Arbhraighe, 
[Orbhraigh or Orrery, Co. Cork], Mus- 
ca (Muscraighe), and Bascan, are tribes 
of the race of Herimon, according to the 
common account. But the Book of Lecan 
states that by some they are deduced from 
Ir, son of Ith, fol. 112, &. L. reads in 
the next line na cpi lujaio. At line 286 
the copy in the book of Leacan ends, but 
a column was left blank for the continua- 
tion, which is now filled with other matter 


in a later hand ( T.) 

e Lugaidh Oircthe. Lughaid Oircthe, 
from whom descended the Corco Oircthe ; 
Lughaid Cal, from whom the inhabitants 
of the district of Calry, of Loch Gill, ba- 
rony of Carbery, Co. Sligo ; and Lugaidh 
Laighde, the grandfather of Lughaid Mac 
Con, King of Ireland (from whom came 
the Corco Laighde, in the west of the Co. 
Cork), were all sons of Daire, of the race 
of Ith Ogyg. p. 329 (T.) 
' Derga. Not known (T.) 
8 Oen-Ailildc. Unknown (T.) 

h Dun-Kermna A fortress at the foot 

of the Old Plead of Kinsale, called in the 
1 7th century, Dun Patrick, from one of 
the Do Courcys, to whom the district be- 
longed Ogyg. p. 205 ; Keating, in the 
reign of Cearmna. It had its old name 


The Ernai, Arbhraighe, Musca, Bascan d , 
Are the sons of Lugaidh. 

Lughaid-Orcthe e , Lughaid Gala, 

Derga', Oen-aibhle B 
The King of Dun-Kermna h , Berre', 

Lughaid Laighde. 

Eri is full of the race of Ir, 

Son of Milcdh, 
Midir k , Rudhraighe, King Fachtna Fathach, 

With their warlike kinsmen. 

Ciar with his foot-soldiers', Conmac with his .... 
Of great wealth, 



2 95 

of Dun Kermna, from Cearmna, king of 
the southern half of Ireland, who began 
to reign conjointly with Sobhairce, both 
of the race of Ir, in the year A. M. 3045, 
according to O'Flaherty. Our author 
differs from the best authorities, if we are 
to understand him as deducing these fami- 
lies from Lughad, son of Ith. For the 
Ernai of middle Munster were descended 
from Cathaoir, son of Edirscol, King of 
Ireland ; and the Ernai of Dun-Kermna, 
in South Munster, from Duibhne, son of 
the same Cathaoir, from whom their pos- 
terity were called Corco-Duibhni. They 
were, therefore, of the race of Herimon. 
-Ogyg.p. 271.- (T.) 

1 Berre. Now Bearhaven, Co. Cork. 

k Midir. There is probably some mis- 

take of transcription in this name, for it 
does not occur in the genealogies of the 
race of Ir. Eudhraighe, ancestor of the 
Clanna Kudraighe, of the race of Ir, was 
King of Ireland, according to O'Flaherty, 
A.M. 3845 (Ogyg. p. 265); and Fachtna 
Fathach, or the Provident, son of Cas, 
and grandson of Rudhraighe, succeeded to 
the throne, A.M., 3899 (ib. p. 266). 

' Foot-soldiers, or kernes. For Ciup a 
ceichepn, we should probably read Clap 
cona ceichepn. The last word of this 
line ought, perhaps, to be cope, for Ciar, 
Core, and Conmac, were the illegitimate 
sons of Fergus Mac Roigh, ex-King of 
Ulster, of the race of Ir, by Meadhbh, 
Queen of Connaught(Ogyg. iii. c. 46). Ciar 
was ancestor of all the tribes called Ciar- 


Copcu Oallcm, Copcu Goluim 

Oal rhbuain Conpino comil 

pfpb ngoppa 
TTlojj 17oirh pfppa cmiuo pepjupa 

inic l?oppa. 

Rfge o paccnu Odl nQpaioe 

epcOa tK>5aip 
pecc Laijpe Lajfn co pebail, 

na pfcc Sogain, 


raighe, in Connavight, viz., Ciarraighe Lu- 
achra (comprising the greater part of the 1 
present county of Kerry), the patrimony 
of O'Conor Kerry ; Ciarriaghe Ai, now 
Claim Kethern in Roscommon; and Ciar- 
raighe Locha n-Airneadh, in the county 
Mayo, comprising that portion of the ba- 
rony of Costello belonging to the diocese 
ofTuam. See O'Donovan's Ily Fiachrach, 
p. 484, and map. Conmac was the an- 
cestor of the people called Conmaiene. as 
the Conmaicne ol'Moyrein, in the coun- 
ties of Longford and Leitrim, of whom the 
O'Farrells and Mac Rannalls are the prin- 
cipal remaining families ; the Conmaicne of 
Kinel Dubhan, or Dunmore, Co. Galway ; 
Conmacne Mara, now Connemara ; and 
Conmaicne Tola, barony of Kilmaine, Co. 
Mayo. O' Flaherty's West Connaught, 
pp. 92-94. The third son, Core, was the 
ancestor of the Corco-modhruadh, or Cor- 
cumruaidh, mentioned line 298, in the 
barony of Corcomroe, which was origi- 


nally co-extensive with the diocese of Kil- 
fenora, Co. Clare. The O'Loghlins of Bur- 
ren, and the O'Conor Corcomroe, are the 
principal families of this race now remain- 
ing. Ugyg. pp. 275, 276. (T.) 

n Corca Dalian The posterity of Dal- 
ian, son of Fergus Mac Koigh, ex-King 
of Ulster. The Corca-Eoluiin, or Corca- 
Auluiin, were the descendants ol'Aulam, 
or Corb-Aulam, twin brother of Conri, 
son of Fergus Mac Roigh. Ogyg. p. 274. 

Dal m-Buain, or Dal m-Buinne, were 
the descendants of Buain, son of Fergus 
Mac Koigh. Their territory comprised 
the barony of Upper Massareene, Co. An- 
trim, with the parishes of Kilwarlin and 
Drumbo. Iteeves's Eccl. Antiq. p. 233, 
note ', p. 364. Ogyg. 274. Dal Confinn 
were the descendants of Aongus Finn, son 
of Fergus mac Roigh ; they were the inha- 
bitants of Coolavin, in the county of Sligo. 
Ogyg. p. 2 75 .-(r.) 

The Corca-Dallan m , the Corca-Eoluim, 
The Corcumruaidh. 

Dal mBuain", Confmn, of powerful deeds, 

Of fierce valour, 300 

Mogh Roith , the protector, are all of the race of Fergus, 

The son of Ross. 

The kings of the race of Fachtna", the Dal n- Araidhe, 

Warlike, fierce, 
The seven Laigse q of Leinster the wealthy, 305 

The seven Soghans r . 

Mogh Roith. A celebrated Druid of 
the race of the Ciarraighe. His poste- 
rity obtained the territory of Fermoy, 
Co. Cork ; from him were descended the 
families of O'Dubhagain or O'Duggan, and 
O'Coscraigh ; also the saints Mochuille 
and Molagga, and Cuanna MacCailchinne, 
chief of Fermoy, celebrated for his hospita- 
lity, who flourished in the seventh century. 
See Keating, in the reign of Conall Caol 
and Cellach; Colgan, in Vit. S. Molaggas, 
ad 20 Jan. All the foregoing tribes and 
personages (mentioned lines 295 to 301) 
are here said to be of the race of Fergus 
Mac Roigh [so called from his mother's 
name], who was the son of Ross Ruadh, 
son of Rudhruighe, King of Ireland, A.M. 
3845. Ogyg. p. 265. Mogh Roith is called 
protector from his having, by his magic, as- 
sisted the Munster men to defeat Cormac 
Mac Art, at the battle of Damhdhaire, in 
the second century. Dudley Mac Firbis 
translates the name of Mogh Roth, Magus 

IRISH ARCH. SOC. 1 6. 2 


liotcc, and says that he assisted Simon 
Magus, to make the Roth-ramhach, a 
magical wheel, by means of which Simon 
was enabled to ascend into the air, and 
which is to overwhelm all Europe in some 
fatal calamity before the day of judgment. 
See this strange legend in D. Mac Firbis, 
p. 535 (MS. in the Library of the Royal 
Irish Academy), and Book of Leacan, fol. 
133 (T.) 

P Fachtna: i. e. the race of Fachtna Fath- 
ach, King of Ireland. The Dal-Aradians 
were of the race of Fiacha Araidhe, of the 
family of Rudhruighe, and race of Ir, King 
of Ulster, A.D. 236. Tighernach, Annal. 
in an. ; Ogyg. iii. c. 66 ; Reeves's Ecclesias- 
tical Antiq., Appendix GG., p. 334. (T.) 

11 Laiglise, or Leix Districts inhabited 

by the descendants of Laoighseach Ceann- 
mhor, son of Conall Cearnach, of the race 
of Ir. See Addit. Notes, p. Ixxiii, note s . 

' Soghans. The posterity of Sodhan 


Sil Concnll 5^ ai TT mic 

ba epcocno ogjia 
Oo TTlaig porhaio DO TTlai5 

DO TTiai5 


Oo TTlnij Sulioe DO 

Do TTlaig TTlace 
o'lnbiup buappe bpucrcnc ppoca 

Do me Qice. 

Goco TTlaipeoa in maicpe miaD 

nojiDD ningnaD 
Diam bojib a Cmomuine laenDjiec 

uap loc 



Laecjiao pil T 
bdij; cfn gainne 

Salbhuidhe, son of Fiacha Araidhe. Six of 
the seven districts inhabited by them 
were in Hy Many, and one in Meath. See 
O'Donovan's Hy Many, pp. 72, 159, 188. 

s Conal Glas. This was Couall Anglon- 
nach, son of Feich, and founder of the 
families of Conaille Muirthemhne, county 
Louth. Magh Uisnich was the plain round 
the hill of Uisnech, in the Co. Westmeath. 
The other plains here mentioned are un- 
known. (2'.) 

' Magh Sulidhe The plain about the 
river Swilly, in the Co. Donegal. (T.) 

u Fernmaigh:\. e. the Alder- tree Plain, 
now Farney, a barony in the county of 



Monaghan, of which a valuable historical 
and topographical memoir has recently 
been published by Evelyn Philip Shirley, 
Esq. Mayli Macho, mentioned in the next 
line, is the plain round Armagh; it is 
generally called by the Four Masters 
Machaire Arda Macho, or the plain of 
Armagh (T.) 

x Inhlier Buais The mouth of the river 
Buais, now Bush, near the present town 
of Bushmills, in the north of Dalriada, 
Co. Antrim. See Keeves's Eccl. Antiq. 
of Down and Connor. What is meant 
by lath Aiche, or the land of Aiche, in 
the next line, I do not know. (T.) 

y Eocho Mairedha He was drowned 


The race of Conall Glas s , son of Ech, 
Spread themselves listlessly 

To Magh Fothaid, to Magh Uisnigh, 
To Magh Moghna, 

To Magh Sulidhe', to Fernmaigh", 

To Magh Macha, 
To Inbher Buais x , of bursting torrents, 

To the land of Aiche. 


Eocho Mairedha y , the rebellious son, 

Of wonderful adventure, 
Who was overwhelmed in lucid Linnmhuine, 

With the clear lake over him. 

The heroes of the race of Righbard, son of Brige 2 , 
( )f valour undaunted, 

about A. D. 90, by the eruption of the 
lake, now called from his name, Loch 
n-Eochadh, or Loch Neagh, which over- 
spread the plain before called Liathmhuine. 
The ancient name of Lough Neagh was 
Linnmhuine. He is called " the rebel- 
lious son" because he eloped with his 
step-mother. There is some confusion in 
lines 317 and 318; perhaps we should read, 

oia mbopb u linomume linojlan, 
uar- liacmume laomopec. 

Who was overwhelmed in clear Linnmhuine, 
Above the wide Liathmhuine. 

N. is all confusion, reading the stanza 


ta muipe oa in muirpe miao 
nopo ninjnao 

t)ia m-bopb a linn mume (^ennpec, 
uap loc linnglann. 

For the legend of the eruption of 
Loch Neagh, see the Dinnseanchus, and 
the Leabhar n-Uidhri, fol. 36. (T.) 

1 Riglibard, son of Brige. Who this 
was I do not know. The Corc-Oiche were 
the descendants of Dubhthach Daelten- 
gaidh (i. e. of the black tongue), and are 
said to have occupied the land now co- 
vered by Lough Neagh, until they were 
dispossessed and dispersed into Meath, 
Munster, &c., by Eochaidh Mac Mairedha, 
a Munster chieftain, in the first century, 
2 M 2 

2 68 

Cope oice doe cloc cfn cimine 
Dal yaep pelle. 

Se cinfba nac r>o muncip 
ciappa itiagfn, 

Succa, Ui 

3 2 5 

Leip fo rhmpmip fmap ap cponic 

cia no hglfo ? 
Inci meoon acup roppach 

acup oeao. 

Dfpb Ifam cipe pooop pime 
o po gabao hGpiu 



who was contemporary with the eruption 
of the lake. Book of Leacan, fol. 1 34 ; 
Ogyg. p. 329. The Dal Selle, mentioned 
line 322, were descended from Eochuidh, 
who gave his name to Loch Neagh. (T.) 
* Si.i- tribes. The MSS. read Seomuic 
mouic DO mumciri 6pc^om; and in line 
325, ^abpaije piccu [N. pioju]. The 
readings adopted are taken from a quota- 
tion of this stanza which occurs in a short 
account of the death of Finn M'Cumhal, 
contained in a miscellaneous MS. volume 
of the ijth century, in the possession of 
Henry J. Monck Mason, Esq., LL.D. The 
volume is lettered on the back, " Amradh 
Coluim-Cille sceo scribenn aile." [Poem 
on Columbkille and other writings]. The 
whole passage, for which I am indebted to 
Mr. E. Curry, is as follows: Clobepaio 

apaile, -\ ip pip pin, comub DO ib caipp- 
pi^ hua pailgi DO, -] 550 ma6 DO aicec- 
ruuchcnb luDpiDe. Qmcul ucbepc ITlael- 
nuipn ipm cponic 

Se cinfoa nac DO mumcip 
Tebup TnuijjiM 

8liucca, hui 

" Others say, and it is true, that he 
[Finn] was of the Ui Tairrsigh of Ui 
Failghe, and that they were of the Aith- 
echtuath [or insurgent plebeians], as 
Maehnura says in the Chronicle, Six 
Tribes," &e. 

This passage is worthy of insertion 
here, not only as preserving the true 
reading of the stanza before us, but also 
because we learn from it incidentally 


Corc-Oiche, humblers of the proud, without fear, 
The noble Dal Selle. 

Six tribes a who are not of Breoghan's people. 

Who hold lands: 
The Gabraighe Succa, Ui Tairsigh, 

Galeous of Leinster. 

Fully have we made our Chronicle, 

Who will criticise it ? 
It has its middle, and its beginning, 

And its end. 

It is certain to me that whatsoever I have related, 
Since thejirst invasion of Eri, 

3 2 5 



that the present poem was known by the 
name of The Chronicle ofMaelmura: comp. 
line 327. It would seem, however, that, 
instead of Se, we should read cpi cmfoa, 
"three tribes," &c., in line 323; for three 
only are mentioned, and Keating speaks 
of three only, enumerating the very same 
three that are here given, all of whom he 
says were of the race of the Firbolgs. Q 
oeipio bponj pe Seuncup jupab oioB na 
cpi h-aicrheaoa po pil a n-6ipmn, nuc DO 
jjaomiolaib .1. ^abpuine Sliucu a 5- 
Connaccaib, Ui Caippij; a jcpic o 
bpailj;e, -\ ^alium fxii^ion. "Some an- 
tiquaries say that it is of them [viz. of 
the Firbolgs] are descended the three fa- 
milies that are in Ireland who are not of 
the Gadelians, viz., the Gabraidhc of [the 
river] Suck in Conacht, the Ui Tairsigh, 

in the country of Offaly, and the Galleons 
of Leinster." Quoted from Dudley Mac 
Firbis'sMS. Comp. Haliclay's ed. p. 195; 
O'Flaherty, Ogyg. p. 175; O'Donovan'.s 
Ily-Many, pp. 85, 86, 90. The hint 
thrown out in the passage quoted from 
Mr. Mason's MS., that the three non-Ga- 
delian families were of the Athachtuaidh, 
and therefore joined with the insurgents 
who murdered the nobles of the Gadclian 
race, and set up a new line of popularly 
elected kings, is curious. See Ogyg. iii. 
c. 54, and Keating, at the reign of Tuathal 
Teachtmar. Breoghan being the common 
ancestor of all the Gadelian leaders, to 
say that the tribes enumerated were not 
of the race of Breoghan is eqiiivalent to 
saying that they were not Gadelian. 


cona pcngbe nf ba pfjiiu 
na bap Ifpiu. 

Leop leno lenmaic a panoip ipp 

po pfp culao 
muncip bhpfgom peib arbfpap 

can a mbunat). C. 




Dal Riaoa, umoppo, oap labpamap 50 leg op mo nac ppuil 
amopup againn ipin m-beajan oa m-bunanup, ~| cpaobpjaoileao 
Da larhpam pan leabappa. Cuipeam pean tmain Seancapa a pfo 
ap Qlbain annpo piop. 

]Tla|ipo aoep je eapbabac f mp pi'om na pio na pann Depe- 
anar, ~| pop mp pleccaib ele: 

'' Their origin. -Mr. Curry lias suggest- 
ed that the first line of this poem oujrht 

1 O 

to be written Cun a mbunaoap na njjue- 
oil, " Whence their origin [viz. the ori- 
gin] of the Gadelians?" which would 
make a good sense, and would coineide 
with the last line, as is usual in bardic 
compositions of this nature; and although 
there is a seeming grammatical irregiila- 
rity in repeating the possessive pronoun 
along with the noun to which it refers, 
yet instances are not uncommon in Irish 
of this sort of redundancy. In the last line 
of the poem it is quite impossible to take 
cunum as a verb, for it would be the fu- 

Q eolcha 

ture tense, and would make no sense. But 
O'Flaherty, Lynch, Keating, and others, 
the best scholars of the seventeenth cen- 
tury, have taken it as a verb in the first 
line. Still II r. Curry's conjecture is very 
ingenious, and may probably be true. 

Duan Albanuch. The author of the 
following poem is unknown, but it appears 
from internal evidence to have been writ- 
ten about A.D. 1057. It is acknowledged 
on all hands to be of the utmost value, as 
the connecting link in the history of the 
Gaels of Ireland and Scotland. Colgan says 
of it, "quo ego non legi, nee Scoto-Britanni 


There will be found to be nothing more true 
Or more plain. 

Sufficiently have we followed their true history, 

Much more do we know. 
The race of Bregon, as it is handed down. 

From whence is their origin b . 




OF the Dalriadans, of whom we have lately spoken d , we have no 
doubt of the truth of the little we have attempted of their origin and 
genealogy in this book. We set down, however, here an ancient 
poem of the history of the Kings of Scotland. 

Thus it speaks, although it is defective" in counting the kings in 
the last quatrain, and according to other accounts : 

O all 

producunt, ullum Keguni Scotorum ve- 
tustiorem Scriptorem." O'Flaherty says 
the same thing, Ogyg. p. 466; and Pin- 
kerton calls it, "beyond question the most 
ancient monument of l)alriadic history 
extant." See the testimonies collected 
by Dr. O'Conor, Eer. Ilib. Script., torn. i. 
Proleg. p. cxxii. 

It is here edited from the MS. of Dud- 
ley Mac Firbis, in the Library of the Royal 
Irish Academy, copied by Mr. Curry from 
the original in the possession of the Earl 
of Roden. Dr. O'Conor has edited it from 
two MSS. in the Library of the Duke of 
Buckingham, at Stowe. Mr. Pinkerton 

has also printed it, with a very erroneous 
version, by the elder Charles O'Conor. 
As Dr. O'Conor's version is also full of 
errors, it has been thought necessary to 
add a more correct translation of so impor- 
tant a document to the present work 


d Lately spoken : i.e. Dudley Mac Firbis, in 
his genealogical work, from which this 
poem is taken, had lately spoken of the 
families of Dal-Riada. See Reeves's Eccl. 
Antiq. of Down and Connor, p. 3 1 8. (T.) 

e Defective. Hence it appears that the 
defects of this poem are of ancient date. 
They are also noted by O' Flaherty, who 


Q eolcha Glban uile, 

a fluaj peuea polrbuibe, 
cia ceuo jabail, an eol ouib, 
po jabapoaip Glbanpuij ? 

Glbanup po jab, lia a plojj, 5 

mac pen oipoepc Ipicon, 
bparaip ip bpiucup jan bpar, 
6 pdiceap Qlba earpac. 

l?o lonnapb a bparaip bpap 

bpiocup rap muip n-lcr n-arhnap, 10 

po jab bpiocup Qlbain am, 
750 pinn piabnac pouuodin. 

lap m-6piocup m-hlair, m-bil, 

po jabpao clanna Neitiib, 


says: "Verum aliquot desidcratis disti- first verse Dr. O'Conor takes uile as agree- 

chis, intcgrum apographuni rcperirc non ing with Qlbdn, " vos docti Albaniae to- 

contigit." Ogyg. p. 467. The defect, tius ;" but he ought to have rendered it, 

our author says, is manifest from the " vos docti Albania; omnes." Inverse3heis 

number of kings (fifty-two) mentioned also entirely wrong ; he translates it, " Qui 

in the last stanza, which does not agree primi didicerunt scientiam e vestris ;" but 

with the number given in the poem, or juKuil is a substantive, not a verb. Mr. 

with that given by other authorities Skene, in his English version of this poem 

(T.) (Collectanea de rebus Albanicis, edited by 

' The land of Alba Glbanpuij may, the lona Club, p. 70), is still further from 

perhaps, be for Qlbanpi^e, the king- the original, for he renders ver. 3, " Learn 

dom of Alba. Pinkerton and Dr. O'Conor who first." (T.) 

read Ctlbanbpuij, the land of Alban, B Numerous. Dr. O'Conor reads pia, 

which is perhaps correct, or pu'5 may be which may mean with; and lia, asPinkerton 

the gen. of pu6, a wood or forest. In the and the original MS. read, may be for le, 

2 73 

O all ye learned of Alba ! 

Ye well skilled host of yellow hair ! 

What was the first invasion is it known to you ? 

Which took the land of Alba f ? 

Albanus possessed it, numerous g his hosts ; 5 

He was the illustrious son of Isacon, 
He and Briutus were brothers without deceit, 
From him Alba of ships has its name. 

Briutus banished his active 11 brother 

Across the stormy sea of Icht. i o 

Briutus possessed the noble Alba, 

As far as the conspicuous promontory of Fothudan'. 

Long after Briutus the prosperous, the good, 
The race of Nemhidh took it, 


with, but it may also signify numerous, tice in any of the other accounts of a 
Mr. Skene renders plo j, race, which is brother called Bras. 6pap means active, 
wrong. Dr. O'Conor might have taught energetic, restless. For the sea of Icht, 
him the true meaning. In the next line see p. 31, note ', Dr. O'Conor and Mr. 
Dr. O'Conor renders mac pein " filius Skene have mistaken the meaning of the 
istius,'' which ought to be " filius ille epithet n-arinnar, not perceiving that the 
fuit." For ip, in line 7, Dr. O'Conor and n was merely euphonic. (T.) 
Pinkerton read DO. For the fancied de- ' Fothudan. I am not able to identify 
scent of Albanus and Brutus or Britus this promontory with its modern name, 
from Isicon or Isacon, and Japheth, see It appears to be here spoken of as the ex- 
above, p. 33. (T.) treme northern point of Scotland. Old 
h Active. Pinkerton and Dr. O'Conor Charles O'Conor (in Pinkerton) and Dr. 
take bpap as a proper name, and trans- O'Conor, make Fothudan the name of a 
late, "His brother Bras;" but this is man; the former translates this line "to 
nonsense, for the expelled brother was the plains of the hunter Fothudan ;" and 
evidently Albanus; and we have no no- the latter, "usque ad fines venatoris Fo- 



ia P cceacr ap a Icing, 
tio aicle cojla cuip Conuing. 

Cpuicmj pop jabpao lapccain, 
mp cciaccain a h-Gpeann-rhuij, 


jabpao oiob an Cpmrean-clap. 

Cacluan an ceo pij t>iob-pom, 
aipnenpeat) oaoib 50 cumoip, 
pob e an pi t>eeanac Di'b 
an cup calma Cupamcin. 

Clanna Gafac ina n-Diaij, 

gabpao Qlbam lap n-aipDjliam, 
clanna Conaipe an caoimpip, 
ro^aibe na 



thudani." But pmn is certainly a promon- 
tory. (T.) 

*Eiylan. Dr. O'Conor renders the word 
Gp^lun as an adjective, clamantes, con- 
founding it with apojlopac. Mr. Skenc 
makes it the name of a country. "The 
race of Neimhidh," he says, "acquired 
Earglan," but ho does not tell us where 
" Earglan" was. Old Charles O'Conor 
(see Pinkerton, vol. ii. p. 107) made it 
the name of a man, one of the leaders 
of the Nemedians, and for this he has 
the authority of the Book of Leacan (fol. 
276, a), where we have the following 
account of the Nemedian chieftains who 
survived the battle in which Conaing's 
tower was destroyed. t)o looap pin pop 


Gpfno pop ceicfo u n-jalaip i 
in chipa. TTlapb 6eochacli DO charh i 
n-6pino. Q oeich mna Dia eip ppi pe 
rpi pichic bliaoan. ^uio bar -| a mac 
.1. 6aarh a cuaipceipc in Domain. ^UID 
PTlacan -\ apjlan, i lapracc .1. rpi meic 
6eoam micSoaipn co t)obap, -\ co h-lpp- 
oobup a cuuipceipc Qlban. " They 
passed under the shadow of Eri, retreat- 
ing from their distempers and tributes. 
Beothach died of a plague in Eri. His 
ten wives survived him three-score years. 
Ebath and his son, i.e. Baath, passed 
into the north of the world. Matan and 
Erglan and larthacht, i. e. the three sons 
of Beoan, son of Sdarn, with Dobar and 
Irrdobar, to the north of Albain." (T.) 

2 75 

Erglan k , after having disembarked from his ships, 1 5 

After the destruction of Conaing's tower 1 . 

The Cruithnians seized it afterwards" 1 , 

After they had come from the plain" of Eri, 

Seventy noble kings of them 

Possessed the Cruithnian plain. 20 

Cathluan waa the first king of them, 
(I tell unto you briefly), 
The last king of them was 
The brave hero Cusaintin. 

The children of Eochadh p after them 25 

Seized upon Alba, after great wars ; 
The children of Conaire, the comely man, 
Chosen men were the mighty Gaedhil. 


1 Conaing's tower. See above, p. 48, in making it plural), instead of O'Conor'ts 
note d . This tower is supposed to have been " Cruthniam illustrem.'" (T.) 
on Tory island, Co. Donegal. See O'Dono- Cathluan. See above, pp. 125, 139, 
van's Four Masters, at A.M. 3066. (T.) 159. In line 22, 50 cumaip does not sig- 
m Afterwards. Mr. Skene translates, nify veraciter, as Dr. O'Conor renders it, 
"The Cruithne acquired the western re- nor explicitly, as Mr. Skene has it. Pin- 
gion." Dr. O'Conor has rendered it cor- kerton reads 50 oeiriiin, verily (T.) 
rectly (T.) p Eochadh, i. e. Eochadh Muinreamhar, 
n Plain. Meaning, perhaps, maj 6pej, of the race of Conaire II., King of Ireland, 
or Bregia. See above, p. 125. Comp. the ancestor of the Dalriadan kings of Ire- 
also pp. 139, 145. Old Charles O'Conor, land and Scotland. Seelleeves'sEcc. Antiq. 
in Pinkerton, and Dr. O'Conor, render p. 320. King Conaire was called Caomh, or 
plains in the plural, which is wrong. Mr. the beautiful (as in line 27), to distinguish 
Skene falls into the same error, but he him from Conaire L, who was called Conaire 
has corrected Dr. O'Conor's " in Hiber- Mor, or the Great. Inline 27, O'Conor and 
nise campos." In line 20 he is also right Skene read na caiorii pip, which would be 
in rendering clap plains (although wrong plural, and is evidently wrong (T.) 


mec Gpc mec Gacbctc aic, 
cpiap puaip beannaccaip pdcpaicc, 30 

abpat> aibam, apo a n-^up, 
Loapn, peap^up ip Ctonjup. 

Oec m-bba6na Coapn, lep blab, 
i pplaiceap oipip Qlban, 

rap ep Loapn pel 50 n-^iip, 35 

peace m-blmbna piceac peapjup. 

Oomangapc mac o'peap^up apo, 
aipearh cuift m-bliaban m-biorjapg, 
a .jrjrnn. gnn cpoio, 
no Cornwall, mac Oorhanjoipc. 40 

Oa Miaban Conainj j;ari cdip, 
cap ep Corh^aill Do 5^P ari 
cpi bliabna po cm?; ?;an poinn, 
ba pi Conall, mac Corhjoill. 


'' Valiant The word aic is rendered prince of Dakradia], " et voce prophe- 

xt minus by Colgan, Trias Thaum., p. 115, t.ica dixit ad ilium; Licet hodie videaris 

col. i, where he quotes lines 25-40. In humilis, et dcspectus in conspectu fratrum 

line 31 he renders apo a n^uf, "elato tuoruni, eris in brevi princeps illorum 

animo." 5 u r signifies mind, courage, omnium. I)e te enim optimi reges egre- 

spirit; see line 35. Dr. O'Conor and Mr. dientur, qui non solum in terra propria, 

Skene read apo njup, which is evidently sed etiam in regione longinqua et pere- 

u mistake (T.) grina principabuntur ;" and see Colgan's 

r Patrick. See Jocelyn, Vit. S. Patr. note on this passage, Tr. Thaum., p. 114. 

c. 137, where this blessing is described as (T.) 

given to Fergus only ;" Sanctus vero Pa- * Bounds Colgan (uli supr.*) renders 

tricius prffidictum benedixit Fergusium" this line " in principatu finium Albanise." 

[soil. Fergus Muinreamhar, son of Ere, The poet wishes to intimate that Loam's 


The three sons of Ere, son of Eochadh the valiant", 

Three who obtained the blessing of Patrick r , 3 o 

Seized upon Alba, exalted was their courage, 
Loarn, Feargus, and Aongus. 

Ten years was Loarn (it is known to fame) 
In the government of the bounds 8 of Alba, 
After the generous, courageous 1 Loarn, 35 

Seven and twenty years reigned Fergus. 

Domhangart, the son of noble Fergus, 
Numbered for five turbulent years ; 
Twenty-four without a battle 
Are assigned to Comhghall, son of Domhangart. 40 

Two prosperous years without contempt, 
After Comhghall, are assigned to Gabhran, 
Three years five times" without interruption, 
Was Conall, son of Comhghall, king. 


sovereignty extended to the very extre- has phel 50 nj;up, and translates absurd- 

inities of Alban. Pinkerton reads lap- ly, " a space likewise." Mr. Skene fol- 

chaip Qlban, " of western Alban," which lows O'Conor's reading, which he renders, 

is a mistake. Dr. O'Conor has the right not very intelligibly, " keenly the talu.'' 

reading, but translates it illustrious ; and See line 31. Fergus was surnamed the 

Mr. Skene, not satisfied with this, makes Great, and was called Mac Mise, from the 

it a proper name, " Oirir Alban," but name of his mother. O'Flaherty assigns 

without explaining what he supposed to only sixteen years to his reign, which he 

be meant. For the genealogy of Loarn says commenced A.D. 513. Ogyg. p. 472. 

see Ogyg. p. 470 (T.) (T.) 

' Courageous Colgan reads, peil ju u Three years Jive times: i.e. 15. Mr. 

ngup ; O'Conor, fjel 50 njup, which he Skene renders this, erroneously, " three 

renders " historia est nota." Pinkerton years and five;" although Dr. O'Conor's 


Cecpe bliabna piceac rail 45 

ba T?f Goban na n-iol-pann, 
Dec m-bliabna po peace, peol n-gle, 
i pplaiceap Gacac 6ui6e. 

CoTincab Ceapp pence, pel blaD, 

a .;rui. Dia mac peapchap 50 

cap ep peapcaip, peajaiD painn, 
.jam. bliabna Oomnaill. 

Uap ep Oorhnaill bpic na m-bla, 
Conall, Oun^al .p. m-blia6na, 

.;nii. bliabna Oommnll Oumn, 55 

cap ep Oun^ail ip Chonuill. 

TTlaolDuin mac Conaill na ccpeac 
a .;ruii. Do 50 oli^ceac, 


version is correct. In line 41 Pinkerton ' Ten years seven times: i.e. seventy years, 

reads, chonncnl jan cap ; Dr. O'Conor, This has been translated by old Charles 

concur^ jan cap. A note in the margin O'Conor, who furnished Pinkerton with 

of Mac Firbis's MS. makes Conaing the his version of this poem, " ten years by 

name of a king, who reigned conjointly seven," which certainly meant 70, al- 

with Gobhran ; but this must be a mis- though Pinkerton understood it 1 7. And 

take (T.) it has been rendered 17 by Dr. O'Conor 

x Provinces : lit. " of many divisions." and Mr. Skene. But let the authority 

Dr. O'Conor and Mr. Skene translate, of theDuan suffer as it may, oec m-bliao- 

" of golden swords," reading na n-oplann. na po peachc must mean seventy years. 

But Dr. O'Conor mentions the other O'Flahcrty assigns to Aidan a reign of 

reading, p. cxxxvii. Pinkerton reads, thirty-two years, and to Eochaidh Buidhe 

na niolpann, " of extended plains." Call, twenty-three, following the authority of 

in line 45, signifies within, i. e. in posses- Tighernach. In line 47, peol is literally 

sion, an ancient brehon law term (T.) sailing, and signifies his lifetime, career, 


Four years and twenty in possession, 45 

Was Aodhan, king of many provinces" ; 
Ten years seven times", a glorious career, 
Was the sovereignty of Eoehadh Buidhe, 

Connchad Cearr reigned a quarter, renowned in fame, 

Sixteen years his son Fearchar, 50 

After Fearchar (inspect the poems z ), 
The fourteen years of Domhnall. 

After Domhnall Breac, of the towns a , 
Conall and Dungall, ten years, 

The thirteen years of Domhnall Dunn, 55 

After Dungall and Conall. 


Maeldun, son of Conall, of forays, 
Reigned seventeen years legitimately, 


reign. (T.) his reign. See Tighernach, ad an. 637, 

2 The poems : i. e. the historical poems, and O'Donovan's Battle of Magh Rath, 

which were the bardic historians' autho- pp. 48, 49. (T.) 

rities ; or which constituted the title deeds * Of the towns. Dr. O'Conor renders 

of the kings named. See the Brehon law this " celebrem fama," confounding bid 

tract (H. 3. 1 8, p. 22) in the Library of with bluo, fame, a totally different word, 

Trin. Coll. Dublin. Mr. Skene renders which occurred a little before, line 49, 

these words, " by dominion of swords," where he renders pel blab, very absurdly, 

confounding pamn with pinn; but Dr. " regno legitimo inclyto," and Mr. Skene, 

O'Conor's version is correct. The reigns still more strangely, " a shooting star." 

assigned to Fearchar and Domhnall in this In the Brehon laws, bid is put for baile, 

stanza are too long. See Ogyg. p. 477; a town or townland. The two Domh- 

and Pinkerton, vol. ii. p. 117. This was nails or Donnells are distinguished by the 

the Domhnall who was defeated at the Bat- surnames of Breac, speckled, and Donn, 

tie of Magh Rath, which gives the date of brown (T.) 


peapcaip PODO, peaja leac, 

DO caic btiaDain ap .;r;r. 60 

Da bliabain Gacbac na-n-eac, 
po ba calma an pi pijreac, 
aoin bliabain ba plair laprcain, 
Ginceallac maic mac peapcaip. 

Seacc m-bliabna Oun^ail Dem, 65 

acup a ceacaip DO Qilpen, 
cpi bliaDna TTluipeaDoi^ rhaic, 
r. DO GOD na apDplaic. 

Ct ceauaip picear, nip pann, 

DO bliaonaib Do caic Oorhnall, 70 

Da BliaDam Conaill, cem n-jle, 
ip a cearaip Chonaill ele. 

Naoi m-blia6na Cupainnn cam, 
a naoi Qon5pa ap Qlbain, 


b Behuld than Dr.O'Conor's copy reads, renders it, perhaps correctly (T.) 
le^aleac, " read by thyself." The phrase, d Afterwards __ Mr. Skene renders tap 

"look you!" is still in use; see above, ream, "of the western regions,"not know- 

line 51. For pooa, long, the appella- ing that Irish scribes write re for o. The 

tion here given to Fearchair, Dr. O'Conor death of Ainchellach is given by Tighernach 

reads poja, which is a mistake. SeeO'Fla- under the year 719. After Ainchellach 

herty, p. 479 (T.) the Annals mention two kings: Selbhach, 

c Mansions. The word pi^ceac seems sonofFerchair,andbrotherof Ainchellach; 

to be a compound of pi j, a king, and ceac, and Eochadh III., son of Eochadh II., who 

a house ; or ceac may be merely the ad- is mentioned line 61. O'Flaherty assigns 

jective termination, in which case the to these two reigns a period of fourteen 

word will signify royal, as Mr. Skene years, from A. D. 719 to 733, in which 


Fearchair the Long, behold thou b 

Passed one year over twenty. 60 

The two years of Eochadh of steeds, 

He was the brave king of royal mansions ; 
For one year was king afterwards* 1 
Aincheallach the Good, son of Fearchair. 

The seven years of Dungal' the impetuous, 65 

And four to Alpin, 

The three years of Muireadhach the good, 
Thirty to Aodh, as supreme king. 

Four and a score, not imbecile, 

Of years Domhnall spent ; 70 

The two years of Conall of glorious career, 
And the four of another Conall. 

The nine years of Cusaintin the fair ; 
The nine of Aongus over Alban ; 


last year the death of Eochadh mac Eoch- Duan all occur in connexion with a king 
ach is recorded by Tighernach. Pinker- of this name. Thus, for Sealbhach and 
ton gives Selbhach a reign of twenty years, Eochaidh III., the Duan substitutes Dun- 
and to Eochaidh " about ten." The Duan gal and Alpin ; it omits Dungal and 
is therefore here corrupted. A stanza ap- Eochaidh IV., who ought to come in 
pears 'to have been omitted, and the two between Muiredach (line 67) and Aodh 
lines 65 and 66, as Dr. O'Conor suggests, (line 68); and it also omits Eochaidh V. 
were probably transposed to fill up the and Alpin, who ought to come in between 
gap; but they contain the wrong names. Eoganan (line 76) and Cionaeth or Ken- 
There was probably some confusion made neth Mac Alpin (line 77). It is further 
by an early copyist in the Eochaidhs, for remarkable that these errors are in each 
it is remarkable that the defects in the case double, arising from the original 

IKISH ARCH. SOC. 1 6. 20 


cerjie blmbna Qoba am, 75 

ipa cpi 06115 Gojandm. 

Tpfoca bliaoam Cionaoir cjiuaib, 
a cearaip Domnall DjiecjiuaiD, 
.;c;c;r. bliaoain co na bjifj, 
r>on cujiao Do Cupaincnt. 

Da bliaoain, ba oaop a oar, 

Da bparaip oo Qo6 pionnpcocac, 
Domnall, mac Cupainan coin, 
po cair bliaDam pa ceafaip. 

Cufamcin ba calma a jleac, 85 

po caic a pe ip Da piceac, 
Ulaolcoluim cerpe bliabna, 
lonoolb a h-ocr aipopia^la. 


omission of two kings, and the subsequent ' Eughanan. Here a stanza seems to be 
attempt to mend the defect by transposi- omitted, of which lines 65 and 66 proba- 
tion. The list, as given by O'Flaherty, bly formed part, except that for Dungal, 
with the duration of each reign, if as in line. 65, we should read Eochadh. See 
follows: Muiredach, three years; Duu- last note. From the next king, Cionaith 
ual II., seven; Eochadh IV., five; Aodh or Kenneth Mac Alpin, the list of kings 
Fionn, or Aodh I., thirty; Uomhnall III., here given agrees, or originally did agree, 
twenty- four; ConallUL, two; Conall IV., with the Chronicon Pictorum; see above, 
four; Constantino, nine; Aongus, nine; p. 167, where a reign of sixteen years 
Aodh II. , four ; Eoganan, thirteen ; only is assigned to Cionaith. (T.) 
Eochadh V., part of one ; Alpin, four ; f White jlowers. The word pionnpco- 
Kenneth Mac Alpin, thirty ; Domhnal coc signifies white or fair flowers. Old 
Mac Alpin, four; Constantino II., Mac Charles O'Conor renders it "the fair 
Cinaodha (i. e. son of Kenneth), four- haired," which is only an attempt to ex- 
teen ; Aodh Mac Cionaodha, two (T.) plain white flowers. Dr. O'Conor and 


The four years of Aodh the noble ; 75 

And the thirteen of Eoghanan 6 . 

The thirty years of Cionaoith the hardy, 
Four Domhnall of the ruddy countenance, 
Thirty years, with his vigour, 
To the hero, to Cusaintin. So 

Two years (hard was his complexion) 

To his brother, to Aodh, of the white flowers' ; 
Domhnal, son of Cusaintin the fair, 
Reigned a year four times K . 

Cusaintin, brave was his combat h , 85 

Reigned six and two score years; 
Maolcoluim four years ; 
Indolph eight, of supreme sovereignty. 


Mr. Skene translate it " white shielded," herty was misled by it here, and assigns 

taking pcorac for pciarac. Constantino to Domhnal, son of Constantine, a reign 

(line 80) and this Aodh Fionnscothach of five years. Dr. O'Conor renders it 

were the sons of Kenneth Mac Alpin. " annum cum quatuor (annis)." The au- 

Girig (or Gregory) Mac Dungail is in- thor adopted the unusual mode of saying 

serted between Aodh and Domhnall, son four, only for the sake of his metre. Ro 

of Constantine, both in O'Flaherty's list cair (line 84) signifies spent or passed 

and in the Chron. Pictorum. See above, (on the throne), i. e. lived or reigned ; 

p. 167. But he is omitted by the Duan, see lines 60 and 70 (T.) 

perhaps designedly. (T.) '' Combat: i. e., probably, his contest for 

? A year four times : i. e. four years. the throne; jleac is a fight, a battle, not 

The reader will observe that this is the " impetus in pra;liis," as Dr. O'Conor 

same form of expression which has been renders it. This Constantine was the son 

already misunderstood by former trans- of Aodh, who was the son of Kenneth 

lators; see lines 43 and 47. Even O'Fla- Mac Alpin; see line 82. (T.) 

2 O 2 


Seacc m-blia6na Oubooa Den, 

acup aceacaip Cuilen, 90 

a -jcjain. op 506 cloinn, 

DO Cionaoc, mac ITlaoilcoluim. 

Seacc m-bliaona Cupaincin clum, 
acup a cearaip TTlacbuiB, 

cpioca6 bbanam, bpeacaiD pamn, 95 

ba pi TTlonaiO TTlaolcolaim. 

Se bliaona OonncaiD glain gaoir 
.jcun. bliabna mac pionnlaoic, 
cap ef TTlec beafaiD 50 m-blaio, 
.un. mfp i pplaiciop Lu^lai^. 100 

TTlaolcoluim anopa ap pi, 
mac Oonncai6 Daca Dpecb'i, 
a pe noca n-piDip neac, 
ace an c-eolac ap eolac. Q eolca. 


' Dubhoda. This is the king who is partc octavi ml annum 1004." Ogyg. 

called Cinaal, vel Dubh, in the list given p. 488. There is evidently some conf'u- 

ahove, p. 167. He. is also called DuiFus siou in these names in the Irish version 

by some writers. See Ogyg. p. 487, of the Chronicon Pictorum, which was 

where O'Flaherty translates his name Lynch's authority in the place referred 

" Odo niger." (T.) to of Cambr. Eversus; but still it is pro- 

k Mac Duibh, or Maaduff; i. e. the son bable that " Cinead fil Dubh" there men- 

of Dubhoda, line 39. O'Flaherty says: tioned (see p. 1 67, *;*/), was the same who 

" Grimus, Scotice Macduibh; hoc est is here called Mac Duibh or Macduff.-(T.) 

Duffi seu Dubhodonis filius, quern pro- ' Verse.? mark. The word bpeucaio 

prio nomine Kenneth dictum invenio. is not very intelligible; if it were bpeac- 

Rex Pictorum octennio Cambr. Ever, cam, it would mean as verses embel- 

page 94. Quippe 7 annis ab anno 997 et lish, celebrate, adorn. Dr. O'Conor's ver- 

2 8 5 

The seven years of Dubhoda' the vehement, 

And four of Cuilen, 90 

Twenty-seven over every clan, 
To Cionoath, son of Maoilcholuim. 

Seven years to Cusaintin, listen ! 
And four to Mac Duibh k , 

Thirty years (as verses mark 1 ) 95 

Was Maelcolaim king of Monaidh m . 


The six years of Donnchad the wise, 

Seventeen years the son of Fionnlaoich" ; 

After Mac Beathaidh, the renowned, 

Seven months was Lughlaigh in the sovereignty. 100 

Maelcoluim is now the king , 

Son of Donnchad the florid, of lively visage, 

His duration knoweth no man 

But the Wise One, the Most Wise. O ye learned 1 '. 


sion, which Mr. Skene translates, "ofchc- mothers's name. See above, p. 167 (T.) 

quered portions," can only be regarded as " Is now the king. Malcolm, son of 

a guess. (T.) Donnchad, slew his predecessor Lulach, 

m Monaidh: i.e. Dun Monaidh in Lome, on the I st of January, A. D. 1058, accord- 
in Scotland, the well-known fortress or ing to Tighernach, and was himself killed 
palace of the Dalriadic kings of Scotland: in 1093. This determines the age of the 
now Dunstaffnage. See Battle of Magh poem, and also of the list of kings before 
Rath, p. 46, n. a . Dr. O'Conor makes the given, which also terminates with Mai- 
absurd blunder of translating pi TTlonaio, colm, and was therefore, probably, written 
"rex montium," and in this he is fol- in his reign. See above, p. 167. (T.) 
lowed by Mr. Skene (T.) <' ye learned. Qeolca. Thefirst words 

" Son of Fionnlaoich: i. e. Mac Bea- of the poem are written here in the mar- 

thaidh, or Macbeth, so called from his gin, according to a custom of ancient Irish 


Oa pi pop caojao, cluine, 
50 mac OonncaiO opfc puipe, 
DP fiol 6pc apo^lain anoip, 
Qlbam a 

I0 5 

seribes, who used to write in the margin 
the initial word of the poem, whenever the 
same word occurred at the end of a line. 
Colgan quotes this stanza, Trias Thaum., 
p. 115, and translates it thus : 

" Malculmusnuncest Ilex, 

Filius Donnchadi speciosi et vividi vultus, 

Ejus annos non novit ullua 

Prater ilium scientem, qui omnia novit." 

'' Kings Only forty-seven kings are 

enumerated in the present text of the 
poem. But O'Flaherty has made up the 
number of fifty-two from the Annals and 
other sources. 

The comparison of his list with the 
poem shews that in the latter two kings 
have been transposed, and five omitted. 
The transposed kings are Dungal, changed 


Two kings q over fifty, listen ! 

To the son of Donnchadh of royal countenance, 
Of the race of Ere, the noble, in the easf, 
Obtained Alba, O ye learned. 

from the twenty-second to the nineteenth 
place, and Alpin, changed from the thirty- 
third to the twentieth. The omitted kings 
are No. 19, Selvach; the three Eochaidhs 
(viz. No. 20, Eochaidh Mac Eochaidh; 23, 
Eochaidh Angbhuidh; 32, Eochaidh Mac 
Aodha finn); and 38, Gairig, or Gregory 
Mac Dungail (T.) 

' The east: i. e. east of Ireland. Scotland 
is frequently called " the East" by Irish 
writers. This proves that the poem, or at 
least this stanza, was written in Ireland, 
and not in Scotland. For anoip, Dr. O'Co- 
nor and Mr. Skene read an oip, " of the 
gold," which is wrong, and makes no 
sense (T.) 





No. I. Seepage 29. 

THE following table exhibits a comparative view of the names of the cities in the 
Irish and Latin copies, with the supposed modern names : 


f Gwrthernion in Radnorshire. 
Caer Gortigern Caer Gurthigirn ? Caer Gwerthrynyawn ar 

I. llan Gwy. Triad, vi. s. 2. 
C. Grutus [Gutais. L. B.] C. Graunth Cambridge or Grantchester. 

( Verulam, at or near St. Al- 
C. Mencest C. Mencipit or Mumcip. . . J 

( ban's. 

C. Leuill C. Luadiit or Luilid Carlisle. 

C. Medguid [Meguaid, L. i . 

' C. Meguid MeivodinMontgomeryshire. 

B -J I 

C. Colin C. Colun Colnchester in Essex. 

C. Gusdirt [Gustint. L. B.] C. Custeint Caernarvon. 

C. Abrog C. Ebrauc or Eborauc. . . . York. 

( Old Sarum. Also a fortress 
C. Caradog C. Caratauc -c . _,. , . 

I in Shropshire. 

C. Brut[Graat. L. B.] . . C. Britton Bristow? or Dunbarton? 

f Mancester in Warwickshire? 
C. Machod C. Mauchguid < 

(. or Manchester i 

C. Lunaind TLuffain. L. 1 ., 

L \ C. Lunden London. 

Ludain. B.J J 


a I believe I have correctly allotted the equiva- the translator had probably an eye to one of the 
lents, in the Irish and Brito-Latin lists. Though Manchestera when he wrote Mencest. 

a 2 



C. Oen [Cose. L. Caisi. B.] C. Gwent ........... Chepstow h . 

C. Irangin FGirangon, L. . , 

I C. Guoirangon ........ Worcester. 

Giraigon, B.] ...... J 

C. Pheus .......... C. Peris ........... Portchester in Hampshire. 

C. Don [Minchip. L. B.] C. Daun ........... Doncaster. 

C. Loninoperuisc [Leo an- ~\ 

aird puisc L. Leoinar- / C. Legion Guarusik ..... Caerleon-upon-Usk. 

pliuisc. B.] ....... J 

C. Grugan ......... C. Gorieon or Guorcon. . . Warwick c ? 

C. Sant ........... C. Segeint .......... Silchester in Hampshire. 

f Caerleon-upon-Dee, i. e. 
C. Legun [Legion. L. B.] C. Ligion. ... , chester _ 

C. Guidiud [Guhent. L. | { Norwich, or Winchester, or 

Guent. B.] ....... ( I Winwick in Lancashire. 

f Bristow ; or rather Dun- 
C. Breatan ........ C. Britton .......... < breatan, Dunbritton, or 

(. Dunbarton. 

C. Loiridoin [Lergun. L. ) 

T . _ , f C. Lmon ........... Leicester. 

Lenon. B.] ....... J 

,, r> i , f Exeter, or Lostwithiel, or 

C. Pendsa .......... C. Pensavelcoit' 1 ....... -I 

Ilchester, or Pevensey. 

C. Druithgolgod [Druithe- "J 

colcoit. L. Gluteolcoit. / C. Droithon ......... Dray ton in Shropshire. 

f Vulgo Lincoln ; but rather 
C. Luiticoit ......... C. Luitcoit .......... ) Leeds Thoresby. Duca- 

( tus, p. 9. 
C. Urnacht [Urtocht. L. | 

U -t h B 1 f Urnacn ......... Wroxeter in Shropshire. 

C. Eilimon [Ceilimon. L. | 

Ceilimeno B 1 I C ' ( -' elemion ......... Camalet in Somersetshire 6 . 


11 See Llwyd's Brit. Descript. Commentariolum. c Caer Gwair, ap. Llwyd. p. 33. 

According to him Chepstovv is Caer Went, p. d Pen-savle-coed, static capitalis in Bvlva. 

1(12; and Winchester is Caer Wynt, City of " The conjecture of Camden, i. 178, ed. Gib- 

Wind, p. 21 ; Triad, iv. series 1. son. 

The root of these lists of the twenty-eight cities is in the commencement of the Liber 
Querulus of Gildas, who describes Britannia as being " bis denis bisque quaternis civitati- 
bus, ac nonnullis castellis, &c. decorata;" and seenis as if he were quoting part of his 
words from some poet; cap. I, andBeda, i. cap. I. The general tradition is, that they were 
the sees of the twenty-five bishops and three archbishops of the British Church ; as may 
be seen at large in Ussher's Primordia, cap. 5. The three archbishoprics were London, 
York, and Caerleon-upon-Usk. The allusion to the words of Gildas and Beda in those 
of the Historia is so apparent, that we cannot doubt but the original number in Mar- 
cus was xxviii. ; and that the scribe of 946 altered it, by the introduction of other names 
he had collected, and expunged (as false and exaggerated) those remarkable words in 
which the author seems to pay a compliment to Fernmael Lord of Guortigerniawn, and 
perhaps to his own native place, " prima civitas Britannia? est qua; vocatur Caer 
Gurthigirn." Of his thirty-three cities the copier places York and Canterbury, the 
two palls or archiepiscopates of England, first and second; thereby shewing that his 
repeated dates of " quintus Eadmundi regis" correctly point out his nation, and pro- 
bably his subjection to the northern primate; the unknown Caer Gurcoc, third; while 
Caer-Guorthigern has the fourth place. A Welch MS. of Genealogies of the same 
century, viz. the tenth, gives the list of twenty-eight cities nearly as it is in Nennius, 
ap. Cambrian Quart. Mag. vol. iv. 

It is a remarkable fact, that Mr. C. Bertram has printed in his Ricardus Corinanis, 
that of ninety-two British towns thirty-three were chief; viz. : the two free cities or 
municipia of Verulam and York, nine Roman colonisu, ten governed by Latin law 
under the Lex Julia, and twelve inferior and merely tributary. This list is essentially 
different in names from the Nennian twenty-eight and the five others making the 
Petavian thirty- three ; and is fundamentally distinct in its basis, being civil, not 
ecclesiastical. Yet it exhibits that very number (thirty-three), which the Petavian 
MS. of 946 has effected by adding five names to the twenty-eight. But Mr. Bertram 
surely never saw that MS. What, then, shall we say? That he found the number 
thirty-three in some other copy, and worked upon it? I regard the enumeration as 
part of his figments, and no ancient fragment ; for if it were true that Eboracum was 
also governed suojure, Verulam should not have been called Caer Municip, nor would 
his surname of Municeps have explained whence the tyrant Gratianus came. Vide Ric. 
Corin. p. 36, Havniaj 1757, p- 1 1 1, ap. Johnstone Ant. Celto-Norman. ibid. 1786. (H.) 

No. II. Seepage 29. 

Lluyd, in his Archsologia, tit. i. p. 20, col. 3, supposes Cpmrneac to be a corrup- 
tion of 6picneac, pictus, variegatus ; see also O'Brien, Diet, in voce. But this is scarcely 

credible ; 


credible; Duald Mac Firbis gives the following explanation of this word: Cpuirneuch 
(Pictus) neac DO jjubao cporu no oealba anmann, eun, ajup lar-jr,, ap a eineac, .1. 
ap u 01516 : a^ur- 5516 ni uippe arham ace ap a copp uile. 5'P 1D Serap Cpuicnv 
.1. picn, DO bpfcnaib DO cuipeuo 01510 peoil DO boo 7 oo baoap oppa lonoap jjcmoir- 
uarrhapa ne a nariiam. " Cruithneach (Pictus), one who paints the cruths (forms) 
of beasts, birds, and fishes on his eineach (face), and not on his face only, but on his 
whole body. Ciesar calls the Britons Cruithnigh, i. e. Picti, because they used to stain 
their faces with woad, in order that they might appear terrible to their enemies."- 
Genealoffies. Marq. of Drogheda's copy, p. 1 62. For this quotation I am indebted to 
Mr. O'Donovan. Cajsar's words are : " Omnes vero se Britanni vitro inficiunt, quod 
cccruleum efficit colorem. Atque hoc horridiori sunt in pugna aspectu ; capilloque 
sunt premisso atque omni parte corporis rasa, prater caput et labrum superius." De 
Jiello Gall. lib. v. c. 14. ('/'.) 

No. III. See page 29. 

Abonia Eubonia or Manaw is the Isle of Man. The Romans considered it as having 

the same name with Anglesea, viz. Mon ; and probably with reason, for Mon is a cow, and 
that, idea is preserved in the islet called the Calf of Man. But synonymes required a mark 
of distinction, which is found in the Monu-a-da of Ptolemy, the Mon-apia of Pliny, the 
Eu-bonia of Xennius, and the Eu-monia or Eu-mania of some MSS. of Orosius, as well 
as the Men-avia clearly meant in those which have Mevania. The word united to the 
primary one is probably that very aw, which now forms Manaw, the Welch for Man, 
and which Beda extended to both in his Menavia; f Insula?, Hist. i. cap. 9. It meant g 
to blow, both naturally, and in the metaphors of spirit, inspiration, afflatus, &c. This 
would give us Monavia, and Aumonia or Eumonia (all as one, in ancient spelling), and 
with the mutation, Auvonia or Euvonia, for the Mona of Winds. In an ancient MS. 
(Harl. 3859, ap. Cambr. Qu. Mag. iv. p. 23), Man is called Manau Guodotin, and in 
a supplement of Nennius (Nenn. cap. 66, ex MS. Cotton, ap. Gale, p. 116), " regio 
qua; vocatur Manaw Guotadin." Though not the same place, it is perhaps the same 


1 So corrected bv Mr. Sharon Turner, Hist. tawel, calm, serene ; tuwelu, to make or become 

Anglo-Sax, i. 347, ed. iv. But in his text, as calm. See Edw. Llwyd, Comp. Vocab. Owen 

in Orosius, Mevania. Diet. Ta is superior, as Dr. Owen shews by 

t It does not exist as a verb like aia; but as a an instance (a point essential to the legitimate 

root, in awel, a blast of wind ; awelu, to blow; citation of his Dictionary) ; and ascendancy over 

aieen, inspiration, &c. And (with a restrictive wind, or breath, makes a calm, or silence, 
sense in the prefix <a) taw, stillness, silence; 


word as Aneurin's Gododin. Rejecting the din (meaning an enclosed or defensible 
place) we may possibly obtain from the Guodo or Guota the JIo-0(S, or Mona-oeda 
of Ptolemy; for the G disappears in composition. But Mona seems to be the founda- 
tion of all the names. 

While the Romans were still ruling in Britain, Man was an Irish Island, " a=que 
(with Hibernia) a Scotorum gentibus habitata." Orosius, i. cap. 2. But whether this 
had been always so, or became so by the ruin of the Britons, no man now can say. 
The first occupation of Man by the Irish was probably not later than A. D. 254, in 
which year there is a tradition that King Cormac M c Art drove some of the rebellious 
Ultonians into that island Tigernach, in anno 254. Nevertheless it may have been 

The earliest accounts of it, however, are much too early, belonging to the fabulous 
epoch and legends of the Tuatha De Danann. The following statement is extracted from 
the ancient MS. Glossary of Cormac M'Cuillenan h . " Manannan Mac Lir was a 
famous merchant, that lived in the island of Manann. lie was the best navigator that 
was in the sea in the west of the world. He used to ascertain by heaven-study, that is, 
observation of the heavens, the duration of calm and storm, and the time when either 
of these two periods would change. " Inde Scoti et Britones eum dominum maris vo- 
caverunt, inde filium maris esse dixerunt, i. e. Mac Lir; et de nomine Manannain iusola 
Manainn dicta est'." But other authorities tell us, if we are to trust O'Flaherty, that 
the name of this merchant was Oirbsion or Orbsen, son of Allad, sou of Alathan, 
and nephew of the Daghda ; and that he was called Manannan, because of his inter- 
course with the Isle of ManJ. Orbsen Manaiman was slain in battle by Ullinn, son 
of Tadhg, son of Nuada the Silver-handed, at the place therefore called Magh- 
Ullinn or Moycullin, in Galway. Some say, that Loch Oirbsion or Orbsen broke 
out while his grave was being dug. See the Ogygia, part iii. cap. 14, p. 179; and 
Keating. That the Britons knew this legend of Man, may be supposed from the sur- 
name M'Llyr, son of the water or of the sea. k Bran ap Llyr is the fabulous father 


h This author died in 90S, according to Imp TDan.inn a oepap IDanannan pip. 
O Flaherty. " Or he was called Manannan from the Isle of 

' Bodleian MS. Laud. 610, fol. 83, col. a., 1. Manann." (7'.) 

k Cep or eap, the sea, (genitive ip) is still 

j In the copy of Cormac's Glossary in the Li- a livin ,, wor j in Irish ( T ^ Jn H A Bullock's 

brary of Trin. Coll. Dub. (H. 2, 15) there is the History of the Isle of Man, the tradition of Manan- 
following note on the above quoted passage, in ,, an is thus spoken of : "Mananan Mac Lyr (the 
the hand-writing of Duald Mac Firbis : No O first man who held Man, was ruler thereof, and af- 


of the elder Caradoc, and Bran ap Llyr Marini that of Caradoc Vreichbras. The 
conversion of Man to Christianity is ascribed to one Germarms, an emissary of St. 
Patrick, who was succeeded by two others named Conidrius and Romulus. Jocelyn. 
Vita Patric. cap. 92, 152; Vita Quarta, cap. 81. 

By Orck are denoted the Orcades or Orkneys, Orcania of Nennius. Ore in Gaelic 
is a whale or other large fish ; and possibly may have had the same sense in ancient 
Gaulish and British ; as it had also in Latin, " orca genus marina? bellua? maximum 
dicitur" (Pomp. Festus), whence the orca, of the Italian romantic poets, and in French 

" Then shall this mount 

Of Paradise by might of waves be moved 

Out of his place, push'd by the horned Hood, 

"With all his verdure spoiled and trees adrift, 

Down the great river to the opening gulf, 

And there take root, an island salt and bare, 

The haunt of seals and ores and seamews' dang." Paradise Lost, xi. 829-37. 

Orcades, or Ore Ynys, the islands of whales. See Armstrong's Gaelic Dictionary 
in Ore. Other etymologies, from the Teutonic, may be seen in Wallace and Torfa;us ; 
but they appear to me false and trivial. The Og*s "Ax^a of Ptolemy was Dunnet 
Head in Caithness, over against the islands. 

The Irish translator has omitted a good passage of Marcus and Nennius: " So in 
an old proverb it is said, when speaking of judges and kings, He judged Britain icith 
the three islands." (H.) 

No. IV. Seepage 42. 

The first man The two first paragraphs of Irish history are borrowed, with cor- 
rections, from Nennius, cap. 6 ; at p. 50 of Marcus. The Latin has Bartholomasus, 
Partholomams, Partholomus, and, as it seems acknowledged that Partholan's name 
means Bartholomew, we must admire the credulity which could believe that apostolic 
name to have been known in Ireland 311 years after the flood. Ogygia, ii. p. 65. 
The same remark applies to Simon Brec. It is very remarkable that Partholan, first 
King of Ireland, and Brutus, first King of Britain, were both abhorred for having 


ter whom the land was named) reigned many years; p. 3. The natives "pretend he was son to a 
and was a paynim. He kept land under mists by king of Ulster, and brother to Fergus II. who 
his necromancy. If he dreaded an enemy, he restored the monarchical government of Scot- 
would of one man cause to seem one hundred ; land, 422." Ibid. (.ff.) 

and that by art magic." Old Statute Book, cit. 


killed father and mother. See Keating, p. 25. By " Nemech quidam filius agnominis," 
the copyists probably understood son of his own cognominis or namesake. The tran- 
scriber of Marcus has left it blank, in doubt of its meaning; and he did wisely. For 
the original reading is " filius Agnomain", or Agnamhain. See Ogygia, ii. p. 65 ; Wood's 
Primitive Inhabitants of Ireland, p. 13; Keating's Genealogy, p. 30. The same name, 
Agnoman, occurs very early in the voyages of the Gaidhelians. Gildas Coem. ap. 
Ogygia, ii. p. 67. Our translator corrects the Historia, which had represented Nemed 
himself as sailing away again; whereas it was his posterity, after a sojourn of 216 
years (H.) 

No. V. See page 44. 

Viri Buttorum, S(C The Firbolg, Firdomnan, and Firgalian, are inserted by 
the translator. The name Firbolg is also a general one, and comprehensive of all the 
three. Mr. O'Flaherty does not doubt but they were colonies from Great Britain, of 
the BelgiE, Damnonii, and another tribe. Ogygia, i. pp. 14, 15; Keating, p. 39. The 
account of the Tuatha De Danann is also inserted. They are said to have come from 
the northern parts of Europe, and their name may be rendered The. Tribe of Gods from 
Denmark. Danann for Dania, as Manann for Mannia. The first mention of the Dani 

is in Servius, " Dante undo Dani dicti," in ^Eneid. viii. 728; and the second, 

in Venantius Fortunatus de Lupo Duce, vi. 7, 49: 

" Quam tibi sis firmus cum prosperitate superna, 
Saxonis et Dani gens cito victa probat." 

The three tribes of Tuatha De Danann were descended from the three sons of Danann, 
called Gods (and esteemed such) for their skill in magic ; whence perhaps the phrase 
Plebes Deorum. They first came (it is fabled) into the north of Britain, where 
they inhabited places called Dobar and Ir-dobar (quere Tir?) and whence they re- 
moved to the north of Ireland ; and their title of De has been accounted for by the 
name of the River Dee. O'Flaherty, Ogygia, i. p. 12. But their story shews, that they 
were a race endowed with such arts and powers, as might obtain them credit for a 
divine origin. And there is no reason for supposing that Dobar was near the River 
Dee. The interpretation of the name of this colony is quite independent of the ques- 
tion of its having ever existed ; of which there is neither proof, nor much probability. 
Their legend represents them to have spoken a German, not a British, dialect, which 
is accordant to the notion of their being Danes, but is by no means accordant to the 
catalogue of their names ; and so far their story belies itself. The letters of which 
the invention is ascribed to the Danannian Ogma, brother of the Daghda, are not that 
modification of the Latin alphabet used in Irish and Anglo-Saxon writings, but the 
IRISH ARCH. soc. NO. 1 6. b cyphers 

cyphers called ogham ; the superior antiquity of which seems to me to involve this 
difficulty, that they almost imply and presuppose the existence of ordinary alphabetic 
writing. (//.) 

No. VI. See paye 54. 

Out of the kingdom of Scythia, fyc. There is no probability, and a want of distinct 
testimony, even legendary, that Ireland ever received any considerable body of set- 
tlers, but direct from Britain. Ireland, in effect, received but three classes of colonists. 
For the Neinedians were Bartholomfeans, and the Firbolg and Tuatha De Danann 
were both Neinedians. Besides this class there were the Gaidhil or Scoti, into 
which prevalent colony the whole nation resolved itself; and thirdly, the Cruithnich 
or Pictish settlement. But the Firbolg and Danann were both direct from Britain, 
the former manifestly, and the latter avowedly. And the Scots, after various pere- 
grinations, went from Pictland or Albany in North Britain to Spain, and thence 
over to Ireland. The whole mention of Spain in that legend is etymological, and 
was meant to unite the two names, so slightly dissimilar, and sometimes (as Mr. 
O'Flaherty observes) confounded, of Iberus and Ibernus ; as the mention of Scythia 
is also an etymologism for Scot. The three (or rather two) classes of colonists seem 
to have been the South Britons, of Belgic origin ; the North Britons, of Celtic origin ; 
and certain Britons, who must have belonged either to the one or other division, 
and were distinguished by retaining in Ireland their custom of staining the skin, at a 
time when no others did. 

The name Scoti is identified by Nennius and by Irish bardic antiquaries with 
Sc.ythas, and that verbal resemblance is the sole foundation of their travels from 
Scythia. No Roman, meaning to say Scytha, could express it Scotus; and no savage 
of Hibernia could think of applying to himself the eastern and generic title of Scythian. 
Words are almost a waste on such topics. The name of Scoti is said to be first used 
by Porphyry, about A. D. 277). But this must be doubtful in the extreme; as 
St. Jerome k , quoting Porphyry, would put " Scotica; gentes" according to his own 
custom and that of his day, where Porphyry had put TO. T&V 'levi^at 'ifan. If so, Am- 
inianus will be the earliest who names them, at the close of the fourth century. 
Before these authors no Greek or Roman had heard of a Scot ; and the name Scot was 
very probably unknown in Hibernia. If it be the same as scuite, a wanderer or rover, 
it, is unintentionally explained by Ammianus in his " Scoti per diversa vagantes." 
Its origin should date from the time when they devoted themselves to piracy ; from 


) That is the year to which Schoell, in his nourishing. 
Table Chronologique, gives Porphyry's name, as k Epist. ad Ctesiphontem. 


after which time, as Ammianus is the first ascertained authority, its known origin 
does in point of fact date. And we may suppose that it was not prevalent, until 
the sea-kings of Erin became troublesome to the neighbouring shores, which was 
scarcely in the third century, or perhaps after the middle of it, when Cormac Mac Art 
obtained celebrity in various ways. Achy Mogmedon, father of Niall the Great, seems 
first to have become formidable in that shape. This supposition squares admirably 
with the observation in Ogygia iii. 72, that although the Irish called their Gaidhelian 
people Scots, no such territorial epithet as Scotia or Scotland was known in their 
language ; for they had not that name in regard of their land, but of renouncing the 
land, and making their home upon the deep, and among the creeks and coves of 
every defenceless shore. The ancient word scud, a boat or ship, plural, scuid, hath 
a close agreement with scuite, a wanderer, and Scut, a Scot ; and it may be doubted, 
whether this obsolete Gaelic word did not primarily signify roving in coracles. Sallee 
existed before there were Sallee rovers; and so did Ireland, long before she had her 
scots or rovers. Bardic fable so far says true, that it was the latest denomination 
of the pagan kings of Erin ; and the protracted rovings or wanderings of Eibhear Scot 
and his family through almost all lands and seas seem like a vast romantic gloss upon 
the appellation. For they were, indeed, a race of Errones, and that is the charac- 
teristic feature of their story (77.) 

No. VII. See page 60. 

Seeds of battle. Csesar speaks of the spikes which Cassibellanus placed in the 
Thames, as large stakes, not caltrops : " ripa autem erat acutis sudibus prsefixis mu- 
nita, ejusdemque generis sub aqua defixa; sudes flumine tegebantur," (De Bello 
Gall. v. 18.) ; and Bede says, that these stakes remained to his time, " quarum ves- 
tigia sudiuni ibidem usque hodie visuntur, et videtur inspectantibus quod singula? 
earum ad modum humani femoris grossa?, et circumfusas plumbo immobiliter erant 
in profundum fluminis infixa;.'' Hist. Eccl. i. 2. But we can hardly suppose such 
solid stakes to have been described under the name of " semen bellicosum." 

I am indebted to Mr. Eugene Curry for the following illustrations of the words 
^pana cacha, which I have translated seeds of battle. 

In a MS. glossary on paper, written in the seventeenth century, and now preserved 
in the Library of Trinity College, Dublin (H. 2. 15. p. 126,) the words are thus 
explained : 

)pain cara .1. beapa, uc epc, "pi GRAIN CATHA, i. e. spikes; as "SiL 
cura goipc cuiprep pocepcep ppi bela- CATHA GOIRT [seeds of battle-field] which 

b 2 are 


ra cpici aca eiplmoe," .1. beapa no ni are put or set in the entrance fords of 
cuipchep amcnl pil i n-gopc i m-belaib an unfortified 1 country:" i.e. spikes or 
uacaib na cpice. Ipe pin uil ann .1. in things that are sown like seed in a field, 
jpan caca. in the solitary passes of the country. 

This is what is meant by GRAN CATHA 

[seeds of battle]. 

The words in inverted commas are evidently quoted from some more ancient tract 
or glossary. 

In the Felire Beg, or little Festilogium, an ancient Calendar, preserved in the 
library of the Royal Irish Academy, in a MS. which is at least as old as the four- 
teenth century, the following is given (p. 23) as the first of three great qualifications 
ot'a distinguished champion: 

Cpeioi apa neatnceanacap luech ; Three things that constitute a cham- 

curhclep cu poceapouib, .1. 5l iuin cu ~ pw> n: Battle skill with subordinate arts, 
chu, cu ceapccub poiche in jae bul^a. viz. GRAIN CATHA, with the skilful set- 
ting the GAE BULGA [belly spear]. 

The gae bulga, or belly spear, was a short spear which was used by the combatant 
to strike from beneath, and pierce the belly of his opponent under his shield. In the 
curious ancient romance called Tain bo Cuailgne, or "The Plunder of the Cuailgnian 
Cows," the hero Cuchulann, the champion of Ulster, is introduced making use of 
the gae bulga, in his combat with Ferdiadh, the champion of Connaught, at Ath- 
Firdiadh, the ford of Firdiadh (so called from the name of the hero), now Ardee. It 
appears from this narrative that the weapon was thrown from the foot, and the art 
seems to have consisted in keeping the adversary busy in protecting his head and 
body, whilst the gae bulga was suddenly seized between the toes, and struck under his 
shield into his belly. It is described as a barbed dart, which after entering the body 
threw out thirty blades that sprang loose and inflicted an incurable and deadly wound 

It, is not necessary to our present purpose to enter into any more particular ac- 
count of this probably fabulous weapon, or to collect together the notices of it which 
occur in Irish MSS. It must suffice to observe that both the^ae bulga, or belly-spear, 
and the grain calha, or battle seed, seem to have been used chiefly, if not always, in 
lords of rivers, the water serving to conceal the weapon, or the caltrops, from the 


'Unfortified "iplm.i.eipinnil no eoainjfn. Eislinu, i.e. unfortified orun-fast." O'Clerj-'s 


enemy. In the case of the battle, or rather the single combat, at the ford of Ardee 
(described in the romance of the Tain bo Cuailgne), the attendant or esquire of Cuchu- 
lann is represented as sending the gae bulga to his master through the water, floated 
probably by some contrivance so as to escape the notice of the enemy ; and it was then 
caught by Cuchulann between his toes, under the water, and driven instantly into 
the belly of his assailant (T.) 

No. VIII. Seepage 63. 

The King was baptized. The famous legend of King Lucius (from Nennius, cap. iN) 
has its earliest voucher in Beda; whose accounts of its date are both erroneous and 
and discrepant. Annalists have varied from 138 to 199 in assigning its epoch. But 
that would not affect the fact itself, were it otherwise authentic. There wi-iv 
then in Caledonia and in Cornwall, if not elsewhere, some independent princes or 
chieftains, of whom this Lucius may have been one. But it has much the appear- 
ance of a fable, forming part of the romance of the kings of Britain. Mr. Carte has 
forcibly observed, that Gildas's design led him to speak of it, and yet he doth not 
mention so much as the name of Lucius, i. p. 133. The real question is, whether 
Beda took his brief statement out of Roman or ecclesiastical history, or from a Celtic 
legend. Such a legend might well grow out of a statement, that Christianity was 
planted in Britain "Marco Aurelio et Lucio regnantibus ;" for the Emperor Lucius 
(as L. Verus 11 was commonly termed) figures in the inconsistent dates of this trans- 
action; both of which are in his life, and intended to be in his reign; and the latter 
is in his reign. " M. Antoninus Verus cum fratre Aur. Lucio Commodo .... quorum 
temporibus .... misit .... Lucius Brittannorum rex," &c. Ilenr. Hunt, i, p. 304. 

Nothing can be more confused than the accounts given of this name. For in British 
it is written Lies (whether in speaking of this man, or of any other Lucius ), meaning 
gain or profit; of which Lucius is no translation, though it may very remotely imitate 


'""Anno ab incarn. Domini centesimo quin- pricsul factus 15 annos ecelesiam gloriosissime 

quagesimo sexto Marcus Antoninus Verus, de- rexit, cui litteras rex Britannias Lucius mittens. " 

cimus quartus ab Augusto, regnum cum Aurelio &c. Epitome, p. 278. Here we get into tlie 

Commodo fratre suscepit ; quorum temporibus reign of the emperors, but are still ten years 

cum Eleutherius vir sanctus pontificatui Uomanse short of the pontificate of Eleutherius. 

ecclesiae praesset, misit ad eum Lucius Britan- "Julius Capitolinus, pp. 179, 183-4; Lugcl. 

norum rex epistolam," &c Hist. i. c. 4. Eleu- Bat. 1661 ; Pronto Epist. ad Verum, lib. ii. ep. 

therius was not Pope until 177, when Verus 1 ; Dion Cassius, pp. 1177-8; Aur. Viet, de 

was dead ; and their accession was in 161. Csesaribus, cap. 16. 

"Anno ab incarn. D. 167, Eleutherius Romae Vide Triad vi. series 2; Brut, p. "<">!, &c. 


the sound. But they surname him Lleuver, i. e. bright or luminous, which is evi- 
dently meant to express the etymon of Lucius. Thus inconsistent is fiction. Some 
copies of Nennins have these words : " Lucius agnomine Lever Maur, id est, Magni 
Splendoris, propter fidem qua; in ejus tempore venit." The author of the CambreisP 
gave the same rationale of the name Lucius, 

" Coilo succedit Lucius, orto 

Lucifero prtelucidior, nam lucet in ejus 
Tempore vera fides." 

It is furthermore pretended that his real name was Lleirwg ; Lleuver Mawr (and 
consequently Lucius) being merely a title of honour. Neither in the Liber Land- 
avensis, nor in Mr. J. Williams's Eccles. Antiq. of the Cymry, pp. 66-7, nor 
elsewhere, can I discover any thing that deserves to be called an historical corrobora- 
tion of Beda. The Welch hagiography applicable to this name is vain and fictitious. 
The family of Bran ap Llyr is described as one of the holy or saintly families of Bri- 
tain q ; and it is pretended he was the father of Caractacus, who, being taken prisoner 
with his son, learned Christianity at Kome. But it is well known, that Caractacus 
was one of the sons of Cynobeline, whose death preceded the war between his children 
and the Romans. Dion Cassius Ix. cap. 20. This Bran ap Llyr was a sorcerer, 
whose whole legend is magic. See the Mabinogi of Branwen. His grandson, son of 
Caractacus, is said to have been St. Cyllin ; but it is tolerably certain, that Caractacus 
had no son whom the Romans took. Cyllin is fancifully supposed (see Taylor's 
Calmet. v. p. 259; Triad xlii. series i r ) to have been Linus, first Bishop of Rome after 
St. Peter. It is not very likely, that Linus should be written for Cyllinus; which 
must either change the quantity, or reject the accented syllable. Nor is it likely that 
the name Linus, as old as mythology 5 itself, and common at Rome, where Martial 
ridicules 1 at least two persons of that name, should be the mutilated name of a 
British Celt. Whether a converted barbarian, elegantly tattoed with woad, is 
likely to have been elected to the apostolical chair of St. Peter, forms another ques- 

i' Pseudo-Gildas in Cambreide, ap. Ussher. Linus Brychan of Brecknock." Here the heads 

* Triad xviii. This absurd production is fullof of the three Holy Families (see series 3, Triad 

ignorance, even of that little which we do know. xviii.) each receive the name Linus, with its 

Boadicea is confounded with Cartismandua. Latin termination ! 

r The general idea was, no doubt, in the mind Orphei Calliopeia, Lino formosus Apollo. 

of the writer of this Triad, which runs thus: Epigr. i. 76, ii. 38, 54, iv. 66, v. 12, vii. 

" Three Saints, Linus of the Me of Britain, 94, xi. 2H, xii. 49. 

Linus Bran ap Llyr, Linus Cynedda \Vledig, and 


tion, of which the affirmative decision holds out fair hopes of Lambeth to our New 
Zealand neophytes. But we may infer, that there was never such a man as this 
Cylliu. That name is formed of cy and ttin, and means " united by a chord or string," 
or else " being of a common lineage." A/ in Greek is flax ; and thence, a chord or 
string. Linum in Latin keeps both those meanings; and linea has the further 
meaning of series or lineage. The British and Gaelic llin have all the three meanings ; 
which circumstance leaves reasonable inference, that it is one of the words introduced 
i'rom the Latin. Neither does the flax culture belong to the savage state; peltries 
clothe the savage, the nomadic tribes proceed to the use of woollens, and flax and 
hemp come last. There probably existed no such name as Cy-llin for Caractacus to 
affix to his son ; and it was invented long after the supremacy of the Romans had been 
established, and perhaps after its subversion. 

Lleirwg Lleuver Mawr was grandson of Cyllin, and son of Coel; whom, however, 
the Chronicle of Kings makes son of Meiric, not of Cyllin. Coel (called a bard in 
Triad xci.) reigned over Britain, paying tribute to Claudius; and his son Lies suc- 
ceeded him, whom others call Lleirwg Lleuver, and the Latin writers Lucius. This 
is all a romance. The house of Cynobeline (if there was any remnant of it) did not 
recover its authority over Britain, as tributaries or otherwise; but the country was 
gradually reduced into a Roman province. As there was no Cyllin, there probably 
was, for similar reasons, no Coel ; and the true Coels are of much later date. For the 
Welch word coel (not in Gaelic), an omen or presage, charm or enchantment, or other 
object of superstitious veneration, seems to be formed from the Latin word coihtm or 
ccelum, what is hollow or concave, and, in the second intention, heaven. De coelo 
servare, is to observe omens and auguries ; divinare is to observe things divine. 

It is a reasonable supposition, that the one historical notice of Lucius, Bi-da's, 
given in a form discreditable to the learning of its venerable author, is not really 
historical; and that the tale was made up in Britain by somebody, who took the 
imperial brothers Marcus and Lucius to be the Roman emperor and the British 

No. IX. See page 66. 

Geoffrey of Monmouth only miscalls Maximus by the name of Maximian ; but the 
Historia Britonum has made two emperors, Maximus and Maximian, out of that one 

The remarkable assertion, that Consuls instead of Caesars now began to reign, can 
only be explained as of Tyranni in lieu of more regular emperors. For such were 
Maximus himself, Marcus, Gratianus Municeps, and Constantine III., who all assumed 
the tyrannic purple in Britain. That accounts for the idea of a derogation ; but the 



author of the Historia, consistently with his general statement, proceeds to speak of 
Valentinian and Theodosius as consuls. 

The epoch of Maximus was very famous in the legends of Britain. In them he is 
called Maxen or Maxim Wledig, i. e. the sovereign of the land. Gwledig is litterally ter- 
renus, from gwlad, terra; and the title claims him for a native, as well as a Roman, 
sovereign. The Chronicle of the Kings describes him as being nephew to Helen, 
mother of Constantine, and son to her brother Llewelyn, and as being husband to 
another Helen, daughter of Eudav, a potent British chieftain. See Galfrid. v. cap. 8-9 ; 
Roberta's Tysilio, p. 98. Thus he was a Briton, though a senator of Rome. He is 
indebted for these legends to the important events of his reign. For then it was, 
that the foundations of Armorican Britanny were laid by the Celtic forces who ac- 
companied him, on his expedition to Gaul, under the command (as a general tradition 
saith) of one Conan of Meriadawg in Denbigh. Then also the affair of the I i,oco 
virgins occurred; of which the death of some young women, going to join the 
Armorican colon// (Colonia), seems to have been the truth. 

There is a curious tale or mabinogi called Breuddwyd Maxen, the Dream of 
Maximus. He was emperor of Rome, the handsomest and wisest that ever reigned. 
Under him were thirty-two crowned kings, with whom he went a hunting. Being 
heated, he fell asleep; while they raised their shields for a fence around him, and a 
orolden shield over his head. He dreamt that he visited a country, which he traversed, 
and reached a rough and barren district, beyond which he found a fine city, and in it 
a hall or palace of great splendour; and in the hall were two bay-haired youths, 
playing chess on a chess-board of silver, with chessmen of gold. They were dressed 
in black, with frontlets of red gold on their hair, and precious stones therein. At the 
toot of the column supporting the hall sat a gray-haired man on an ivory throne, with 
golden bracelets, chain, and frontlet, and with a golden chess-board on his breast, 
and in his hand a golden wand and a steel saw; and he was carving chessmen. A 
maiden sat opposite to him on a golden chair, arrayed in white silk and jewels. 
Maximus sat down in the chair beside her, and threw his arms round her neck ; and, 
at that moment of his dream, awoke. He sent ambassadors in all directions in quest 
of her. And, at last, three of them found out the country, which was Britain, and 
the rough district, which was Snowdon, and the city, which was Aber Sain in Arvon ; 
where they found the youths playing chess, the old man making chess-men, and the 
maiden in the chair of gold. They opened to her the suit of Maxen, and she said, 
that if the emperor loved her, he must come for her. So he came, and conquered 
the island, and went to Aber Sain, where he found Conan, and Adeon, sons of Eudav, 
playing at chess, and Eudav son of Caradoc in the ivory throne, making chess-men, 


and his daughter Helen seated. And he threw his arms round her neck. And that, 
night they slept together. Next morning he asked her to name her dower, and she 
demanded Britannia from the British to the Irish sea, and the three adjacent islands 
[see above, cap. iii.], to hold under him ; and three cities to be built for her, which 
were Caer yn Arvon, Caer Llion, and Caer Vyrddin. Helen caused roads to be made 
across the island from each city, and they were called the Roads of Helen the Armipo- 
tent. Maxen stayed seven years in Britain, and thereby (by Roman law) he forfeited 
the crown imperial; and they chose another emperor in his place. But he went 
and besieged Rome, and took it by the valour of Conan and Adeon and their Britons. 
Then Maxen gave them his army, to conquer territories; and they conquered and 
ravaged many provinces. But Conan would not return to his native country, and 
remained in Britanny, which is called Llydau Brytaen ; and, since many flocked over 
thither from Britain, the British language yet remains there." See the Greal sev 
Cynnulliad o Orchestion, &c. pp. 289-297, London, 1805. Maximus is said to have 
had three sons, Cystennin or Constantine, Peblic or Publicus, and Owain or Eugenius, 
surnamed Minddu or the Blacklipped Y Greal, &c. p. 18. This Owain ap Maxen 
Wledig is reported to have been the first of those British kings who, after the resigna- 
tion of the island byHonorius, ruled it independently of the Roman or Caasarean system. 
See Triads, xxi. xxxiv. xli. liii. This name and tradition comes out of Bardism ; 
and was not accepted by that other school of authors who framed the Trojan dynasty 
of kings. King Owain, son of Maximus, has been termed a saint ; but he seems to 
have been more of a magician. He buried the head of Bran ap Llyr in the Tower 
Hill of London, for a talisman of defence to this island; but king Arthur indiscreetly 
revealed it. He was himself buried, both his head and his body, at Nanhwynyn, in 
the Forest of the Faraon (demons or spirits), and the said Owain slew Eurnach 
Gawr, and in the self-same forest Eurnach slew him Greal, p. 18. The mabinogi 
or legend of this obscure business seems not to be extant. (II) 

No. X. See page 67. 

From the place, SfC. This curious sentence on the limits of Britanny has been, in 
the indication of the points of the compass, either taken from a better MS. than tin- 
printed copies, or more clearly enounced by the translator. The author describes 
Britanny as a triangle with its vertex due W., and the angles of its base N. E. and 
S. E. The Cruc Ochideut or Tumulus Occidentalis is beyond doubt (as Bertram had 
surmised) the precipitous rock of Ushant, notoriously the due W. extremity of 
Britanny. Its modern name, Ouessant, though ultimately derived from Uxantus, 
sounds and perhaps is intended to sound like Ouest, West. 

IRISH AKCH. SOC. 1 6. C The 


The N. E. angle is the stagnum, or bay of the sea, above (that is, north of) the 
Mons Jovis. The super verticem Montis for super Montem was either a mistake of 
Marcus himself, or of all his transcribers. The Mons Jovis is an extraordinary rock 
in the Avranchin, otherwise called Mons Sancti Michaelis in Periculo Maris, in French 
le Mont Jou. See Blondcl, Notice du Mont St. Michel, p. 10. Avranches, 1816. 
There are two rocks; the Tumbelenia, or Tombelaine, explained by some Tumba 
Helena;, but more correctly Tumba Beleni, i. e. Hill of Belenus, the Celtic sun-god ; 
and the loftier one, called simply Tumba, as well as Mons Jovis. The monastery or 
hermitage there was called Monasterium ad Duas Tumbas in Periculo Maris. Blondel, 
ibid. pp. 11-119. The Mont Jou received its appellation of Mont Saint Michel, from 
an apparition of St. Michael Archangel, which was seen there in A.D. 708. See Gallia 
Christiana, xi. p. 472; Ogee Diet, de la Bretagne, i. p. 98, Nantes, 1778. In that 
year an inroad of the sea swept away, and changed in arena? suceformam, the forest in 
which the mount used to stand, ami made it an island at high water; and St. Aubert, 
Bishop of Avranches, built a chapel there by command of the Archangel, which was 
dedicated in 709. See Blondel, ibiil. p. 14; Gallia Christ, ibid. ApparitioS. Michael, 
ap. Mabillon, A. SS. Ben. sa>c. 3. part i. p. 86. The Avranchin continued to be a 
part of the County of Britanny until the year 936, in which Alan IV. is said to have 
made over that district to William Long-Sword, Duke of Normandy ; and to that 
province it hath ever since appertained. Recherches sur la Bretagne per Felix De- 
laporte, i. p. 95-6, Kennes, 1819. Therefore Dom Mabillon antedates the Apparitio 
Sancti Michaelis, when he states that narrative to have been written " ante Sfficulum 
decimum," for its author does not consider the Mount to be in Britanny. 

It remains for us to find the S. E. angle of Britanny at Cantguic". The Armorican 
meaning of the words cant guic is the hundred villages, centum vici. And I have no 
doubt, but the civitas Cantguic, or Centumvici, is that of Condivicum, properly Con- 
divicnum, of the Namnetes. Whether the ancient Gaulish name Condivicnum" si"- 


nified centum vici, or did not, that etymology seems to have been attached to it ; and 
may have contributed to introduce the spelling Condivicum. With Ushant for your 
vertex, and Mont St. Michel and Nantes at the base, you have the Britanny of the 
llistoria Britonum. If Dom Morice has taken any notice of this passage, or the mat- 
ters to which it relates, in his voluminous work, it has escaped my observation. 

Mr. O'Donovan has justly remarked, that the translator mistakes crug, a hill or 


" Itecte sic ap MSS. Petav. et Cotton. Minus grounds, that it referred to a confluence of 
recte Tanguic, etc. streams Notitia Galliarum, p. 367. 

v Adrien Valois supposes, upon uncertain 

mound (tumulus of Marcus, and cumulus of Nennius), for crux, a cross. Notes on 
the Hy Fiachrach, p. 413. (H) 

No. XL See page 68. 

The Britons of Letha, $c Britanny was called, by the Celts of Great Britain, 
Llydaw, and in Irish Letha, or Leatha, which words are expressed in Latin Letavia. 
Its derivation is from the Latin littus, and is equivalent in sense to the word Armories ; 
or, with the mutation, Arvorica, whence Procopius took his 'Ap/3opuoi, de Bello Goth. 
i. 12. Lez, in Armorican, is shore ; and Lez ar mor, oiar vor, is shore of the sea; some- 
times redundantly expressed lez en ar vor, which arises from making one word of armor, 
or arvor, littus in maritimis. Hence the noble family of Lez'narvor. See Rostrenen, 
Diet. Francois-Breton in Bord de la mer ; Bullet Diet. Celtique in Letav and Llydaw. 
Others have improperly derived the word Letavia from the Lti, a sort of auxiliary 
militia, holding lands under the lower emperors of the West. 

Nennius has a much stranger story, which our translator (if he found it in his 
copies) has done wisely to reject. He says that the British colonists, who married 
Gaulish wives, cut out the tongues of their wives, that the children might not learn 
Latin ; and that, on that account, the people were called Lled-tewig, pi. Lled-tewigion, 
i. e. Semi-tacentcs. A similar account is given in the Breuddwyd Maxen, but with 
less care in adapting the name to its etymon : " because of the women and their lan- 
guage being reduced to silence, the people were called the men of Llydaw Brytaen." 
Y Greal, p. 297. That notion must have obtained some vogue; for we find ./Eneas of 
Britanny, the father of Emyr Llydaw, called ./Eneas Lledewig o Llydaw, i. e. zEueas 
Semitacens Letaviensis. Bonedd y Saint, p. 30, 31. 

Leatha was certainly used two ways in Irish, sometimes for Letavia and sometimes 
for Latium; from which some doubt and confusion hath arisen. See Mr. O'Donovan 
on the II y Fiachrach, p. 410. In the Scholia upon the poet Fieeh, in Colgan's Trias, 
probably by more scholiasts than one, it is explained both ways. That is the origin 
of the ridiculous fable of king Faradhach Dathi, nephew and successor to Niall of the 
Nine Hostages, having carried his arms into the Alps and been there slain. Like his 
uncle he attacked Leatha; and like him, met his death there; and his descents upon 
Letavia, when construed into an invasion of Latium, i. e. Italy, bring him, in due course, 
to the Alps. He was, by some accounts, shot with an arrow ; and " the learned say 

that it was with the same arrow with which Niall of the Nine Hostages was slain." 

Hy Fiac/tr., p. 23. Strange indeed! if the arrow which slew Niall upon the coast 
of Britanny, had found its way to the Alps. But, if they were killed in the same 
country, it might possibly be the same arrow. There the truth of the matter tran- 

c 2 spires 

spires ; and it is not a little confirmed by the existence of Dathi's tomb at Rath 
Crogan, in Connaught. In the Battle of Magh Rath, or Moira, pp. 4, 5, it is mentioned, 
that Ugaine Mor (King of Erin, anterior to authentic history) took hostages of Erin 
and Albany, and eastwards to Leatha. And if we understand these words as inclusive 
of Great and Little Britain, rather than of Italy, we shall give compactness to the story, 
and mitigate its improbabilities (II) 

No. XII. See j/ai/e 71. 

Seeerus the Second, 8,'c. All the Latin copies, after briefly introducing Severus the 
Second and Constantinus, say, " now we must resume the history of Maximian the 
tyrant," i. e. Maximus, and so give the upshot of his attempts. But the translator 
has thrown Maximus' history into one piece. The ninth emperor is the tyrant Con- 
stantinus, who reigned at Aries in Provence. But it is less easy to say who is the 
second Severus; for Libius Severus of Lueania, Count Ricimer's puppet in 461, is 
clean out of the question. 

In the enumeration prefixed to Marcus, he is called " alius Severus vEquantius," 
]>. 46; and the text of Marcus twice (pp. 62, 80) mentions Gratianus /Equantiiis as the 
Roman consul at the time when the Saxons came over; which, anyway, is an anachro- 
nism, but must relate to Gratianus Municeps, and not to the elder Gratiaii. Nennius 
has it Gratianus (otherwise Martianus") S/'C/mdiis, cap. 28. What can this word 
ii'yuantitis mean? It is said in the Chronicle of Kings, that Gratianus Municeps, with 
two legions, drove the Scots out of Britain Galfrid. 5. cap. 16. The headings of chap- 
ters to Nennius state (cap. 24), that "Severus II. directed another wall, of the custo- 
mary structure, to be built from Tinmouth to Rouvenes against the Picts and Scots." 
Now if Gratianus Municeps caused the Sevrrian or Tinmouth wall to be repaired, he 
might, for that service, be called "ail Severys," which word ail gives the double sense 
(if another, or a second, and of being similar or equivalent to the first; or, in the words 
of the preface to Marcus, "alius Severus a-quantius." Certainly, the application of this 
word both to Gratianns, and to an unknown Severus occupying Gratiari'i riyht place 
in a series that omits him, strongly suggests their identity. Geoffrey's Latin steers 
clear of this Severus; but the Welsh copies, marked Tysilio and Basingwerk, introduce 
him upon the death of Gratianus Municeps (not as king or as emperor, but as comman- 

" There was a Marcianus in the East three (in his cap. 31) Gratiano secundo Equantio ; 
\ears later than the date in question, viz., 449; but whether from a text, or by combining toge- 
assigned, however, to that very year by Beda, i. ther two different texts, does not clearlv appear, 
cap. IS, and in his Epitome ; but there never Gale's readings know nothing at all of /Equan- 
was a Marcian the Second. Mr. Stevenson prints tius. 


der of an auxiliary legion), and sot him to work upon the wall ofSeverus. Brut., p. 225 ; 
Roberts, p. 103. The interval between Gratianus and Gallic Ravennas (from thirteen 
to nineteen years), is sufficient to admit of both having laboured upon the wall ; the 
former on the old Severian model, and the latter in solid masonry. I take Gratianus 
Municeps to mean Gratian of Municipium, or Caer Municip, that is, of Verulamium. 
See above, add. notes, No. I., p. v. 

All that follows (briefly here, but more fully in the Latin) concerning the Roman 
expeditions to reconquer Britain, and their depredations, is false; and not easy to 
account for. The auxiliary legion sent by Honorius, and that afterwards led over by 
Gallion of Ravenna, to assist the Britons, form their sole historical basis (H) 

No. XI11. Seepage 79. 

The miracle of Germanus is thus recorded by Hericus Autisiodorensis from his 
recollection of the oral communications of Marcus Anachoreta, the original compiler 
of these British histories, with whom he had been personally acquainted " Tin- 
shores of Gaul would be the end of the world, did not the isle of Britain, by its singu- 
lar magnitude almost deserve the name of another world. This island, peculiarly 
devoted to St. German, acknowledges herself indebted to his sanctity for many 
benefits; being illuminated by his teaching; more than once purified by him from 
the taint of heresies; and, lastly, adorned with the lustre of many miracles which 
need not to be repeated, since they have been committed to writing by the study of 
noble doctors. One of them is especially famous, of which the knowledge hath come 
down to us through the holy old man, Marcus, a bishop of the same nation, who was 
by birth a Briton, but was educated in Ireland, and, after a lonar exercise of episcopal 

J I 

sanctity, imposed upon himself a voluntary pilgrimage; and being invited by Hie 
munificence of the pious king Charles, spent an anachoretic life at the Convent of 
Saints Medard and Sebastian; a remarkable philosopher in our days, and of peculiar 
sanctity. He was wont to relate before many, that German, the holy apostle (to use 
his own words) of his nation, when he was traversing the Britannias, entered the 
king's palace with his disciples. It was then severe winter, and very inclement, not 
only to men, but even to cattle. Therefore he sent a message to the king to ask shelter 
for the approaching night. The king refused, and, being a barbarian both by nation 
and character, made light of the matter. Meanwhile German, with his disciples, 
remaining in the open air, stoutly endured the inclemency of the weather. And now, 
as the evening had closed in, the king's swineherd, having returned from the pastures, 
was carrying home to his own cottage his daily wages which he had received at the 
palace. When he saw the blessed German and his disciples starved with the wintry 



cold, he drew near, and humbly asked him to state who he was, and why he staid 
there in the severe frost? Having collected nothing certain from his answer, but 
being moved by the dignity of his person, he said, I beseech you, my Lord, whoever 
you are, to consider your body, and enter the lodging of your servant, and to accept 
such good offices as my poverty permits, for I see that it is of no small importance to 
mitigate the inclemency of the approaching night even in the meanest dwelling. Not 
despising the quality of the person, he entered the dwelling, and gladly received the 
services offered him by the poor man. He possessed only a cow and a calf; and turning 
to liis wife he said, 'Eh? do you not perceive how great a guest you have received? 
look sharp, then, and kill our only calf, and serve it up for those who are about to 
sup.' She presently obeyed the order, and cooked the calf, and set it on the table. 
The bishop, abstinent as usual, desired the others to eat. Supper being finished, 
German called the woman to collect carefully the bones of the calf, and lay them upon 
its skin, and place them before its mother in the cow-house. This being done (strange 
to say) the calf presently arose, and, standing by its mother, began to feed. Then, 
turning to them both, the prelate said, ' Receive this benefit by way of compensation 
for your hospitality, but, without prejudice to the reward of your charity.' All extolled 
the wonderful issue of the event with united praises. Next day the bishop went to 
the palace, and waited for the king's coming forth into public. German received him 
as he came out from the interior, and, as soon as he was accessible to verbal reproof, 
severely asked him why lie had denied him hospitality the previous day. The king 
was stupified; and, being astonished at the man's firmness, refrained from answering. 
Then Germanus with wonderful authority said, ' Go forth, and resign the sceptre of 
the kingdom to a better.' And he hesitated : German immediately thrust him with 
his staff, and said, ' Thoushalt go forth, and, as the Lord hath certainly decreed, shall 
never again abuse the kingly power.' The barbarian, awed by the divine power in the 
prelate, immediately went out of the gates of the palace with his wife and children, 
and made no further attempt to retain it. Then German sent one of his disciples to call 
forth the swineherd and his wife, and to the astonishment of the whole palace, placed 
him on the summit of royalty; from which time until now kings proceeded from the 
race of the swineherd, God wonderfully regulating human affairs through St. German. 
The aforesaid bishop, whose probity whosoever hath experienced, will by no means 
hesitate to believe his words, assured me, with the addition of an oath, that these 
things were contained in catholic letters in Britain." Herici de Mirandis S. Germ. i. 
cap. 55 ; apud Ph. Labbe Novas Biblioth. MSS. torn. i. p. 554-5. Compare Marcus, 
pp. 62-5 ; Ncnnius, cap. 30. 

It is observable that all proper names of men and places are omitted here, Hcric 
being, no doubt, unable to retain them in his memory ; consequently Britannia and her 



king are mentioned generally in lieu of Powys and its local dynasts. Germanus visited 
Britain in company with St. Lupus in 429; and again in 447, accompanied by Severus. 
But all the accounts of his transactions with Vortigern have the character of fable. 
He died on the 3 ist of July, 448, being an early period of that ill-fated, but long-lived, 
monarch's career. 

The Belinus of Marcus, and Benli of Nennius, is Benlli, surnamed Gawr, or the 
Giant, lord of lal, a mountainous district of Denbigh. Llwyd Commentariolum, p. 91. 
That Gawr is used properly for giant, and not for a mighty man, seems from Gwilym 
Rhyvel's mention of the gwrhyd (length or stature) of Benlli Gawr. Englynion y 
Davydd ap Owain, v. 25. Nothing is known of him besides the fable in Nennius. But 
the grave of his son, Beli ap Benlli Gawr, a fierce warrior, is mentioned in the Bedclau 
Milwyr, or Graves of Warriors, stanza 7 3 : 

" Whose the grave upon the Maes Mawr ? 
Proud his hand upon the long-bladed spear, 
The grave of Beli ap Benlli Gawr." 

And some account of that grave is given in a prose narrative, printed in Y (ireal, 
p. 239. The late Dr. Owen Pughe imputed to this son of Benlli a modification of the 
laws of Bardism. Preface to Llywarch Hen., p. Ix. Welsh Diet, in Beli. But for this 
he has adduced no authority beyond his own assertions. Ralph Higden, in Polyehro- 
nicon (p. 223), says: " In Legenda S. German! [i. e. in Heric's book] habetur quod 
dum Vortigernus hospitium S. Germane denegaret," &c., stating the affair precisely as in 
Heric, except that where Heric names the king generally, he puts in the name of 
Vortigern. Both alike derive the kings of all Britain, not of Powys, from the swine- 
herd. It is remarkable that this Cadell Dwrnluc was the founder of aline of Powysinn 
princes, and that Cadell, second son of Ilodri Mawr, and father to the law-giver, llowel 
the Good, obtained Powys in the famous division of Wales by Rodri Mawr. Yet this 
doth not arise from any confusion of the two men; for Cadell ap Rodri Mawr had not 
been dead forty years in 946, when the last edition of the Historia is dated; nor was 
he yet born, " quarto Mervini regis," when the first was compiled. For a sample of the 
ancient genealogies in the Cambrian Biography, Cadell reigned about the close of the 
fifth century (p. 31), Vortigern died in 481 (p. 168), yet Cadell was son ofPusgen, sun 
of Rheiddwy, son of Rhuddvedel, son of Cyndeyrn or Catigern, son of Vortigern! The, 
age of puberty must have been early in those days. Other genealogies, contained in 
a MS. of the tenth century, make Cadell Dwrnluc father of Catcgirn, and grand father 
of Pasgen, and son to one Selemiawn. But Categiru and Pasgen are now universally 
regarded as two sons of Vortigern. So little consistency do the boasted Cambrian 
genealogies possess. See Cambr. Quart. Mag. iv. pp. 17, 21. 



The miracle of the calf is one of a class well-known in the hagiography of these 
islands. St. Patrick brought to life five cows that were eviscerata;. Jocelyn, cap. 9- 
Having banqueted with his disciples upon Bishop Trian's cow and calf, he brought 
them both to life again, lest the bishop should be in want of milk. Vita Tertia, cap. 
63. A visitor to St. Columba ate a whole sheep for his dinner; but Columba collected 
the bones and blessed them, and so completely restored the sheep, that a large party 
made a second dinner of it. O'Donnell Vita Columba?, ii. cap. 16. A poor woman 
slaughtered and roasted her only calf for St. Bridget's supper; but she restored it to 
lit;.. Cogitosus, cap. 27. St. Finnian of Clonard restored a calf on which he and his 
followers had supped; and St. Abban one which the wolves had devoured. Colgan, 
A. SS. xxii. Febr. p. 396; xvi. Mart. p. 61 1. St. Fingar and his 777 companions feasted 
mi a poor Cornish woman's cow, and then he resuscitated the skin and bones. Febr. 
xxiii. p. 389.- (H) 

No. XIV. See page <.)$. 

Let Itis blood be sprinkled, Sfc. The practice of auspicating the foundation of cities, 
temples, or other solemn structures, by human sacrifice, is not known to me as of any 
remote antiquity. Johannes Malala, a compiler of the ninth century, gives this legend 
of the foundation of Antioch by Seleucus Nicutor: " In the plain opposite to theSilpian 

mountain lie dug the foundations of the wall ; und sacrificed by the hands of 

Amphion, his high-priest and myslagogue (TeAwreJ), a virgin named TEmathe, between 
the city and the river, on the 22nd day of the Artemisian month, which is also May, 
at the first hour of the day, about sunrise; calling uvriit [HER, or IT?] Antiocheia, 
after the name of his own son, Antiochus Soter. Presently he built a temple, which 
he dedicated to Jupiter Bottius, and diligently erected formidable walls, Xenams being 
his architect. lie also erected upon the banks of the river a brazen pedestal and statue 
of the sacrificed virgin, as the Fortune of the city; and offered sacrifice to her as the 
Fortune." p. 256. Subsequently the same Ps'icator laid the foundation of Laodicea 
in Syria. Having slain a wild boar, he dragged its body round a certain space of 
ground, and dug the walls according to the track of its blood; " having also sacrificed 
a pure virgin, by name Agave, and erected to her a brazen statue, as the Fortune of 
the city." p. 259. Of these statements a certain Pausanias Chronographus appears 
to be the authority ; and no reasonable doubt can be entertained, that they were fabu- 
lous, and founded upon the magical doctrines to which that lost and unknown writer 
seems to have been much addicted. From this we collect, that the human victim 
immolated upon such occasions was rewarded with deification and worship, and 
accounted a sort of tutelary deity of the place. Merlin was to have been the Tu%i of 
Vortigern's edifice. But the narrative in Nennius has this distinction, that repeated 



failures had shewn the necessity of some piacular rite ; wherein it more nearly agrees 
with the legend of St. Oran of lona. " The chapel of St. Oran stands in this space, 
which legend attests to have been the first building attempted by St. Columba. By the 
working of evil spirits, the walls fell down as soon as they were built up. After some 
consultation it was pronounced, that they never could be permanent till a human victim 
was buried alive. Oran, a companion of the saint, generously offered himself, and was 
interred accordingly. At the end of three days St. Columba had the curiosity to take 
a farewell look at his old friend, and caused the earth to be removed. To the surprihe 
of all beholders Oran stood up, and began to reveal the secrets of the prison-house ; 
and particularly declared that all that was said of hell was a mere joke. This dan- 
gerous impiety so shocked Columba that, with great policy, he instantly ordered the 
earth to be flung in again. Poor Oran was overwhelmed, and an end for ever put to 
his prating. His grave is near the door, distinguished only by a plain red stone." 
Pennant's Second Tour in Scotland, ap. Pinkcrton's Voyages, torn. iii. p. 298. We may 
learn how deeply-rooted this idea was in the islands, by finding it in both the nations 
and languages, and ascribed to such different persons. As to St. Odhrun or Oran, 
that he died naturally or by visitation of God, appears in Colgan's Latin excerpta from 
the unprinted Irish work of Magnus O'Donnell, lib. ii. c. 12. Some account of that 
saint is also known to exist in the Leabhar Breac, fol. 1 7 (II.) 

No. XV. See page 93. 

Magh Ellite.The Campus Electi in the region of Glewysing ; which region is 
otherwise the hundred of Gwynllwg, in Monmouthshire. In the sixth century one 
Einion was king of Glewysing. See Liber Landavensis, pp. 129,379. In the reign 
of Alfred it was governed by Hoel ap Rhys, and considered distinct from Gwent. 
Asser Vita Alfredi, p. 15. It is supposed to be named after Glywys, the father of St. 
Gwynullyw the Warrior, and grandfather to St. Catwg the Wise, and to St. Glywys 
Cerniw, who founded the church of Coed Cerniw* in Glewysing. Sec Rice Rees on 
the Welsh Saints, p. 170. The place called Bassaleg is said by Mr. Roberts to be 
written in Welsh Maes-aleg, i. c. Plain of Aleg; which he conjectures to be the Cam- 
pus Electi. His conjecture has the more force, from his seeming quite ignorant where 
Glewysing was, and that Bassaleg was in the heart of that district. Roberts's Ant. 
p. 58; and apudGunn's Nennius, p. 166. 

This is very well; yet I have some misgivings as to the prime source of all this. 
The Cor Emmrys was immeasurably more famous than the Dinas Emmrys; and it, 


x Vulgarly Coedkerne. 


or the little hill which it crowns, -was called the Mount of Election, possibly from the 
inauguration of kings. As it is said, in the Graves of Warriors, that Merlin Ambrose 
(surnamed Ann ap Lleian) lies buried in the Mynydd Dewis, or Mount of Election. 
Beddau Milwyr, st. 14. But he was notoriously buried in the Cor Emmrys. Now, 
if the mount was that of an election, so also was the plain ; and in that sense the 
Maes Mawr was Maes Elect. That plain was not indeed in regione Glewysing, but it 
was in the regio Gewisseorum or in Geteissing, the territory of the West Saxon kings, 
descended from Gewiss. Geoffrey of Monmouth calls Vortigern himself " the consul 
of the Gewisseans," i. e. the ruler, by prolepsis, of what afterwards was Wessex. 
Lib. vi. cap. 6. And when Aurelius Ambrosius desired Merlin's aid (for the Chro- 
nicle makes two people of them), upon occasion of erecting the Stonehenge, he sent, 
precisely as Vortigern had done, messengers in all directions to find him, and they 
found him " in natioue Gewisseorum, ad fontem Galabes," viii. cap. i o. The writer was 
Archdeacon of Monmouth, in which county Glewysing is situate , but has in neither 
place any allusion to Glewysing. On the other hand the Welsh seem so baffled with 
this Saxon name, that the copy entitled of Tysilio entirely suppresses it; and the 
other copies translate it in the first instance Erging and Ewias, and in the second 
simply Ewias. Brut Tysilio, pp. 236, 276. Lastly, where Geoffrey saith that Cad- 
wallader's West-Saxon mother was " ex nobili genere Gewisseorum" (xii. cap. 14), the 
Welsh translators all say, that she was descended from the nobles of Erging and Ewias. 
Brut. p. 384. But Erging and Ewias are in Herefordshire, and have no more to 
do with Glewysing than they have with the Gewisseans. Hence I am inclined to 
attribute the transfer of this conspicuous fable into the obscure district of Gwynllwg 
and village of Bassaleg, to an inability to construe the geography of the Camjtus Electi 
in Gewisseis, the great scene of Merlin's and Ambrose's fame. Indeed, the romance 
of Merlin plainly says, that Vortigern's edifice was upon an eminence in Salisbury 
Plain Ellis Metrical Rom. iii. p. 213. 

The red and white dragon of Dinas Emmrys were the hidden fates or talismans of 
Britain, originating with king Lludd, son of Beli Mawr, and his brother the enchanter 
Llevelys. It is scarce likely that a country with such great and central sanctuaries 
should have its fates deposited in so remote and obscure a place. In fact, it was not 
their primary seat. For Lludd, being distressed by horrid shrieks on every May- 
day night, and learning that the battle of the dragons produced them, measured Bri- 
tain, and found Rhydychain or Oxenford to be its centre, and there placed a cask of 
mead, and covered it with a cloth, over which the dragons fought, and fell into the 
cask and were intoxicated; and then he folded them both in the cloth, and buried 
them deep in Dinas Emmrys in Eryri. Y Tair Gormes, in Y Greal, p. 244 ; Brut 



Tysilio, p. 169; Triad ii. 53. Therefore, the dragons originally belonged to some 
place accounted central. But this allegory cannot be mistaken. The night of the 
Calan-Mai was that very night on which Hengist and the Saxons slaughtered the 
British convention ; the shrieks of the British dragon were those occasioned by that 
massacre, and the mead-cask over which the dragons fought and got drunk is the 
banquet, amidst the convivial orgies whereof so much blood was shed. But that was 
the twyll Caer-Sallawg, or plot of Sarurn, of which the Cor Emmrys, or Stonehenge, 
was notoriously the scene. It is therefore at that place (as I judge) that the hidden 
dragons of Lludd ap Beli were deposited. 

There is another aspect to the prophecy of the dragons, which is perhaps the more 
esoterical and bardic of the two. By that, both the contending dragons are British. 
The white dragon (says the Roman de Merlin) slew the red one, but only survived 
three days. The red dragon was Vortigern, and the white represented his opponents, 

Ambrosius and Pendragon, who wrested the crown from him Roman de Merlin, 

fol. xxiv., xxv. Here two British parties are the dragons, and the Saxons not directly 
concerned; here also the colours are interchanged, the white or prevailing one being 
the bardic, and the red being that which the bardic party reviled. This theory seems 
to be in harmony with the eleventh Triad, in which the gormes or oppression of the 
kalends of May is distinguished from that of the Dragon of Britain; and the former 
expressly said to have been inflicted by foreigners from over sea, but the latter by 
the tyranny of princes and rage of the people (II.) 

No. XVI. See page 107. 

Gortigern, son of Guatal, $c. Gortigern, son of Guitaul, son of Guitolin, son of 
Gloui. It is not known from what parents, family, or province this eelcbrated per- 
son came, though he reigned so long and so eventfully. A pedigree printed in the 
Cambrian Quart. Mag. i. p, 486, departs entirely from this one, and makes him son of 
Rhydeyrn, of Deheuvraint, of Edigent, of Edeyrn, of Enid, of Ednos, of Enddolaw, 
of Avnllach, of Avloch, of Beli Mawr. The truth has been hidden deep, and does not 
appear to me to transpire in either of these Welsh pedigrees. The Welsh call him 
Gwr-theyrn, from gwr, a man (and in second intention, a mighty man), and teyrn, a 
prince. Had this name signified Virilis Rex, the predicate preceding the subject 
would have made it Gwrdeyrn, as in Cyndeyrn, Mechdeyrn, Aerdeyrn, and all com- 
pounds of which the first word does not end in d or t, like matteyrn, from mad or mat, 
good. Therefore Vir Regalis must have been the sense of Gwrtheyrn. 

A curious variation occurs in the spelling of this person's name, of which the 
causes are not clearly apparent. Some, as Gildas, Marcus, and Nennius, put Gurthegirn, 

d 2 Guorthegirn, 


Guorthegirn, or Gorthegirn, which seems to combine the British spelling of ywr with 
the more ancient and Erse orthography of tighearn, a prince; while Geoffrey and most 
of the Anglo- Normans use the now received form of Vortigern, which is hard to come 
at any way. These difficulties ure complicated in one of his alleged sons, whom the 
Welsh revered under the name of Gwrthevyr, a word of no facile etymology in their 
tongue. He, in like manner, is Guortimcr or Gortimer in the Historia Britonum, and 
Vortimer with the others. This guor, turning into vor, seems to indicate that in his 
name, as in the former, fjwr is the first element and not ywrth. But tevyr and timer 
ure not easy to deal with. Again, the other son, whose name Catigern in Latin 
should be represented by Catteyrn (Battle-prince) in Welsh, is Cyndeyrn (Head- 
prince), being the same that they give to St. Kentigern of Strathelyde, and the 
exact equivalent of his. There is an obvious uncertainty in these names, such as 
doth not usually (if indeed elsewhere) occur in British names. This consideration, 
perhaps, weighed with Gale in thinking Vortigern was of a Pictish family. But, 
since he was of Gwynedd, he is most likely to have been born of an Irish mother, 
in the days when that people (under their own Ganval and Sirigi, and the Briton 
Einion Vrenhin) occupied the famous island of Mona. (Vide infra the notes on tin- 
Legend of St. Cairnech). He was accused of his friendship with, and support by, 
the Irish, as well as the Saxons; though the important upshot of the Saxon affairs 
lias cast the others into shade. An ancient bard says (alluding to the massacre by 
llengist, at the feast of the Kalends of May, and boasting that those national 
festivities had not thereby been crushed and abolished), "the knife-bearer shall 
not stab the sword-bearers of May-day, that is not [effected?] which was desired 
by the foolishly compliant master of the house, and the men of his affection, men of 
blood, Cymmry, Angles, Irishmen, and North Britons." Gicatcil Llmld. \. 76. The 
bard Golyddan mentions him to have been confederated with " the Irish of Ireland, 
those of Mona, and those of North-Britain." Armes Prydain, v. 10. His son Pas- 
cent is said to have contended for the crown at the head of an army of Irish from 
Ireland, and to have lost his life in that conflict. Galfr. Monum. viii. cap. I 6. This 
does not agree with the account of jVennius, cap. 52, that the destroyers of his father 
permitted him to reign in duabus regionilus, viz., Buellt and Guortigerniawn ; unless 
we suppose, that he first made that compromise, afterwards contended, with Irish aid, 
for the insular crown, and, perishing in the attempt, transmitted those lands to his 
family. For Celtic clanship did not admit of forfeiture, as feodality did. 

Whatsoever Vortigern was, it is evident that he was a Briton of such power and 
influence throughout the island as no other man on record possessed, and maintained 
a struggle of the most protracted duration against the elements of foreign and domes- 


tic anarchy. Though it never appears in any Latin shape, the epithet giertk-enav, 
perverse of lips or mouth, became habitually and thoroughly united to his name by 
his countrymen ; owing to his issuing impolitic commands, or (as the Triads say) 
disclosing secrets. See Beddau Mihvyr, st. 40. Triad 45, series i. 10, series ii. 21, 
53, series iii. Brut y Saeson, p. 468. /Erse Cambro-Brit. ap. Llwyd Commenta- 
riolum, p. 141. It deserves to be remarked, that Marcus, the author of the Historia, 
though setting forth the descent of Fernmael from Vortigern, and fondly magnifying 
the fastness of Caer-Guortigern, nevertheless writes with all his country's preposses- 
sions against that ruler, and appears, from the unanimity of the copies, to have 
introduced that nickname into his pedigree. (II.) 

NOTE XVII. Seepage 120. 

Those who have handled the history of the Picts have not produced a satisfactory 
result. Father limes, seeing that the name of Picti first appeared to the north of the 
Roman frontier, after the establishment of Roman civility in South Britain had con- 
verted the staining of the skin into a distinctive peculiarity and a conspicuous badge 
of independence, built upon that palpable origin of the name the too hasty conclusion, 
that both the divisions of the Picts were indigenous Britons. Herein he is followed 
by Mr. Chalmers, the meritorious author of Caledonia. Mr. Pinkerton, on the other 
hand, swayed by violent prejudices, has denied not only the British, but the Celtic, 
character of all the Picts. He wrote under a Teutonic mania, so extreme, that in one 
of its paroxysms he maintained the name of Scotland not to be taken from the Scut-. 
The same critic framed a wild romance about some Teutonic Peukini, otherwise Tiki, 
who travelled from an Isle of Peuke, in the Black Sea, to Norway, where they gave 
the name of Vika to a part of that country (now Aggerhuys), and thence came over 
to Britain as Piks, not Picts. 

On the strength of this modern mythus, Pinkerton and his followers coolly term 
the Picts the Piks, and the language the Pikish; just as if there really were such names 
in the world. It is easy to fly half round Europe with a P and a K; to change 1* into 
V in Norway; and change it bank into P when you reach the Orkneys. But it is less 
easv to get rid of the T. For every Teutonic form of the name Pict, that he is able 
to cite (Enquiry, etc. i. 367, 369, 370), and every Celtic form but one (the Pieear- 
daeh of Tighernach) has a T; and those Teutonic forms which soften down the name 
at all, only do so by dropping that very C or K, by aid of which the Peukins and 
pretended Piks became Viks. 

But Vik itself is a mare's nest of his finding, and Norway had no such people as 


the Viks. The noun vik is sinus, a bay or inlet of sea ; occurring also in numerous 
compounds. Vikr or Vik, in the oblique cases Vikina and Vikinni, was that bay 
between Sweden and Norway, stretching east and west from Sotannes to Otursnes, on 
which the ancient city of Tonsburg stood and stands, and at the head of which the 
Christiania-Fiord runs up to the modern Christiuniu. It is the Sinus, by way of 
excellence, sometimes distinguished as Eastern, Vik Austr. Schilling's maps to 
the Ileimskringla give no such land or province at all, but write Vikina across the 
buy as above described. Though this noun*' 1 and its cases be certainly used, on many 
occasions, for the countries lying round the Vik, its true meaning is the bay itself, as 
any one may see, ex. gr., in Olaf llelga's Saga, chapters xlv. li. Ixxxii. Nay, so much 
is distinctly signified by Torfa:us himself, Mr. Pinkerton's authority ; for his words 
are: " The southern coast sloping towards the Western Ocean, between that extre- 
mity of Danholm island which looks south-east, and Cape Lindisnes which looks south- 
west (forty-one miles distant from east to west), being excavated by a recess of the 
great sea, admits that huge bay called the Oslofiord, which runs up from thence to 
Oslo" [now Christiauia], "and was anciently called Vik, and is now called by the 
Dutch sailors the Sack of Norway ; and the great tract of land adjacent to this bay 
was also anciently called Vik, a name derived from it [</fi illo sortitus nomen], which 
name was subsequently attached to the district of Balms, which is called Vik or Vik- 
sida." ! Torf. Hist. Norweg. ii. cap. i. p. 28. Elsewhere he says, that Dal-vik was a 
province, of three districts, surrounding the inner part of that bay of Oslo, which was 
called Vik, and its neighbours, the Vikenses. Ibid. cap. ii. p. 31. Mr. Pinkerton but 
once ventured to refer to page or chapter, alledging Torf n' us, ii. 18, in vol. i. p. 175, 
which happened to be a perfectly immaterial and safe passage. And no moral con- 
siderations deterred him from saying, " the whole northern writers call this country 
as often Vichia" as Vika, and /nice never dropt a single hint that this name was from 
vik." i. p. 179. 

From vik; bay, gulph. or creek, comes vikinqrn; men of inlets, or pirates, " qui in 
eundcm sinum vel portum (sonm vik) nude primum solverunt populatum redeunt." 
Lex Antiqua" Gulathingensis cit. Gunnlaug's Saga, p. 303. See also Ofai Wormii 


"Arius Frnda, in Ms Islanclia. speaks of one * This seems to be merely a cavil on the Latin 

Roll as bishop " i Vik Austr," whom the Kristni- orthnf/rtipliy of modern authors in that language ; 

Saga calls " Vikveria hiskti|>."_ Arius, cap. ii. even if it be a true statement, 

p. 10; Krist. cap xii. p. 108. "The Gulathings-laug, or Code of Guley in 

v Regio Ad- Sinus- Latns, a name in itself suf- Ilorilaland, was enacted in the tenth century by 

ficiently convincing Ilako the Good ; and the western part of Nor- 

Mon. Dan. p. 269, ami Haldorson's Lexicon in Vikiiigr. Opposite surmises are con- 
futed by the names of the people from places ending in vik, as from Sandvik the 
Sandvikingar, or from Krossavik the Krossavikingar". But a man "or Vikinni," from 
the great eastern Vik, could not be styled a Vikingr, both because that name was 
general for all pirates, and because he might not be a pirate. And hence their com- 
pound name Vik-veriar, Sinus-accolic. Thus we see that there never were any Viks 
at all, and that Vik-men were only the men c who dwelt on that particular bay. 

As Innes made all the Plots of one race, so did he ; and, with that view, he re- 
sorted to such phrases as " the Caledonians and Piks were all one," disguising in some 
places, what he piits forward in others, that the Caledonians were only one portion of 
the Picti. Mr. Pinkerton also constantly assumed, that the Caledonians were the 
northern, and the Vecturiones the southern division; upon no better authority than 
the pages printed by Mr. Charles Bertram, under the assumed name 11 of Kicardus 
Corinaius. The following passage, " Dicaledones and Vectiiriones, the former cer- 
tainly the Northern Picts bordering on the Deticaledonian sea" instances his want of 
ingenuousness; for Ptolemy's Dcucaledonian commenced as far south as the Chersonese 
of the Novantes, which Solinus calls the Promontory of Caledonia, and we the Mull of 
Galloway. The fact appears to me to have been the converse. Since the Ptolemaic 
limits of the Caledonians were from the Murray Firth down to Locli Lomond, their re- 
lative position in the Theodosian age can never be inferred, either way, from Ptolemy ; 
those are the tricks of history-making, subservient to system and self, rather than tu 
external and objective truth. 

Another main point with this systematist was to assume, against all historical 
inference, that the Belgie of Gaid and Britain were not Gauls and Britons in lan- 
guage and nation, because the former had come out of a German stock; and that they 
were not of the Uruidic religion, in the teeth of Strabo's clear and ample statements. 
Geogr. vol. iv. p. 275-6. Whatever had been, or was even conjectured to have been, of 

a German 

way, in which that law prevailed, was itself Norway! " This new name," speaking of Picti, 

thence called Gulathingslatig. See Ilakonar Goda " seems to have been native, Piks, or Pelits ; 

Saga, cap. xi.,and Schiining's Heimskr. iii. p. 193. and to have originated from a country so styled 

b The case of Jonisvikingar is different. That in the south of Norway, whence this colony had 

is contracted from Jomsborg-vikingar, and ex- arrived." vol. i. p. 146. 

presses the pirates, not the people, of Jomsborg; J If any one has yet a lingering faith in this 

with no analogy to the places that are compounded forgery, he may divest himself of it by consulting 

with vik. the Speculum Ilistoriale de Gestis Kegum An- 

1 In his Modern Geography, grown bolder, gliie per Fratrem Kicardum de Cirenccstria, in 

Mr. Pinkerton gives us Pik, not Vik, for part of Cambridge library, FF. 1. 28. 

XXX 11 

a German original, is presumed to have retained the German tongue and institutes; 
which, if true, must be equally true of the Irish BelgK. But it is untrue; " Firboli 
enim dicuntur Britannice, et Danaimse Germanice locuti;" the former half of which 
two-fold tradition, relating to an undoubted and never extirpated people, is not 
invalidated by the dubious" character of the latter. Ogygia, p. 10. 

The Picti or painted folk, beyond the Latin pale, were not all of one sort. Con- 
stantino's panegyrist, who first names the free tribes after that peculiarity, mentions 
the I)i-Caledonum (or f Caledonum) " aliornmijne Pictorum sylvas et paludes." Eume- 
ni/is, cap. vii. And Ammianus says that, in the time of Count Theodosius, the Picti 
were in duas gentes div/si, namely, Dicalidones et Vecturiones. xxvii. cap. 8. The 
Calidones or Oaledones were an ancient British tribe (" Qnintc Caledonios Ovidi visure 
Britannos") whose language was the British, for their name is such, and signifies in- 
habitants of forests; whether the great lurest of the North be spoken of, or those Cali- 
dnnia! Sylvtc near the Thames, into which Cwsar pursued Cassivellaun Florus, iii. 
c. xi. Moreover we rend, that of the People of Britain the "habitus corporutn" were 
" vnrii, atque ex eo argumeiita, namque rutila; Caledoniam habitantium coma?, magni 
urtus, Germanicam origincm asserunt." Tacitus Agric. cap. xi. But if they were 
then of a different tongue r,nd nation, the argumenta or conjectures from stature 
and colour of hair would be superfluous, nor would the qiiestion have been merely 
Din' of origin. 

When Scverus made war, it was against the two greatest British nations then re- 
tainincr independence, the Maiate near Hadrian's wall, and the Caledonian farther north. 
Both were naked, with their bodies painted in various devices, and still made use of 
war chariots drawn by small horses llerodian, iii. p. 83, ed. II. Steph. Xiphilin, Epit. 
Dionis, Ixxv. p. 1280-1, 1283. Reimar. These two denominations are probably equi- 
valent to Campestres and Sylvestr-s ; concerning the latter there is not much doubt, 
and mat. pi. wpiau, a plain, furnishes an etymon for Maiate. Thus the two names 
express the two modes of living ascribed to them by Dion, in the paragraph where he 
names them, viz., the nomadic and veimtic, !K j>/ii)e i Oi/par, and their two habitations, 
viz., rugged mountains and uncultivated plains, opij ay pin . . . KUI vicia i/Hipa Ixxvi. 
cap. 12. In Severus's time two tribes were noticed as being picti; but, until a century 

e Which, moreover, was denied In Keating ; not regarded as colonies. 

according to whom Scot-bhearla was the Ian- ' Some copies have " non Dicaledonum," and 

guage of all tile colonies that ever came into Ire- others "non dico Caledonum:" which latter is not 

land till the English commest. See E. Lluvd in bad in point of context, though extrinsic reasons 

Scothheailu. The conquests of the Ostmen are give a countenance to the former reading. 


or more had elapsed, no tribe is known to have been named the Picti. At that later 
time the name of the Maiate tribe or Mfcata;, living in Galloway and part of Nor- 
thumbria, had disappeared from the list of free and painted tribes. Yet, for all 
that, the South-Pictish territory does not seem to have been curtailed on the south, 
for Candida Casa, the first South-Pictish church, was on Maiate ground, and near the 
Severian wall. Meanwhile the other class of Picti Vecturiones was coming into im- 
portance, and cutting short the northern bounds of the Calidones ; which in Ptolemy's 
day, seventy years before the war of Severus, extended from the Laslamnonius or 
Lemaanonius Sinus (Lomond) to the Varar eestuary or Firth of Moray. 

Now it might be that Di-Calidones and Vecturioues were merely two sections of 
painted Britons, being of one race; as had been the case of the same Calidones and 
their Maiate allies. For the phrase, " in duas geutes divisi," readily admits of it. Yet it 
is probable, at first sight, that the Southern and Northern Picts were of different 
kinds. For the Southern Picts embraced Christianity at the preaching of a Briton, 
circa A. D. 412, and just at the expiration of the Roman power. But the contiguous 
nation of Northern Picts did not receive it until after A. D. 563, and then at the hands 
of Irishmen from Tir-Connell. The interval of 150 years between the conversions of 
contiguous states, with the distinct sources of conversion, strongly argues diversity of 
speech and blood. But we have a little more than conjecture, as both are known to 
us, in fact, but faintly- 

In the Northumbrian age, or Beda's, we find much of the diocese or province of 
St. Ninia in the hands of those Irish who came afterwards to be termed Galwegians, 
which perplexes the matter. But in Ninia's time, for aught that appears, the North 
Cymrnry country (regnum Cambrense and Cumbrense) was extended from Cumbria 
of Carlisle to Cumbria of Dunbrcatan or the Strathclyde Wealhas, with no permanent 
interruption; and from its first mother church of Candida Casa or Whithern, to St. 
Kentigern's see of Glascu. We have vestiges of the Calidon Picts, whose country 
bordered upon the Strathclyde principality, sufficient to Vie recognised, and arising out 
of disputes too hot and violent to be considered fictions. From and after the middle 
of the sixth century, Maelgwn Gwynedd was reigning over the whole Cymmraeg 
tongue and nation, both titularly, and with rather more of authority than most of 
his race were able to exercise. He was engaged in disputes of which the nature is 
obscure and mysterious, and beside our present purpose, with the Caledonians or 
men of the great northern forests, which then (as we know) were called Celyddon. 
These debates, which ended in the war of Arderydd, fatal to the Caledonians, were 
more immediately carried on by Khydderch Hael. son of Tudwal, son of Cedig, son of 
Dyvnwal, Lord of Alclyde or Dunbreatan, and Prince of the Strathclyde Britons. 

IRISH AKCH. SOC. 16. e The 


The people of the Celyddon were under the rule of a certain Gwenddoleu ap Ceidiaw, 
a Cymmry by name, and himself a bard, of whose poetry a minute fragment survives. 
His principal bard was Merddin son of Morvryn, commonly called Merlin the Caledo- 

" de Albania Sylvestris Calidonius 

A sylva Calidonia." 

Ranulph. Polio/iron. 1M9. 

Merlinus, quse nunc Scotia, 
llepertus est binomius, 

Though some people said he was a native of Demetia or Dyved in South Wales. But 
that was merely a confusion between Merlin Ambrose (who was supposed, through 
an etymological error, putting Merddin for Myrddin, to have been born at Caer- 

" Ad Kaermerthvn Demecia* 
Sub Vortegirni tempore") 

and the Caledonian Merlin. This confusion of the two men probably originated with 
Geoffrey of Monmouth, whose Vita Mer'ini is pervaded with it; and who is thereby 
compelled to make his Caledonian vastly aged, having lived under a succession of 

" Ergo peragratis sub multis regibus anms fi 

Clarus habebatur Merlinus iu orbe Britannus. 

Kex oral et vates, Demetarumque superbis 

Jura dabat populia, ducibus(|ue futura canebat." 

g Merlinus, p. 4, vv. 19-22, Londini, 1830, 
for Roxburgh Club ; and ap. Gfrcerer Pseudo- 
propheta>, p. 365. The grounds upon which the 
Paris editors, Messrs. Michel and Wright, abju- 
dicate this poem from Geoffrey, as given in 
Gfrnerer's preface, entirely fail to persuade me. 
I have observed, indeed, that the caisura of the 
short vowel in 

" Laurea serta date Gaufrido dc Monumeta" 
occurs in but one other instance, the word media 
in K. 749. But if this metrical colophon be an 
addition, it still is testimony of A. D. 1285. That 
Robert Bishop of Lincoln is complimented at the 
expense of his immediate predecessor Alexander, 
whom Geoffrey had extolled when living, and to 
whom he had inscribed his prose prophecy of 
Merlin, may either resolve itself into the nature 


of worldly gratitude, " a sense of benefits to 
come," or Alexander may have earned such praise 
by fair promises, and forfeited them by non-per- 
formance. I see nothing more about conquering 
Ireland in 

" Sextus Hilierncnses et eoruin nomina vertet, 
Qui plus t't prudcns populos ri'nuvabit ct urbes," 

(vv. 079, GSO) 

than had been said in the prose, " sextus Hibernia.' 
moenia subvertet, et nemora inplanitiem mutabit, 
diversas portiones in unum reducet, et capitc 
leonis coronabitur." Neither can I discover a 
syllable about Henry the Second in either of them. 
Alan, Bishop of Auxerre, writing no later than 
circa A. I). 1171, tortured this prophecy into an 
allusion to him, by interpreting sextus to mean 
either Henry's sixth and bastard son, or some 


There are no good reasons for supposing that the son of Morvryn was born very 
far from the scene of his adventures. His sister Gwendydd was the wife of Rhydderch 
Hael, against whom he nevertheless fought in the war of Arderydd ; and after the 
defeat and death of Gwenddoleu, he fled into the depths of the Caledonian forest, and 
from his wild and woodland life was called Merddyn Wyllt. The contest was con- 
nected with the highest points of bardic theosophy, and waged between Gwenddoleu, 
the patron of Merddin, and Rhydderch Hael, the patron of Kentigern and friend of 
Columkille ; for these transactions nearly synchronize with the conversion of the 
North Picts by that missionary. Taliesin Ben Beirdd at the court of Maelgwn, and 
others of that order of poets and philosophers, vehemently supported the Caledonians 
against Rhydderch Hael and King Maelgwn. That these Caledonians were a rem- 
nant of the Picts of St. Ninia's mission, and South Picts of Beda's history, appears 
not only from the ancient use of that name in Eumenius and Ammianus, biit more 
immediately. For Merddyn Wyllt, in his interpolated Hoianau, says at stanza 1 9 : 
" And I will prophesy, before my ending, 

The Britons over the Saxons by the energy of the Painted-Men, 

Brython dros Saeson Brithwyr a'i medd." 

His friend Taliesin, in a poem where he speaks of his bardic sanctuary or conven- 

other son yet to be born, but without the slightest 
allusion to the proceedings of Richard Strongbow, 
just commenced in 1109. Alanus in Merlinum, 
lib. iii. p. 102, ed. 1608. To make Henry him- 
self the sixth Norman king, by counting in both 
Matilda and Stephen, would be less absurd. But 
the prophecv was both composed and translated 
into prose several years before his accession. In 
my humble conjecture, it received its present 
form in the Conqueror's reign, he being the sixth 
from Canute the Great inclusively ; and the con- 
quest of Ireland is a false prophecy, as others 
concerning the sixth king are. 

But this poem is mainly from sources in the 
British tongue, and composed by a proficient 
therein. The names of Rodarchus Largus, Ga- 
nieda, and Peredur, the intimacy and fellowship 
of Telgesin with Merlin, the unique and otherwise 
lost records of Merlin's friend, Maeldin of Ar- 
wystli, and of Arthur's pilot Barinthus (Braint), 

not to say the whole action of the poem, is from 
such sources. Merlin's exordium, Cell Christe 
Df-us ! is in the pure British of his mystical sect, 
Criit, Duw Celi! or Crist Celt, Duw ! For in 
the whole manuscript there is but one instance of 
a diphthong in common use (which in feminu it 
neither was nor is) being omitted, viz., lyre for 
lyres, v. 104: and c&lum occurs seven times. 
But were there not other fine Latinists in Wales? 
Vel duo, vel nemo. Giraldus could have fur- 
nished the Latin, and perhaps could have got up 
the matter. But this is not the mere case of ano- 
ther Welshman, but of another figuring in eastern 
England, of another at LINCOLN, and patronised 
by two successive bishops of that see. The dedica- 
tions to the two bishops of Lincoln, and the two- 
fold allusions to one of them, which are alleged 
for disproof, are, to my mind, as coupled with the 
rare and peculiar qualifications of the author, a 
cogent proof. 

tide, the addvwyn caer, as a ship on the sea preparing to sail away from danger and 

persecution, intimates an intention of removing it to the Picts : 

" Usual is the rising surge of the bards over their mead vessels ; 
There shall be an impulse unto it in very sudden haste, 

The promise unto them of the green-sward of the blue [or woad-painted] Picts. 
Addaw hwynt y werlas o Glas-Fiuliii." Mic Dinliycli* 1 , st. i. 

The gwerlas of the Glas-Fichti is the on-hard of Merlin's 147 apple-trees, eoncealed 
in a deep and sweet glade of the Celyddon. After the restoration of the Celtic monarchy, 
the Briton Picts, or Calidones, again became fellow-subjects of the Britons, and were 
influential by their hatred of the Romans, and attachment to the superstitions they 
had nominally abjured. And these same were, as I lean to think, the Picts to whose 
support Vortigern is said to have been much beholden. However that may be, they 
were those of whom the existence was obscurely recorded in the Arthurian mythus. 
Therein a certain Loth, Lot, or Leo, was King of the Picts of Lothian (Lodoneis), 
husband to Arthur's sister, Anna, and father of Medrawd or Modred. L'ssher, Brit. 
Eccl. p. 357; Brut. G. ap. Arthur, p. 311. This Loo king of Picts was Llew. son to 
Cynvarch, son of Meirchion, and brother to Urien lleged and Arawn. Arthur gave 
Lothian and other lands thereabouts to Llew ; to Arawn he gave Scotland ; and to Urien 
he gave Ilegcd. This unknown district (absurdly stated by Dr. Owen Pughe' to 
have been in Glamorgan) was certainly in the north. It was (saith Brut G. ap. A.), 
" Mureif the land otherwise named Rhcged ;" and so Geoffrey, sceptro Muret'ensium 
insignitur, ix. cap. 9 ; which phrases seem to express Mureve, Morave, or Moray. 
But the Brut marked B has it parth a mur yr Eifft, " in the direction of the wall 
of the Egyptians," i. c. of the Gaidheal from Scota and Pharaoh, but vulgarly the 
Pict's Wall ; and the grant of k Scotland to Arawn, and still more the proximity of 
Loch Lomond to Mureif, seem to prove that mur, wall, and not Moravia, \va> the 
original idea. Leo, King of Picts, was reputed the maternal grandfather of St. Cyn- 
deyrn Gctrthwys, that is St. Kentigern of the Region of the Vallum or Rampart, Bishop 
of Penrhyn Rhionydd (Promontory of the Rhions, whatever 1 they may be), otherwise 
called Glas-cu ; which admits of the interpretation Beloved of the Blue, \. c. of the 


11 The line quoted in Chalmers's Caledonia, i. ' The Lexicographer Owen Pughe in his ae- 

p. 204, does not exist. com! edition, inserts the gloss, rhion pl.ydd. a sire, 

1 Cambr. Biogr. in Urien. but oft'ers no sort of authority, nor explains what 

k For these writers name it, I conceive, in a he means by a sire. I guess the word r/iionyrJd 

more modern way; not as speaking of the true to be a northern form of r/iianerld, ladies, as in the 

Dalriadha. place called Morva Uhianedd. 


The requiescence of the North Picts after the final departure of the Roman legions 
("Picti in extrema insulo; parte tune primum et deinceps requieverunt, prajdas et con- 
tritiones nonnunquam facientes") is not attributable to change of character, being still 
savage heathen marauders, nor to decline of their power, which was growing, but to 
the dissolution of their league with the Di-Calidones, and re-union of the latter to 
the other tribes of Britons; by which means the Vecturiones were separated from the 
old Roman frontier, and the territory of their former allies to the south of the Gram- 
pians became the object of their conquest. See Gildas, Hist. cap. xix. The Caledo- 
nians and Martians came to an end, having gradually lost their territory. The 
establishment of that other Pictish people, who in the eleventh and twelfth centuries 
were called the Galwegians or Gallovidians, in the heart of Cumbria or the Xorth- 
west Wales, must have been a serious blow to the people of the southern Pictavia. 
The Irish annals mention desultory invasions of St. Ninia's country by the Cruithne 
of Ulster in 682 and 702, and their establishment there towards the end of the eichtli 
century Cit. Chalmers, i. 358. When Maelgwn of Britain, Rhyddevch of Strath- 
clyde, and Aidan M'Gabhran, King of the Scots, were fighting against the Calidonians at 
Arderydd, that tribe retained but a remnant of territory between the Clyde and the 
mountains of Argyle to the north of Loch Lomond ; and we may suppose that the war 
of Arderydd was the finishing" 1 of them. Though Beda speaks of the Grampian hills 
as dividing the country of the Northern from that of the Southern Picts, it is obvious 
that he speaks retrospectively, and in reference to the period when the Calidom-, 
driven from the Varar (the ancient Ptolemaic boundary of the vast Sylva Calidonia), 
yet held the Grampian barrier against the Vecturiones; and that only one kingdom of 
Picts was existing in his time. 

We must pronounce against Father Innes, that the Vecturiones or North Picts 
were another race. His whole argument, reinforced by Mr. Chalmers' researches, 
from the frequency of British names or roots in North-Pictish topography, is to be 
answered by the ancient reign of the Calidones from the Varar to the upper wall. 
For conquerors never fully obliterate the names of places. But, as the Calidonians 
were certainly indigena; within all records of history, their hair and stature alone 
raising the suspicion of diverse origin, so the Picts of the most famous Pictish state 
are pronounced by all with one voice to have been, like the Scoti in Albany, " trans- 

111 The biographers of St. Fechin of Fore men- moch, the tenor of St Fechin's remarks shews hi> 

tion, about the close of the year 6(J4, a certain was a Cambrian. Colgan, Jan. 20, p. 1.39. I can- 

Mochoemoch, " Cruthnech sive Camber;" and not say whether this man were from the remnants 

though he bore the Irish saint-title of Moehoe- of the Calidonian tribe. 


marina gens." See Beda, i. 12 ; Ncnnius, cap. v. ; Galfrid. Monum. iv. 17 ; Psalter 
of Cashel, cit. Ogygia, iii. 18 ; and the Irish tot quot. Mr. Pinkerton inconsistently 
maintained that the word Vecturion represented Vikveriar, i. e. the men of his Vika 
in Norway. While he was describing the Viks of Vika as constituting the entire of 
the Picts, and their name as being his very word Pik, he yet well knew that the 
Vecturiones were only one of the two Pict gentes opposed to Theodosius. But that 
appellation cannot be shewn to have been other than a Latin one; and their trans- 
marine origin, and vectura, or freightage in vessels, as opposed to the indigence, is pro- 
bably expressed in it: Britanniam qui mortales initio colucrint, indigence an adcecti, 
ut inter barbaros, parum compertum Tacit. Agric. cap. xi. If so, their arrival should 
have been so far recent in Theodosius' time, as to keep alive the tradition of their 
vectura, and also to account for their being unknown or obscure in that of Sevcrus. 
That they came directly from Ireland seems agreed. Beda, i. cap. i. ; Chron. Sax. p. I ; 
Poem in Irish Nennius; Psalter of Cashel, tfcc. They were a tribe of Irish dialect (or 
language) and nation. That is in the nature of fact. Gwyddel is the Welsh word 
for Irish; and it is an adaptation to Welsh analogies of the name Gaidheal, the Gadelic 
or Gathelic. That word means Irish, and I have not learned that it means anything 
else. But tin 1 , Picts of the kingdom of Fortren Mor (as was its Irish appellation) were 
the Gwyddyl Fichti, or Gaelic Picts. The Brito-Irish legend of St. Cairnech adopts 
the name, with confirmation of its meaning, in that of Gaidheal Ficht, the fabulous 
son of Murchertach. Mr. Pinkerton and Dr. C. O'Conor were erroneously led to sup- 
pose that the Cruthenians of the Dal n- Araidhe in Ulster were meant by the Gwyddyl 
Fichti Inquiry, &c. i. 338; O'C. Proleg. cxxvi. ; II. Llmid in Anglica sua Wallire 
Descript. pp. 14, 15, cit. ibid. But those were called, both at home and abroad, in 
Latin and in Erse, Gruthenii, not Picti. In fact (and fact is what we want) the 
Gwyddyl Fichti were the Picts of Albany or North Britain, by whom Madoc ap Me- 
dron was detained prisoner in that country; "gan y Gwyddyl Fichti ynyr Alban." 
Triad. Ixi. p. 68. They were distinguishable from the Gwyddyl Coch, Red Gael, i. e. 
having" rosy cheeks, not blue tattooed cheeks ; human cheeks, according to my deri- 
vation of dvQqoiairot; or dv9tpiairn<;, animal erubescens or vultit florido. The Gwyddyl 
Coch o'r Werddon a daethant i'r Alban, " the red Irish from Erin who came to 
Albany," were the Dalriadhans under Loarn and Fergus. Triad, ix. They, were a 
refuge-seeking, not a conquering tribe; but proved treacherous to those who admitted 


' Nor is the idea confined to tlie cheeks ; for we read, 

Cum tu Lydia Tvk'phi 
Cervicem roseam 


them. Triad, vii. On the contrary, the Gwyddyl Fichti, painted or dark-blue 
Gaidheal, were an invading tribe who came into Britain by force. Triad, vii. It was 
against the Gwyddyl Fichti that Vortigern was obliged to hire Saxon aid Triad, 
xiv. 53. That they were Milesians, which is the equivalent of Gaidheal, appears 
in the legend of Mileadh Cruthnechan, Milesius Pictus; who went over from Ire- 
land to the Britons of Fortren, to fight against the Saxons, and defend Cruithen- 
tuath or Pictland. The Britons of Fortren are the Cruthnich in Britain, as opposed 
to those in Ireland; and, if the former continued to receive succours in emergency 
from the latter, we may the more easily understand that their vectura was fresh 
in remembrance. That both the peoples, that in Ulster and that in Fortren, had in 
Irish but the one common name of Cruthneach, and long after the usage which gave 
the name was abandoned, is a fact most opposite to the theory of their distinct origin. 
All this is old fact, not modern etymologizing. They were Gwyddyl Fichti, of a fabled 
connexion with one Gaidheal Ficht; the plain upshot of which is, that they spoke 
the Gwyddeleg, and not either the Cymmraeg or the Saxon. 

Nor is this deficient in verbal harmony with the common legend that they came 
fiom Scythia. i.e. from the land of the Scuit, for Scuit Fichti, Mileadh Fichti, and Gwyd- 
dyl Fichti, would all be synonymous ; and the story of the Cruithnich from Scythia 
is just such another frigid etymologism, as that of the Scuit from Scythia. There is 
no good standing place, even for credulity, to set up a primaeval tradition from the 
true Scythia of the East. Because the tenor of their legend, that they were Aga- 
thyrsi descended from Gelcon son of Hercules, betrays the derivation of the whole 
story from Virgil's lines, 

" Cretesque Dryopesque fremunt pictique Agathyrsi," 

" Eoasque domes Arabum pictosque Gelonos ;" 

mixing ignorance with their learning, and bending two tribes into one. Whatever 
the word pictus meant of the one it meant of the others also, for Geloni and Aga- 
thyrsi were half-tribes (as it were) tracing their origin from two brothers, sons of 
Hercules. It was anciently interpreted three ways: wearing painted cloaks, having 
the hair only died blue, or having both the hair and body stained. The second is the 
sentiment of Pliny. It is not a certain fact that these Scythian tribes ever wore a 
stained or stigmatized skin. See Servius in ^Eneid. iv. 146, and Salmasius in So- 
linum, p. 133. 

When Beda was writing, five tongues were spoken in Britain, English, British, 
Scottish, Pictish, and Latin; therefore the Gwyddeleg or Gaelic, and the Gwyddeleg 
Ficht were not the same. But that is consistent with a modification of dialect from long 



separation, admixture with Britons, and other causes. Without reverting to that remote 
truth, quite unconnected with Beda's thoughts, of the primitive identity of British and 
Scottish, it is otherwise manifest, that Beda included, as languages, such changes of 
dialect as sufficed to impede communication. For if Pictish were Teutonic, then English 
and Pictish were but two dialects ; and if it were Cymmraeg, then British and Pictish ; 
so that, qudcunque via data, two of Beda's tongues were nearly related. In the 
biographies of St. Columkille, the converter of the Picts, a solitary allusion is found to 
the diversity of Gaelic and Pictish, where it is said that a certain plebeian family of 

Picts, hearing him through an interpreter, believed Adamnan, ii. cap. 32 Vide 

contra, iii. cap. 14. 

Pinkerton, and his follower, Dr. Jamieson, relied upon the list of kings as a source 

for Teutonic etymologies Inquiry, &c., i. 287-312; Etym. Diet. i. p. 35-41. By 

raking together Teutonic syllables, choosing such various readings of names as suit 
best, and assuming common etymologies from either source to be from that of their 
choice, a show of etymological history is set up against real and traditional history. 
But quite enough appears in this catalogue of kings to confirm, if not to demonstrate, 
the premised facts. What can we think of one who will contend, that Keniod or 
Cinndh, in the Latin Kenethus ; Elpin, in Latin Alpinus; Wurgest or Vergust, in 
Latin Fergus and Fergusa; Ungust or Hungus, in Latin Oengus or Aongus; Canul or 
Conal; Uven, Eoganan, Eoghane or Owen; Vered, Ferat, Ferach or Feredech (Phe- 
radfich, in the signatures of the Pictish princes to King Ungust's Charter of Kilre- 
mont); Donell, Donnell, Domnal, in Latin Doiialdus; Nectau or Xeactan, Fidach, 
Fodla, as well as Cruthen or Crutlme, the first name on the list, are not from the 
Irish nomenclature"? The seventy-fourth king of Picts is Uven, alias Eoganan; but 
Adamnan mentions logenanus presbyter genere 1'ictus, ii. cap. ix., and afterwards, 
iii. cap. v., Eogemums nephew to Aidan, king of Scots. Phiachan, from Fiaeh, and 
Duptaleich, seemingly allied to Dubhtach or Dublulaleth, and Glunmerath to Glun- 
mar, one of the various names formed upon f/luit, a knee, occur, together with 


" The same author, with some ingenuity, pre- Eoganan, Alpin, Kenneth, Domhnal, Maolchu- 
tended that Ungust, son of Vergust, when he over- luim, Macduiuh, Uonnchad, and Macbeth! Nay, 
ran the petty kingdom of Arregaithel or Scots, Mr. Pinkerton, after deriving Malcolm (the well- 
made an end of the Dalriadha dynasties of Loarn known contraction, if not rather nominative forma- 
and Fergus, and set Pictish princes over it. But tion, of MaoU-holuim) from mat, speech, and knrn, 
he drew down upon himself the absurdity of con- a man, coolly proceeds to spell it upon all occasions 
tending, that the Erse names of all the Scots kinus Malcuin ; finding Teutonic etvmologies for words 
after 743 were those of German Piks and Viks, of his own making, 
ex gr. Aodh, Rjnal, Fergus, Conal, Angus. 


Angus, Nectan, and Bulge, among the royal witnesses to the charter of Kilremont. 
About the year 414 the name of Drust or Drost, Drustan or Drostan, came into 
use among the Pictish princes. Under the first of the nine Drusts, Ninia and Patricius 
are said to have converted British Pictland and Ireland. Whatever the name means, 
it is the same as the Cruthnechan Trosdan 1 " of the Psalter of Cashel. O'Conor's 
Keating, p. 121. Upon the whole I account it clear, from their names, that they 
were Gwyddyl, or an Erse people. And where we find Feradach changing into Vered, 
Fergus into Wurgest, and Eoghan into Uven, we need not wonder that St. Columkille 
and the other emigrant monks of the Kinel-Conaill, who seem to have met no impe- 
diment of discourse at the Pictish court, should have failed in making themselves under- 
stood to " the plebeians" of some districts without interpretation. The reader need 
only compare the opposite columns of Welsh and Cornish in Lhuyd's Archaologia, 
pp. 251-3, to appreciate the impediments arising from dialects, even in languages of 
the most undisputed identity. The Gwyddyl Fichti formed the main body of the 
ancient Albannaich, or people of the kingdom of Albany, of whom the Highlanders 
are the remnant ; the whole of that body, except so many clans as lay west of the 
Drumalban hills, in Argyle, Lorn, Knapdale, Cowel, and Cantire. And when those 
hills divided two hostile states (now united I ooo years) the difference of dialect was 
more perceptible. 

The following historical fragment, in the form of a bardic prophecy, is now inex- 
plicable; but seems to belong to the ninth century, when the Northmen, or men of 
Norway and Denmark, had obtained a footing in these islands. It is one of the few 
documents of a forgotten dynasty, and is worth placing on record, for the chances of 
future illustration : 

Pump pennaeth dymbi Five chieftains there shall be 

O Wyddyl Fichti, Of the Gwyddelian Picts, 

O bechadur cadeithi, Of the character of evil-doers, 

O genedyl ysgi. Of a murderous generation. 

Pump eraill dymbi Five others there shall be 

O Norddmyn mandy. From the habitation of the Northmen. 

Wheched rhyfeddri The sixth a wonderful prince, 

O heu hyd vedi. From the sowing 11 to the reaping. 

Seithved o heni The seventh [sent] by old age 

I weryd 

P Macfarland's Vocabulary, and Armstrong's port, a prop, a crutch. 
Dictionary, give Trosdan, a pace, a foot ; a sup- q From his birth to his death. 



I weryd dros li. To the green-sward beyond' the flood. 

Wythved lin o Ddyvi The eighth, of the line of Tyvy s , 

Nid Ihvydded escori, Shall not be estranged from prosperity, 

Gynt gwaedd Venni Till [in] the outcry of Menni 

Galwawr Eryri, Snowdon shall be invoked, 

Anhawdd y Dyvi. Disaster [unto] Tyvy Arch.Myvyr. i. 73. 

Everything here is completely obscure, especially the number Jive being repeated. 
Whether the sixth, seventh, and eighth join on to the five Gwyddyl Fichti or the 
five Norddmyn, depends on whether or not lines 5 and 6 be parenthetical. Some 
combination of the affairs of three nations, Picts, Northmen, and Welsh, is here indi- 

It is extreme fancifulness to dispute the meaning of the plain word Pictus, 
expressive of a notorious fact. That crotchet is as old as Verstegan, who says the Picts 
were not called of painting their skins, as some have supposed, but upon mistaking 
their true name, which was phichtian or fighters. Restitution, &c. p. 124. This was 
Teutomania. But Dr. Owen Pughe, under strong Celtomania, invented in his dic- 
tionary the gloss, " Pcithi, the Picts," and explained it " people of the open plain," 
iVc. ; and this invention Mr. Chalmers has chosen to adopt. i. 204. They were, he 
says, " called Peithi, or Picti. Thus a Welsh poet of the seventh century says 
(lias Phichti." They were called one thing; and thus they are called another ! But 
our concern is with genuine, not coined words. The real meaning is shewn directly 
in Taliesin's Glas Fichti; and antithetically in the Gwyddyl Coc/t. Claudian, the 
courtier of Stilicho, had access t<> all information concerning the tribes, against whom 
his patron had a frontier to defend. 

But indeed there were few phrases that could be used in that sense, and were not 
so applied. The Calidones were called by Ammian Di-Calidones, and the neighbouring 
ocean by Ptolemy AouijKaXijSovio;, and by Mareianus Heracleota Aov/ca\/$oj/ioc, the Du- 
caledonian; of which the former, JJl, expressed the pronunciation, and the latter the 
spelling, of Du*, black. Britli in British, and Brit, in Irish, spotted, variegated, party- 

* To the royal cemetery in tlic island of Icolm- called the Fin-gall and Fin-gent, which name 
kill? the Irish interpreted white strangers, or white 

s Here (as printed) Dyvi, but in the concluding Pagans, from their own word Jinn, white. By- 
line Tyvi ; as appears from the mutations, Dd mere antithesis to those names, and not upon 
and D. The Tyvy is the large stream dividing real grounds of colour, the Danes and Norwe- 
Caermarthen from Cardigan. gians came to be called the Dubhgent, Black 

1 The Finlanders who invaded Ireland were Pagans, and Dubhlochlonaich, Black Pirates 


coloured, is the probable etymon of Britain, and hence brith-wr, a spotted man, a 
Pict; to which in the Hoianau is added the other epithet, black, brithwyr du. Equi- 
valent to this was Brych or Brech in British, Brec and Breac in Erse, speckled, party- 
coloured. I have intimated above (p. 1 1 1, n.), that Agned Bregion, i.e. Brechion, plural 
of Brech, was meant by the Britons for Agnetum Pictorum ; and Brechin, an episcopal 
city of the Picts, civitns Brechne of the Pict. Chron., is from the same root. So also is 
the name of Brychan or Brecanus, the legendary founder of Brechinia, Brecheiniawg, 
or Brecknock, whether in the like sense or not. The Manks were not only an Irish 
people, but probably were Crutheni, or Ulster Picts. For the rebellion of the Ulto- 
nians against Cormac Mac Art, in 236, was chiefly of the Cruithniu under Fiach 
Araidhe; and in 254 he expelled a portion of the Ultonians, and gave their territory 
to his son, Cairbre Riadha, from whom the Dal-Riadan, Dalreudin, or Rout district 
(the cradle of Scotland) took name. From this act he was surnamed Ulfada. or 
Banisher of the Ultonians; and they settled themselves in Manand or the Isle of Man. 
Tighern. in annis. That island, of whose early and Celtic history scarce another vestige 
remains (see above, No. III. p. vii.), may be regarded as having been a colony of Cru- 
thenians, driven out of North Ulster by the Riadans. Mervyn, King of Man, whom 
Welsh pedigrees have derived in the female line from the princes of Powys, and who 
married Essyllt", heiress of Conan Tindaethwy, King of Wales, is called in the inter- 
polated Hoianau, st. 36, Mervyn Vn/ch o dir Manau, not by reason of freckles on his 
skin, but as claiming a descent from, or reigning over, Picts; for the Gwasgargerdd, 
equally ascribed to Merlin the Calidonian, speaks of the " brithwyr du o Manau," 
black- spotted men of the Isle of Man. Man hath scarce any history until the ascen- 
dancy of the northern vikingar. But a great annalist speaks of Picts in that country, 
in 711, more than 100 years before Mervyn Vrych. Strages Pictorum in v camjio 

Manand w , ubi Findgaine Mac Deleroith immature, morte jacuit Tig. in 711, p. 225, 


Ogygia, p. 303. The years 850, 8;jl, witnessed pirates. 

bloody battles in Leinster between the Finn- u In whose right he ruled Wales, A. D. 818- 

gent and Dubhgent, of which the last was con- 843 ; but when, and through what inheritance, 
tinued for three days and nights. Ann. Ulton. he became king of Man, is not apparent. His 
The Danes -who afterwards ravaged Stathclyde pedigree in the male line from Beli Mawr may be 
and North Wales were called by the Britons the a sheer fable, See Powel's and Lloyd's Cam- 
gwyr duon and paganiaid duon, although their bria, p. 22. 

language has not the word finn. Brut y Saeson, ' Campaign or battle, vide Ducange, in campus, 

Tywysogion, &c., A. D. 870-900, pp. 479-484. num. 5, 6, 7. 

But they took the phrase from Ireland, whose " The Ulster Annals, at 781, speak of Drust 

Osttnan kings of Dublin probably sent forth these the Eighth as "rex Pictorum citra Monot," 

f 2 


O'Con. In the Pictish catalogue, (see above, sect, xxxi.) we read, " Guidid Gaeth 
Hreatnack," a Briton, but the Pictish Chronicle gives Guidid Gaed Brecah; which 
variations do all resolve themselves, one way or another, into Pictus. Nectan 
the First has several surnames, such as Kellemot and Thalthamoth; but most 
usually, and in the Pictish Chronicle, Morbet. In this Irish document that un- 
known word is altered, and, I believe, corrected, thus, Neactun Mor Breac*, the 
Great Pict. The case of Domhnall styled Brcac, Brec, Brie (Dovenald Varius of 
Cron. Reg. Scot. Innes, ii. 789), prince of the Dalriads or Scots, and son of Achy, is 
full of obscurity. He bore the surname whilst living; as Adamnan says, ' temporibus 
nostris .... Domnallo Brecco" &c. iii. cap. v. At his father's death in 622 he was 
adult, and fell in the battle of Strath-Cawn or Ceirinn, fought against Houn king of 
the [Strathclyde] Britons, in December 642. Tighern. in anno. Yet Ulster Annals, 
after stating the death of plain Domhnall (not D. Bruce as in Tig.) at A. D. 642, say, at 
A. D. 685, " Talorg Mac Aicthaen et Domhnall Jjrecc Mac Eachadh mortui suut." The 
name Talorg is exclusively Pictish ; and the author seems as if he considered D. Brec, sun 
lit Achy, to be such also. How he recovered the crown of his father (which had passed 
into another family after the overthrow of his brother by the Irish Cruithnich), and 
what connexions, either Pictish or Cruthenian, he may have had in the female line, is 
matter buried in the darkness of those times and countries. But he fought at Moira in 
conjunction with Suibne, prince of theCrutheni, and had fought in 621 conjointly with 
Conall, son of Suibne. If any credit, be given to his longevity, and his dying together 
with this Tulorg, his crown must have passed into the hands of the extranet of Adam- 
nan (iii. 5), i. e. strangers to the lineage of Aidan M'Gabhran, at or about the time of 
his defeat in 642, by abdication and flight into Pietland, not by death'. Broicne, 
broice, broicean, are words of the same sense as breac or brec, and may explain the 
appellation of Broichan, the magus of the Picts. Adamn. ii. 33. The Cruithnieh or 
Cruthenii, who occupied the southern" portion of the Daln'araidhe in Ulster, and those 


which obscure phrase may signify *' king of Pict- although rrych may, perhaps, be the true reading 
land, Man excepted ;" putting Monot for Monffido. of them, I cannot discover in those extremely 
Sed quaere. remarkable passages of Aneurin any allusion to 

* The other form, Morbet, should, perhaps, the battle of Strath-cawn and death of Dovenaldus 
be spelt Mor-bret, Mor-breat ; as in the preced- Varius, king of Scots. There also are difficulties 
ing homonymes of Brecah and Breatnach. in supposing the author to have composed them 

y As to the two lines of the Gododin, vv. 743, so late as 641. The connexion of the names Dyvn- 
872, wal and Domhnall is also unascertained. 

" A phen Dyvnwal a breirh brein a'i cnoyn. ' Said to have included Down and the southern 
A pl.en Dyvynwal rrych brein a'i cnoyn," parts of Antrim See Ur. O'Conor in Tighernach. 


others who were in Meath and Connaught, as well as those of Fortren Mor in Britain, 
are called from" cnith, form, aspect, countenance, colour, complexion; and so the 
phrase would resemble our men of colour, or may signify men adorned with figures. 
Among the Dalaradian Cruthnich we hear of king Eochaid Laeb or Laib, which 
Colgan renders Maculatus; of king Aodh Brec, who was slain in 563, with the seven 
Cruthenian clan-kings, by the Hy-Niall of Ulster, " vii righ Cruithneach im Ard 
mbrecc," Cenfaelad cit. Tigh. ; and of Aodh cognomento Niger; likewise we read of 
Congal M'Mealean faith Brecc Fortren, Ann. Ult. 724; which were not improbably 
tribule, rather than personal, appellations, and analogous to Nectan Mor Breac. (,)f 
these and other such epithets more will be said in treating of this practice, as a super- 
stition cherished in the ages subsequent to its desuetude. 

But above all the name of Bruide or Brudi, borne by so many kings of the 
Gwyddyl Fichti, deserves observation; because it once was official or titular, and 
common to all, like Pharaoh or Augustus. The Pictish Chronicle says, upon the 
name of Brudi the First, " a quo triginta Brude regnaverunt Hiberniam et Albaniam 
per 1 50 annorum spatium ;" and adds their private or personal names. Now that 
national name, spelt in this and other Irish works Bruide, elsewhere Bruidi, Brudi, 
Bridius, &c., is but the Erse word, bruid, spina, quodvis cuspidatum; bruid, confodere; 
bruid, vulnus gladio vel cultro factum. What Isidorus Hispalensis questionably says of 
the name Scoti may be truly said of this name : " propria lingua nomen habent a picto 
corpore, eo quod, aculeis furreis cum atramento, variarum iigurarum stigmate annotan- 
tur." This was expressed in the title Bruide, Acu-punctus, the Pict, a name common 
to a long series of kings, and never wholly disused. If these thirty kings reigned over 
Albania, there will then be a double list of the kings of Fortren ; which absurdity has 
induced me to analyse these statements. Bruide the First is the fifteenth king; and in 
thirty kings, counted from him, there occurs not one Bruide. But counting again from 


p. 96, u. 7 ; Mr. O'Donovanin Magh Rath, p. '.]9, Inhabitants, p. 139. An elegant colony, and a 
note. probable theory. But unluckily the senders, i.e. 
"See Dr. Todd's note above, No. II., pp. v. vi. the Picts of Fortren Mor, were Cruithnigh as 
Yet a modern author has been found to imagine, well as the others, and, therefore, must also have 
that the name is for cruitineach, hump-backed. been "crump-shouldered or humpy people!" Tin- 
To meet the absurdity of a nation of hump-backs, essay here cited contains many judicious remarks. 
it is supposed that Daln'araidhe was a sort of Rut its author, like others, has missed the fun- 
hospital, whither the Picts sent " the infirm and damental fact, that the Irish, being a British peo- 
deformed inhabitants of Argyle, to make room for pie, were, as such, a Pict people, 
the efficient Irish troops." T. Wood' s Primitive 


'J'alorc III. the forty-sixth king, the third is Bruide ; from him the fifth is Bruide ; from 
him again, the fifth; from him, the second; from him, the fourth; and lastly, from him, 
the eleventh. Thus, when it was merely a man's name, we find it recurring occasionally ; 
but when it was titular to all alike, we find it entirely absent. Which evinces that the 
words, "lliberniam . . . spatium" are superfluous and false, as well as thethirty b pri- 
vate names; and that these thirty Bruides are simply the kings of Pictland from Brudi 
Bout to Talorc III. For it is obvious that men must be enumerated by their names, 
but need not be, and frequently are not, by additions of course; as we must say 
Trajanus, Iladrianus, &c., but need seldom add Augustus. The thirty Bruides end just 
fourteen years before the accession of Bruide II., that is to say, of the first king by 
name, and not by title, so called ; and he was their first Christian king, baptized by St. 
Columkille. We may therefore suppose that it ceased to be the regal appellation 
when the increase of civility and approaches of Christianity had caused the actual 
practice upon which it was founded to fall into desuetude; and may accordingly con- 
jecture, that Cealtraim Bruide, who died in 543, and was the last of the thirty, was 
also in fact the latest rex ncu punctus. In almost all moral concerns the real l>e<nn- 

1 O 

nings precede the historical commencement; and as Palladius himself went ad Scotof 
in Christum credent&f, so must Columkille ad Pictox. For even if he could have 
wrought what he did upon matter unpredisposed, date and situation shew the proba- 
bility that Christian influences must have oozed into Pictland from Caledonia and 
Strathclyde, from Argathelia, and from Dalaradia in Ulster. 

We now come to a brief but important corollary. The record of thirty-six kings 


'' These consisted of fifteen names, two of which may hint to us another circumstance, viz., that 

seem to be lost, each followed by a repetition of (in the days of the thirty Hruides, or painted 

the same with Ur prefixed, as Pant, Ur-p;:nt, Leo, Picts) the Ur-bruide, during the life of his prin- 

Ilr-leo. Up in Gaelic and Erse is new, fresh, cipal, bore bis name, with the tanaistic prefix, 

young, again, a second time; allied to lap, after, instead of his own, when he assumed the primary 

succeeding. RIT up, a new kin;; Stewart's crown. The fictitious character of these names 

Exodus, cit. Armstrong. It is obvious to con- appears, not only from the external history, but 

jecture that Ur-pant was the Tanist of Pant, and from the two first of them; one of which is the 

so Ur-bruide of his Bruide. As tanist was used Anglo-Saxon name Penda (see Tighern. in 6'31, 

without limitation in the sense of second, the 639, 63(1), and the other is the British name 

tanaistic battle or tanaistic captivity, for the se- Llew. 

cond battle or captivity (see Tighern. in 495 and '' It was the same in the north of Europe, and 

980), so, convcrselv, the secondary king was the the accounts of those qtii ante religionem lege 

tanist of the primary, his actual coadjutor, and rec eptam in vcruin. Deum crediderunt, may be read 

successor designate. This curiously formed list in Olaf Tryggvason, cap. cxx. et seq. 


anterior to Drvist M'Erp, in 414, is of slender authority, and tinctured with manifest 
fable; and the historical sera is there, upon solid grounds, considered to begin. But 
the first king in that series is Cruthne or Cruidne, which is equivalent to Bruide, and 
conveys the idea of tinctus or pictus, as the other of punctus. Therefore King Cruthne 
and the first titular Bruide are identical ; and if there were thirty-one such Bruides, 
that is thirty after the Bruide called Bout, it is rather identity of proposition than an 
inference to say, that there were thirty-one Cruthnes. Mr. Pinkerton's just rediic- 
tion of the Bardic Pictish reigns to the standard of the Irish, Northumbrian, and 
historical Pictish reigns, yields the dates (approximately correct) of A. D. 28 for 
Cruthne, and A. D. 208 for Brudi Bout. Consequently either Bruide I. must go up 
to Cruthne in A. D. 28, or Cruthne must come down to him in 208; and, as bardic 
mythi exalt antiquity, we shall choose the latter. Therefore it seems, that all the 
kings anterior to Brudi Bout are additions ; that he was the planter of the Gwyddyl 
Fichti or Vecturiones in Albany ; and that Cealtraim, the last ex qfficio Bruide, was 
only the thirty-first Vecturion king. That places the transit of the Cruithncchan or 
Gwyddyl Ficht colony from Ireland circa A. D. 208, in the reign of Con of the Hun- 
dred Battles, and nearly half a century before Cormac Ulfada drove the Cruthenians 
out of North Ulster in Manniam insulam et Hebrides. Ogygia, p. 335. It is sixty- 
seven years (or some trifle less) after Claudius Ptolemy described the Caledonians of 
the Du-Caledon sea as stretching from Lake Lomond to the Firth of Moray; the iden- 
tical year in which the war of Severus against the painted Maeatie and Calcdones began ; 
and 159 years before the war of Count Theodosius against the Du-Caledons and Vec- 
turions. By this reckoning, the Cruthnich of the Daln'araidhe will have crossed over to 
North Britain some 290 years before their next neighbours of the Dalriadha, or Routs of 
Antrim and Coleraine (being the Gwyddyl Coch of the Welsh), followed their track 

and planted their settlement of Argathelia (Airer-Gaedhal) or Scots See Cambrensis 

Eversus, ix. p. 74. This accords with the order of events, as laid down in the Duan 
Albanach, and in this book " Of the Cruithnigh," by which Britain was first held by 
Britus (i.e. the Britons), then by Clanna Nemidh (the Belgians?), and " the Cruith- 
nigh possessed it after them, having come from Ireland, [and] the Gaedil after that, 
that is, the sons of Eire sou of Eochaidh." Sec above, p. 127. 

The advent and departure of the Cruthnich in the days of Ilcrimon, son of Milesius, 
] ooo years B. C., which is a legend as ancient as Cormac Mac Cuillenan in the ninth 
century, is a pure mythology, and has made improper use of Pictish materials by 
bringing into the remotest origins those names of Drostan and Nectan, which did not 
come up among the Picts before the sera of Ninia and Patrick. The fact, that the 
Picts of Albany came over from Ireland, is about the only one it yields us. But 



their migration was evidently from the opposite and near coast of Ulster, where they 
had their abode. This is not only matter of reason, but of tradition. The text of 
the Colbertine Chronicle of Picts asserts, that the thirty Bruides ruled Hibernia and 
Albania, but that means the kingdom of Ulster, not all Ireland ; and for evidence 
thereof we read, in Lib. Ballimote, that Bruide Cint (who was thirteenth of the 
thirty) was King of Ulster. Ap. Piukerton, i. 502-504.. Nor are we in the position 
to affirm, that the Cruithne kingdoms of Daln'araidhe and Fortren Mor did not thus 
long continue to be one, after the fashion in which Celtic monarchies had unity. Since 
in 590, at the Synod of Dromceat, we find Aodh, the son of Ainmire, asserting, and 
then waiving at St. Columkille's intercession, the sovereignty of the kings of Erin 
over the Dalriads of Britain. " The Irish authorities," says Mr. Petrie, " make Gede 
also King of the Irish and Scottish [North British] Picts;" and, though they absurdly 
make him son to King Ollaiuh Fodla, their tradition supposes the two Cruthenias to 
have once been one kingdom. On Tara Hill, pp. 153, 1 54. We read in the present work 
that one Cruithnechau M^Lochit from Erin, meaning of course the chief of the Irish 
Crutheni (see p. 127), ilew to the succour of those of Fortren against the Saxons (scec. 5 
vel infra), which (not to mention its agreeing well with their allegiance to one Bruide or 
Crutlme) argues them to be the same people. Subsequent history shews them engaged 
in bloody wars against Argathelia, under its kings Eochaidh Buidhe and Kenneth Gear, 
but not against Fortren. It is obscurely intimated that Cormac Mac Art, having in 254 
expelled the Crutheni from the Routs of Antrim into Man and the Hebrides, did in 258 
pursue the war into Albany and exact an acknowledgment of his authority Ogy- 
gia iii. cap. Ixix. ; Ogygia Vindicated, pp. 162, 163. If this were so it would increase 
the probabilities that the Cruthenian kingdom of Fiach Araidhe, slain by Cormac, and 
the infant colony of Fortren or Pictish Albany, were not reputed nationally distinct. 
One of the paradoxes once accredited was, that the Cruithne or Cruthnich, de- 
scendants' 1 of Hir the Milesian through Fiach Araidhe, King of Ulster in A. D. 240", 
were at no time, in fact, any Cruithne at all ; but were so called because the said 
Fiach was remotely descended from Loncada, wife of Conall Kearnach circa B. C. 12, 
and daughter to one Eochaid Eaehbheoil a Pict of North Britain or of Man. 
Ogygin, iii. pp. 190, 278-279. It may be remarked that those Dalaradians, or men 
of Araidhe, who were not Cruthenians (see Tertia Vita Patricii, cap. 58 ; C. O'Conor 
in Tighern. p. 96; Lanigan, Eccl. Hist. vol. i. p. 218), should seem equally connected 
through Fiach with this Eochaid. But if the historian of the Ogygia could believe that 

* That is, ijvoud their princes or chieftains. 

" So O'Flaherty. Tighernach places his death in 236. 


a nation could be called Men of Colour, or Men /if Figures and Devices (Picts) during 
a matter of 600 years, for no other reason than because the chieftain, said to have 
founded their community, traced his origin, and that at an interval of two centuries 
and a half, from the daughter of a Pictish subject, he must have been a logician 
callous to the non causa pro causa. Were the founders of the Connaught Cruthe- 
nians f , and of divers others, also descended in the eighth generation from a Pictish 
lady ? This is but a sample of that bulk of lies with which Fintan and other bards 
of the sixth century fed the awakened curiosity, rising pride, and unbounded credulity 
of their countrymen. It is so far germane to the legend of Heremon and the Cruth- 
nich, that it dissembles the condition of the ancient Irish, and assumes that people 
not to have themselves been painted, neither all nor some. But such is neither the 
reason, nor is it the fact of the case. 

Ireland was peopled mainly, if it was not exclusively, from Britain, in the times 
before history. But the woad-staining was general in Britannia; throughout all 
Britain (omnes Britanni) in Caesar's time, and throughout all free Britain in Severus's 
time. Therefore it is apparent, that Ireland should have been colonized and possessed 
by tribes delighting in such adornment. So that Dr. Lanigan, when he said " how 
any of those Crutheni or Picts came to be settled in Ireland is not easy to discover," 
should rather have set himself to discover how any others but Crutheni could have 
come thither. Ancient writers neither say that the Irish were painted, nor that they 
were not; until we come to the days of Valentiniun the First, or rather of Julian, 
where the mention of Scoti et Picti may be thought by some to insinuate that the 
former were not so. But Julius Agricola did report thus much of the Hiberni, that 
" ingenia ndtusque hominum non multuin a Brittanuia differunt." Tacit. Agric. cap. 
xxiv. And the usage in question was so far the most conspicuous cidtus, of any that 
the Britons used, as to make these oblique words little different from direct averment. 
But when the dry tale of Ireland's colonization in British coracles was replaced by the 
romantic and manifold impostures of Fintan the immortal, and all that school, its in- 
separable adjuncts of course perished with it. 

Though we must infer the existence of this practice, the chronology of its gradual 
disuse is lost; as indeed are nearly all such real facts, ill compensated with tales of 
Ogygian date and Herculean audacity. Various causes of desuetude may easily be 
imagined: I. The example of such desuetude, and of civility, offered by all Britain 


' It should be remembered that the pretended real beginnings assignable to the Gaedhil Picts in 
Lonncada, that woad-stained Helen of rape and Alban, viz., circiter A. D. 208, and yet longer 
war, flourished some two centuries before the before those of the Manks Cruithne, viz., 2L4. 


south of the walls. II. That knowledge of other nations and manners, in which the 
Irish of the piratical age must have exceeded their stationary progenitors. III. The 
gradual change wrought by the proximity of a fresh moral power, working a doubt 
or disregard of old things before the adoption of the new ones; as we see Brahminism 
shaken, though not abolished, and its suttees dying away. In these ways, or in some 
of them, it came about that the Niallian marauders were distinct in appearance from 
the Ducalidon Cymmry, and Vccturion G \vyddyl; while the self-same cause (viz. the 
desuetude elsewhere) which dubbed the Caledonians Picti, had dubbed those Dalara- 
dians and some other tribes Crutheni. The conquest of Ulster by Cormac O'Cuin, son 
of Art, may be regarded as an epoeh in the decline of that custom, as his reign forms 
an epoch in the general civilization of his country. 

Irish history and mythology, when analyzed, are not really in any other story. 
Ireland peopled Fortren with Cruthenians. East Ulster was always in part occupied 
by them ; " the Cruthenians in Uladli and Moy-Cobha." Ancient Topogr. from 
Hooks of Glendalough and Lecan, by C. O'Conor, Sen., in Coll. llib. iii. 672. And 
there were others, less known, in the parts of Connaught near Boyle. " Conaght, first 

called Olnemacht the Cruthenians, or painted men, in Moy-Hai, extending 

from Loch Ke to Bruiol, and to the Shannon." Ibid. The royal province of Meath 
also contained a real toparehy of Crutheni, for it is said in Tigh. A.D. 666, " Eochaidli 
larllaith ri Cruithne Midhi inortuus est." Again, other Crutheni held a portion of 
the diocese of Derry, where the district of Dun-Cruthninia, since called Ardmagilligan, 
and St. Beoadh's ancient episcopal church of Dun-Cruthen, or Dnn-Crnithne, nowDun- 
crnn, weresituate. See Vita Septima Palrieii in Trias Thanm. \>. 146; U'Donell, Vita 
Colum. i.e. 99; and Colgait in eund. pp. 451, 494: Marty ml. Dungall. cit. ibid. ; 
S. Beatus in A. 8S. llib. viii. Mart. p. 562. Which makes several 8 recorded 1'ictlands 
in Erin, besides any others of which the record may have perished, and independently 
of the mythus of the Tcmorian Picts. 

That mythus is of a large import. It professedly belongs to the tirst origins of 
the existing Irish people. It shews you the Ciuthnieli powerful in Erin in Ilerimon's 
own days, winning his battles, and preserving him from his enemies; and afterwards 
made to evacuate Ireland under an agreement, in order that they might not obtain 
the, sovereignty of the island, ' that they might not make battle for Teamhair." 
Yet their six chiefs' 1 , under Drostan or Trosdan the Druid, remained, and received 


B Any of which, perhaps the last-mentioned, Tulach Dubhplas in Tirconnell. 
may have given birth to Churitamis, surnamecl '' So Keating, from Psalter of Cashel. This 

Cnithnechanus, who baptized St. Columba at work says, " six of them remained." See p. 125. 


grants of land in. the Campus Bregensis', Moigli Breagha, or Brcag-mhuigh, whereon 
Tara was situated. Strange, that they were banished lest they should possess the 
Hill of Tara, and yet were left in possession of the Plain of Tara. It appears through 
clouds of fable, that Tara was once their's, 'femora or Teamhair Breagh a seat of 
painted Druids, and Erin a kingdom of Piets. Make battle for Tara! Why, the 
Breagh was their own, and Teamhair was the work of their hands; for they taught to 
construct the " fair and well- walled house." Pharmacy and surgery, navigation and 
agriculture, were from them. But for them there was neither idolatry, necromancy, 
nor divination ; and Druidism, it is said, was of the Picti. But for them, no composition 
of " bright poems;" and bardism was of the Picti. See p. 144. By another tale the -Mur 
Ollamhan of Tara, and all its arts and sciences, were ascribed to Achy Mac Fiach, 
styled the Ollave of Ireland, or Ollamh Fodla. And this king, and his six sons and 
grandsons, were called the " seven Cruithnech kings that ruled over Erin." See the 
entry in Tigh. A. D. 172. The original Cruthenians of Temora were the authors of 
every art whereof Milesian Erin could boast the rudiments. We read that the first roval 
adultery in Ireland was committed by Tea (daughter of Lughaidh, and wife of Here- 
mon) from whom the name Temora is mythically derived, with Gede Olguthach the 
Pict. Amcrgin on Tara, eit. Petrie on Tara, p. 130. Thus far the Milesians and Cru- 
thenians are kept distinct. But Ileremon and Gede, husbands of one wife, were also 
fathers of the same three children; whence Mr. Petrie infers their identity Ibid, 
p. 153. Now this Gede Olguthach is the second king of Picts, Cruthue's successor, 
in the Nomina Reg. Pict., Innes, ii. 798; and also k in the Pictish Chronicle. Therefore 
Ileremon seems to identify himself with the second king of Cruthen-tuath ; and, 
Cruthne's name being taken as merely typical, like Britain, first king of Britain, 
Francis of France, Dan of Denmark, &c., then with the first. These mythical equi- 
valents resolve themselves into natural equivalents, for whatever represents original 
Ireland must (if but a corner of the bardic veil be lifted) disclose to us painted Ire- 
land. The exposure of the Crutheniau my tin may be completed, by adding that the 


' Breagha, son of Breogan, from Brigantium Teamliair Ureag whence is it, tell O ye learned 

or Betanzos in Spain (Tor Breogan of Keating, wJ^diTifseparate from (/,,/!,,>/,.'- 

and Bregatea of Cuan O'Lochain), gave his name Sec Petrie 's Tara, p. 131. 

to the Moigh Breagha, where Temora stood, k For, although there he seems to stand ninth, 

upon Tara Hill. This is of a piece with all the intervening seven are the seven brothers from 
the rest. That it was the name of Temora's whom the seven provinces were called ; who could 
original possessors is implied in the question neither in nature all succeed each other, nor could 
which the bard Fintan asks, but omits to an- any of them bv Pictish law succeed Cruthne, 
swer, being his sons. 


Ollatnh Fodla and his race were styled the Cruithnech kings, because he was son to 
that same Lonncada, daughter of Achy Eachbheoil, who also stands godmother to the 
Dalarudians, five, if not seven, centuries later! And, that Gede Ollguthach, the father 
of Ilercmon's children, was the third son of the Ollamh, who lived ages after Heremon ! 
Tuathal, in A. D. 130, is feigned to have been son to Ethnc, daughter oflmgheal, king 
of Picts, to have been educated in Pictland, and to have recovered his crown by aid 

of Pictish arms Ogyg. iii. cap. Ixvi. ; Keating, p. 213; Cambrensis Eversus, pp. 67, 

68. Though some pretended that Temora was a seat of monarchy 1200, if not 1500 
years before him, he was the earliest founder of Temora 1 within the purlieus of his- 
tory ; and I suspect he was once known as the builder thereof. It gives colour to that 
suspicion that, in the proverbial names" 1 of Erin, in respect of her principal kings, she 
was called the Teach (House) of Tuathal. With deference to Tigernach and others, 
I would prefer to say that historical tradition has its dawn in Tuathal, A. D. 130, 
than in Cimbaoth, 15. C. 305. The long previous anarchy of the Plebeians or Kustics, 
Aiteachtuatha, after which the restored Tuathal is said to have consolidated the Pen- 
tarchal Monarchy, may be no other than that savage disunion out of which the first 
king of Temora (a llarald Hilrfagr to Erin) called the Gaelic tribes; a restoration put 
mythically for a foundation, in order to support the superstructure of fabulous chrono- 
lonry. Whatever he was, he was of Cruthnechan blood and education. In the Book of 


Lecan, fol. 14, imperfectly cited by Vallancey, Coll. iv. 2. p. 2, after stating how Fintan 
of portentous longevity had preserved the Irish history, it is added, that Tuan of Ulster 
" preserved it till Patrick's time, and Columeille, and C'omgall, and Finnen, when it 
was written on their knees, and on their thighs, and on the palms of their hands; and it 
continues in the hands of sages, of doctors, and historians, and it is on the altars of 
saints and righteous men from that time down." This curious statement exhibits the 
transition of the stigmatical painting from barbarous adornment toother uses", before 


1 It was a question, as early as the sixtli cen- not works: as fonn, land; i//i, land; criVje//, 

turv, when and where Teauihair or Teiimhuir ob- country ; t7ir//i, Held. Clar Chormaic, the table 

tained its name. of Cormac, may allude to the introduction of do- 

When was Teamhair [called] Teanihair ? niestic and sedentary arts ; while the Cro of Con 

Is It with ParthoUn of battles? Or," &c. &c. is of iin am ], ii;uolis si S niH.-ati,m. O'Flahertv, 

It was agreed among the ollaves, that the name Ogygia, part i. p. 11); Hugh O'Donnell, cit. 

was Milesian or Scot (for other appellations were ibid. 

provided for the ages of the Tuatha De Danann " To which the Oghams might be conveniently 

and their predecessors), and so the fable of He- applied. Etruscan figures with inscriptions writ- 

remon and Tea was delivered to the world. ten upon the thighs may be seen in Montfau- 

"' The others mostly express natural objects, con, iii. part I, p. 72, part 2, p. 2[>8. 


its final abandonment, and in the persons of the early Christians; and, even it' incor- 
rect as to date and persons, it cannot have proceeded from an author who doubted the 
existence of acupuncture among the ancient Irish. 

There may be another, though an oblique, way of tracing this British costume in the 
colony of Erin. A continual recurrence of surnames of colour, either unnatural, mor- 
bid, and disgusting, like glas, liath, uaine, laib, buid/ie, or strange and grotesque ones, may 
be accounted for in tribes that had originally been coloured unnaturally, and prided 
themselves therein ; while rarely used by others. But such a solution is almost necessary 
to account for such squalid epithets, when applied to the greatprimitive heroes, and even 
the actual founders, of the nations, creatures of a proud fiction, and names not individual, 
but typical. What origins ever boasted of an yEneas Lividus, or Romulus Discolor, 
Cadrnus the Dingy, or Inaehus the Speckled ? But the Gaidheal derive themselves from 
Gaodhal or Gaidheal, son of Nial and Scota. He was constantly called Gaidheal Glas 
because his flesh was spotted of that colour (greenish, or blueish, or livid) by a ser- 
pent's sting. Keating, p. 67. See Malmura of Fahan, in App. ; Gilda Coemhain, &(.-. 
Here, besides the vile epithet, is the very substance of the fact in an altered form, the 
natural man turned to woad-colour by puncture . Compare the man Gaidheal Glux, 
with the man Gaidheal Ficht in the Cairnech Legend, p. 187. The captain of the Xeme- 
dians, of whom came the Firbolg, was Simon Breac, Maculis Distinctus, or, as some have 
it. Simon Varius. Britan, the founder of Britain, derives his name (and rightly, 1 hmi- 
gine p ) from brit, diversicolor; and he was son to Feargus Leathdearg, Half-red, son of 
Nemedius, in whom the redness of half his body may have been its natural floridity, 
as we have observed in the Alban Scots, or Gwyddyl Coch. So, again, taking the red 
colour for the natural, we may form an idea of king Lugadh Kiabhdearg, or Red-streak, 
who was marked with red circles round his body. A Danannian hero, son to the Great 
Daghda himself, was Fraoch Uaine. A primitive Scoto- Scythian chief, Ileber Glun- 
finn, or White-knee, was celebrated as grandfather to Faobhar Glas. Ogygia, ii. p. 67. 
See Keating, p. 132. Some causes had introduced into Irish use the strange name 


" That a Druid, officiating mystically, was a vv. 18, 49, confirmed by various considerations, 

serpent, appears clearly enough in Cajsar's ac- And, since desuetude elsewhere was the cause of 

count of the ovum annulment. such appellations, that name, Britain or Bri- 

' That the bards had in their Anant, or old than, should have originated subsequently tu 

ritual songs, the name Brithan, Britannia (distinct the cessation of nudity among the (Junls, ex- 

t'rom the fictitious name Prydyn or Prydain, i.e. eepting 'probably) the Lemoniun G;mls mllc-d 

Pulcheria), and derived it from lirith, painted, I Pietones. 
infer from the Gwawdd Lludd y Mawr, v. 20, and 


Dubhdiileth, Both-halves-black. In days anterior to armour", I have no notion what a 
white knee is, except in contrast to a coloured one ; nor can I conceive, otherwise, of 
a man with one half dark, which condition the contrary name Dubhdaleth implies. 
Jocelyn of Furness tells us of two places in the Cruthenian Ardes of Ulster, to both 
of which belongs the very strange name of Dundalethglas, namely, Downpatrick, well 
known by that name, and another hill-fort in a marsh not far distant Vita Patric. 
c. 38. He interprets the name, two halves of a glus, i. e. a fetter, from the broken bonds 
of some prisoners, whom an angel set free, and conveyed to these two Duns. But, com- 
paring it with analogous names of colour, and especially with Leathdearg, and Dubh- 
daleth, I rather interpret Dun Dalethglas, Fort of the Entirely Painted, the Dubhda- 
leths, the Crutheni of Dalaradia; thus making its sense equivalent in effect to that of 
the Dun-Cniitlme in Derry. Besides those analogies, its occurring twice in ancient 
C'ruthenia favours the descriptive sense, rather than any historic allusion. The first 
man, say the verses ascribed to Fintan himself, who cleared Tara Hill of wood, was 
Liath, Glaucus or Pallidns, sou of Laigin Leathan-glas. The meaning of the sur- 
name, Broad-stain r , probably denotes belts of colour like those of king Kiabhdearg, but 
broad ones. It is easy but unnecessary to multiply examples. The dingy colours ex- 
pressed in those various terms of glus, dubh, vaine, Ac., were the various tints imparted 
by the woad; the cocruleus color of C'a'sar, the Ethiopian tint of Pliny, and the 
virides Britanni of Ovid. The tinted knee will be best appreciated from the above- 
cited statement in the Book of Lecan, that the Irish, both in and after St. Patrick's 
days, had records of facts "written on their knees." The prevailing idea of such 
names as I have cited is as old as any memorial we have of the Piets. For of those 
Caledonians who fought against Severns, entirely naked, and tattooed with figures of 
animals, &c., the only chieftain whose name has come down to us is Argento-Coxus 
or Silver-hip; evidently so called L.y the liomans, because he affected to leave his 
hips unstained. Dion Cassias, lib. Ixxvi. p. 1285. And the comparison of some ana- 
logous names among the hero-deities of the Britisli bards, will add to their force. 

Some observations are due to the tradition, that the Pictish rule of succession to 


' The moilern armorial surnames, Glunduibh land or Scottish Gaelic, gla* is also a substan- 

or Genuniger, Gluniarn or Geimt'erreus, ( ilun- tive, a green or blue surface), and I know not 

tradhna or Genucorvi, &c., are quite beside the if any objection thus arises. M r here intensity, 

question Vide O'Conor, in Quat. Mag. A. D. not extent, of colour is to be measured, there 

978. does not ; as in dubltglas and Hathglas. Changing 

' Leathan and glas seem to be both adjectives broad into long, the Welsh Hirlas exactly cor- 

in the Irish dialect of Gaelic, (though, in High- responds. 


the crown arose out of a treaty of marriage with ladies of the blood royal of Erin. - 
Beda, i. cap. 1., and the Irish documents. See also Polydore Virgil. That rule was, 
that in all cases of doubt they should choose a king in the female line of descent, not 
in the male. It seems to have been acted upon from the beginning till" 783, in the 
latter years of the kingdom, to such an extent that no son stands recorded to have 
succeeded his father, either immediately, or with intermediates. The sixty-ninth cata- 
logued king, and the twenty-first Christian, was son to his fifth predecessor. But the 
tradition of such a treaty is not to be received without much hesitation. 

The line male can only be legal, where nuptia? patrem denionstrant, and can only 
be real where marriages are held sacred. In Caesar's time a British woman had some- 
times ten or a dozen husbands (as she called them), usually men of the same family ; 
and he who had known her as a virgin was accounted father of all her offspring. 
Pe Bello Gall. i. cap. 14. Strabo had collected from report that it was no better in 
Ireland, or rather that there was no rule at all. iv. p. 282. St. Jerome, who had 
resided in Gaul, and had a slight knowledge of what he said, affirms it without limita- 
tion: " Scotoruin natio uxores proprias non habct . . . Xulla apud eos conjux prupria 
est, sed ut cui<[ue libitum fucrit pecudum more lasciviunt." Adv. Jovin. lib. ii. 
torn. ii. p. 335. Verona, 1735. He repeats the same thing, with inclusion of those 
Britons who were called Atticotti. " Scotorum et Atticottorum ritu, ac de liepublicfi 
Platonis, promiscuas uxores, communes liberos, habent." Epist. 69, <id Oi'i'u/nnii, 
toni. i. ]). 413. These reports may be understood as limiting marriage to a possessory 
right, loosely observed and frequently dissolved. But nations, of which even rhe- 
toric could draw such pictures, must have been incapable of transmitting paternal 
inheritances, and must have lived under a pure tanistry, until the improvement of 
manners began to furnish stronger presumptions of parentage. The positive allegations 
of sonship, contained in the dynasties of the Antiquaries and Bards, may In: lan- 
guage 1 of Christian adaptation, even after the names have ceased to be shc.vr in- 
ventions. The mother is the wet nurse ; any other economy belongs to art and 
refinement; and the vehement attachment of the Celtic tribes to their foster-brothers 

* Mr. Pinkerton says till 633, but it cloes not Dairine was ileail, and that nothing could console 

s<> appear from the lists. liim but marriage with Fither, whom Tnathal b- 

'Of such adaptation there seems a flagrant stowed upon him. When this fraud was detected, 

instance in the two daughters of Tuathal Teacht- Dairine died of vexation at his misconduct, and 

mar. The king of Leinster married Dairine, Fither of shame at the error into which she had 

andafterwards became desirous of the other sister, been deceived. Rare sentimentality and tender 

Fither. So he went to Temora and said that nerves for A. I). 1 .')('- hid. 


was, in its oriyin, simply fraternal affection. The foster-brother was the only brother, 
and the common breast the only sure tie between them. In the Mabinogion we 
remark the paucity" of allusions to marriage, considered in any other view than as 
the fact of occupancy. The Triads of Arthur are very peculiar on this head ; for 
Triad 109 gives " the three wives of Arthur, who were his thi-ee chief ladies," and no 
proceeds to give his three chief concubines ; so that the authors" of those Triads saw 
reason to explain, and explain away, what a wife meant. See also the preface to 
Davydd ap Gwilym, p. 16. But the most singular passage is that of Solinus on the 
Hebrides. " As you go from the foreland of Calidonia (the Mull of Galloway) towards 
Thyle, in two days' sail you reach the islands of llebudes, five in number, of which 
the inhabitants are unacquainted with grain, and subsist on fish and milk. They all 
have but one king, for they are divided by narrow waters from each other. The king 
has nothing of his own, all things belong to all. Fixed laws compel him to equity ; 
and, lest avarice should pervert him from truth, he learns justice from poverty, as 
having no private possessions. But he is maintained at the public expense. No wife 
is given to him for his own; but he takes for his use, by turns, whatsoever women 
he is inclined to, by which means lie Li debarred from the wish and hope of having sons." 
Solinus, cap. 22. This account is most important, as a description, not of barbarism 
merely, but of its polity. To prevent the evils of a disputed male succession, one 
purely and necessarily female was provided. The polity therefrom resulting was 
precisely the Pictish; there no son could stand in his father's place; and in Pictlaud 
(nearly to the last) no son ever did. Of the llebudes, spoken of here as ftce, as well 
a by Ptolemy, Marcianus, and Stephnnus in 'Ai^orinc, viz. Ebuda i., Ebuda ii., lihi- 
eina, Maleos, and Epidium, the last two are undoubtedly Mull and Hay. But Hay, 
by Irish tradition, was the first seat of the Piets when they left Erin, and the cradle 
of the kings of Fortran Mor. No man can affirm from internal documents how far the 
Irish of A. 1). 208 were proficients in the art of matrimony, and their external repu- 
tation for it was very low. If the ancient laws ascribed to Con and Cormac were satis- 
factory on these points, it would remain to shew them authentic and uninterpolated. 
lint the contrary may be interred from the entire silence of Lynch, when he boasts 
of those legislators, in pp. 157-8, and from his slight and general answer to Giraldus, 

iii. 19. 

" As the beautiful eclitiun of tlii-m is from a and greatest series lias " wives ;" but the well- 

ladv's hands, occasional reference to the original known name of (jwenhwyvar or Guenever, as- 

text is to be recommended. cril.ed to all three of them, supplies the want 

1 The first series, Tr. 59, merely savs, " the of the word wife ; besides which the next triad, 

three chief ladies of Arthur," where the third as in series 3, gives the three concubines. 


iii. 19, as touching Pagan times, in p. 155 of the C. E versus. The ill-fated Gynseceum 
of Cormac M'Art was, probably, connected with some desire on the part of that able 
man, to ennoble and purify the female character. Anecdote speaks truer than 
general declamation ; therefore let us hear the wife of Argentocoxus, or Silver-hip, 
the Pict. The empress Julia Domna reproached her, that they (the Caledonian 
women), after marriage, cohabited promiscuously with men. But she replied : " We 
satisfy the wants of nature much better than you Romans. For we openly cohabit 
with the bravest of men, and you commit secret adultery with the vilest." While we 
subscribe to her estimate of the merits of the case, we cannot doubt the facts of it. 
Whosoever would too sanguinely argue from ancient tales of marriages, wives, and 
queens, from Banba and Scota downwards, should bear in mind that Silver-hip had a 
sort of wife. We know that he had a lady so called ; but we also know what sort of wife 
she was, not by her personal fault, but by avowed usage of her nation; and how far, 
or whether at all, her nuptials demonstrated the father. The same Dion who related 
this had lately said of the Maaatoe and Caledonii collectively, ywnt^iv i-a-iKoivotg xpwfitvot. 
When the increasing civility of dress and manners had fixed upon the adherents to old 
fashions of nudity the title of Cruthneans, the latter, no doubt, continued also more 
barbarous in sexual and social rules. Their removal also was into islands where 
those rites which ascertain father and son were systematically excluded from the 
court. There is, therefore, no such mystery in the Pictish prosapia focrninea, or 
uterine tanistry, as should lead us to take up with that bardic romance of the 
Cruthnich husbands, bound by a solemn treaty to the unpetticoated government 
of their Milesian wives. Christian or semi-Christian bardism put on dissimulation 
in dealing with the dark annals of the past ; and as it coined fables to dissemble 
the paintedness of previous generations, so did it others to keep out of sight their 
yapov ayajuor. 

The colour of the Britons, Picts, and Crutheni is not uniformly stated. Cfesar 
terms it ccerulean; Ovid speaks ofthevirides Britanni (Amoresii. 16, 39); and Pliny 
says they imitated the colour of Ethiopians, xxii. cap. i. But they used the herb 
isatis or glastum, called woad, which by preparation will yield blue, green, and black. 
The use of more than one tint appears grammatically as well as historically. For 
glastum in Latin, glas-lys in British, is woad. But glas, in British and in Gaelic, 
means indifferently blue and green. It is surprising that even the simplest of men 
should have called the firmament on high and the grass under foot by one name of 
colour. But in truth the phrase is from the dyer's shop, and not from nature, 
meaning glasticolor, woad-coloured. Of that there is confirmation, in the Gaelic 

IRISH ARCH. SOC. 10 h words 


words" gorm, guirm, guirme, guirmead, meaning alike blue and green, blueness and 
greenness, to stain blue and green, and guirmean, goirmin, the herb wood. Whereas the 
words not having such double sense, lla,?ar, blue, nevltiw, sky-blue, gwyrdd, ir, uaithne, 
green (as well as the determining compounds, like ir-las, green, liath-gorm, azure), 
do not signify that herb. All names for woad seem to be indifferent as to the 
two colours, and all words thus indifferent to be names of woad. Therefore tradition 
and etymology combine to recommend the opinion, that Celtic tribes diversified their 
skins with several tints and colours, as in Christian times they have distinguished 
themselves by the colour of their plaids. 

In those districts to which the Roman laws against Druidism did not extend, and 
where the practice had not, as in most parts of Ireland, come to a natural end, Chris- 
tianity was, no doubt, its destroying power. Besides any connexion it may have had 
with Pagan creeds, its very nature and object implied the nudity of the greater part 
of the body, which the Christian decorum has always condemned. But it is probable 
that the formal conversions by Ninia, Ptilladius, Columkille, &e., may have found the 
custom fast dying away under the approaches of the dawning light. Pictland, I have 
studied to shew, had recently ceased to be governed by a dynasty of Bruides, when 
Columkille went thither. Yet the memory of that ancient usage, nay, in some sort, 
the usage itself,- was superstitious!}' cherished by those who regretted and secretly 
retained Uruidism. It was so in Roman Britain at that very time ; and among the 
Northern Picts and their neighbours still later. Beli Mawr, to whom every thing 
British was referred, was son of Manogan, i. e. the Spotted-man, a name formed upon 
manog, in modern spelling mitnuicg, spotted or party-coloured. They were joint 
patrons or tutelaries of the island: " Skilfully will I praise thee, victorious Beli! and 
King Manogan I thou shalt uphold the privileges of Bell's isle of honey." Marwnad 
Uthyr, p. 73. The same root, manaw, macula, yields the name of another titulary 
hero-god, Manawyd, synonymous with that of Manogan ; he was a perpetual guardian 
of the Cauldron of Britain Me'di. Lli/r. v. 48. 

The poem called the Praise of Lludd contains that famous and obscure canticle of 
the Britons, said to be quoted o'r anant, "out of the hymns," invoking one Brith or 
Diversicolor, " Brith i Brithan 1 hail" &c., and describing the sacrifice of a cow that is 
vraith (feminine ofbrith) or party-coloured. pp. 74, 75. Elsewhere it is said: " They 


It should be mentioned, however, that gorm to signify, Brite (sive Picte) in Britanniam (sive 
is also used for red. Pictorum-terram) festinato. 

y Brith i Brithan hai These words seem 


(the multitude) do not know the ych brych, spotted or variegated ox, with the massive 
head-band." p. 45. The bard Avaon says, 

" I have been a cat with a spotted 1 head on the triple tree, 
Bum oath ben-vrith ar driphren." p. 44 

And Meigant says of his order, the bards, " let the spotted-headed'' host from the cow- 
pen of Cadvan be invited on the day of ample allowance, byddin pen-vrith o 

vuarth Cadvan." p. 161. In the sorceries of Tintagel tower, when Pendragon put on 
the similitude of Gorlais, his accomplice, Merlin Ambrose, took the form of Brith- 

vael; that is to say, useful or effectual by variegation, picturipotens Brut. G. ap. 

Arthur, p. 292. Geoffrey seems to have read brych instead of its equivalent brith, 
" Merlinus in Bricelem." viii. 19. Avan Red-Spear, the favourite bard of the 
redoubted king Cadwallou ap Cadvan, praises him in this peculiar phrase : 

Mad ganed, mab britb, cythmor radlawn, 

Well-born is he, son of the painted one, gracious sea-divider. 

Axle of our privilege, he went [against] the leagued valour of the unjust. 

Silent were the crowd of kings before the harmonious ones. 

Verdure vegetated when the man was born a blessing 

To Cymmry, when Christ created Cadwallawn p. 180; vide Evans Spec. p. 49. 

Though mab brith might signify pictus, not Jilius picti, as mab sant is sanctus, notJUius 
sancti, the words mad ganed imply the latter sense. A certain Brith or Manogan seems 
to have been honoured as a person typical of Celtic antiquity; which idea would 
make it " son of Brith." This superstition fell under ecclesiastical censure in the 
canons of the Synod of Calcuth, in A. D. 785. Those canons were decreed in Nor- 
thumberland, with the sanction and signature of Aclfward king of Trans-IIumbria, 
his bishops, and abbots; and were adopted and decreed in like manner by the clergy 
of King Offa, at Calcuth in Mercia. But the following canon evidently originated 
in the kingdom of Northumberland, which bordered upon that of the Picts, with 
some intermixture of population. " The Pagans, by inspiration of the devil, intro- 
duced most unseemly scars, agreeably to what Prudentius says in his Enchiridion, 

' Tinxit et innocuum maculis sordentibus Adam.' 

Verily, if any one for God's sake were to undergo this blemish of staining, he would 
therefore receive great reward ; but whoever does it from the superstition of the Gen- 

'If these allusions are to painting upon the surname of Maol, Bald, given to Britan, son of 
shaven crown of the head, they may explain the Fergus Redside, and founder of Britain. 



tiles, it does not avail him to salvation." Concil. Cludcutense, ap. Wilkins, i. p. 150. 
This is a full mild censure, which may, perhaps, imply that the offenders were neither 
few nor unpopular. Rhydderch Hael, prince of Strathclyde, the opponent of bardism, 
and more especially of Gwenddoleu the Caledonian and Merddin, invited St. Kentigern 
or Mungo to Glasgu to restore the Christian religion, which was almost destroyed 
(pene deleta) in those parts. Kentigern assembled the people, and said: " Whoever 
begrudge men their salvation, and oppose God's word, by virtue of God's word I warn 
them to depart, that they may offer no impediment to believers. Quo dicto ingens 
larvatorum multitude statura et visu horribilis a coetu illo exiens omnibus videntibus 
aufugit." Jocelyn, Vita Kentig. cap. 32; Pink, Vita; Sanctorum Scotice. Though 
this is so retailed by Jocelyn, as to give the idea of demons, not men, yet the very 
word larvati, in its ancient sense of haunted, larvis exterriti, is contrary to that idea ; 
and in its mediaeval sense of larva indutus, wearing a hideous mask, it gives what I 
conceive the truth of this affair, that the Du-Calidons, and other " brithwyr ddu," 
such as Merddin ap Morvryn and his disciples, removed from the congregation those 
ugly masks which they had substituted for human faces. But the most signal evi- 
dence of the systematic character of that superstition, which the Trans- Humbrian 
prelates pronounced " unavailing to salvation," is furnished by an ancient bard, who 
thus describes the three llu, i. e. troops or courses, into which his order, or certain 
functionaries connected with it, distributed themselves : 

[By the] customs of the kingdom Teyrnas arvereu 

The three troops shall be conducted Dygettawr y trillu 

Before the potent visage of Jesus , Rhag drech drem lesu ; 

The troop pure and innocent, Llu gwirin gwirion 

Of the appearance of angels; Eiliw engylion; 

A nother troop of men variegated Llu, arall brithion 

After the fashion of natives* ; Eiliw brodorion; 

The third troop, [of men] unbaptized, Tridedd llu divedydd, 

.Stubborn co-operators in death, Syth llaith cy weithydcl, 

Drive the gluttons into the lot of Devils, Hwyliant y glythwyr yn parthred- 


United among the good ones, Yn un yn daon 

[Though] with the appearance of the un- Gan dull anghyviawn p. 1 84. 



1 i. e. Aborigines. 


The two last lines relate (in my conjecture) to the third llu, and not to their victims, the 
glythwyr; though it is a matter of inference 1 ", not of syntax. 

Now the question arises, were these persons whom the bards applaud, and the 
synod censures, aculeis ferreis cum atramento, &c., annotati? I cannot quite think 
it; but prefer the supposition, that they were, upon occasions, simply painted in a 
superficial and removable manner ; and not stigmatised, as the Du-Calidonian Britons 
were before St. Ninia, and the Gwyddyl Fichti before St. Columba; without prejudice, 
however, to their having certain marks partially, and secretly perhaps, imprinted on 
the body, both for superstition, and as the sign of initiation, and of being a " mab 

This entire topic was deprived of much of its chances of elucidation by the 
destruction of Irish Ulster in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries; for that king- 
dom was both the favourite seat of ancient bardism, and the principal residence of the 
Crutheni or Picts of Erin. But, even as it is, these pages would have contained more 
illustration had they been written ten years hence. 

Postscript. My attention has been directed to a work manifesting much acquain- 
tance with the history of the clans, entitled, " The Highlanders of Scotland," &c., by 
W. F. Skene, F. S. A. Scot., Edinb. 1837. Its coincidence with several of the main argu- 
ments and conclusions above offered obliges me to disclaim the suspicion of having 
purloined any of them from those pages, the existence of which has only now been 
made known to me, many months after the whole of my notes have been at Dublin. 
I specially allude to the doctrine, that the kingdom of Picts, to which the Pictish 
Chronicle relates, was Gaelic, and that its inhabitants were those people whom we call 
Highlanders. It was entirely unknown to me that such an opinion had ever appeared 
in print. That the Gael Picts were the whole body of the Albaunaich, those excepted 
who dwelt west of Drumalban, was a conclusion that implied the falsehood of the clan 
pedigrees, exhibited since the fable of the Pictish extirpation became prevalent. But 


b In the twelfth century Cynddelw inverted this ancient order of the three troops, and arranged 
it 2, 3, 1 ; the inference is supported by his words : 

" Three clamours resort to the one cauldron, Rygyrchant unpcir teir trydar, 

The concourse of tribes, and my preparation ; Cynnadledd cenedlcodd, a'm par ; 

The troop of variegated pugnacious natives ; Llu brithion brodarimi brn-yrlyrgar ; 

Secondly, the troop of wrath, blackish, and roaring Eil gwythlu gorddu gorddyar ; 

aloud ; 

Thirdly, the cheerful troop, soothing down opposi- Trydydd llu nyw, lludd cyvarwar, 


The troop of blessed ones, whom the beautiful loveth. Llu gwynion, gwynoydig a gar." 

Canu i Dditw. p. 24i*. 
c Isidorus Hispalensis. 


it was out of my power to work out that portion of the subject; and I am glad to see 
it is there so effectually done. 

But there are also points which I am unable to concede. In this work is a third 
attempt to unite the Vecturions and Caledons, making them all Gaels, whom Innes 
made all Britons, and Pinkerton all Teutons, and I do not see that it is well sup- 
ported by fact or reasons. Having no space for stating and refuting the arguments 
upon them, I must go straight to the points. It is not fact, that Ptolemy mentions 
fourteen tribes of Caledonians, or any tribes of them at all; but the thirteen other 
names are by him clearly distinguished from the Caledonians. This is writing Ptolemy, 
not quoting him. I do not believe the list of Bruides consisted originally but of 28. 
Copies agree in stating they were thirty; and it is as likely, at least, for two names 
to be lost, as that miscalculation committed. The number 150 was a multiple of 30, 
not of 28, allotting five years to each king. Nor, if they were 28, could we reduce that 
number to 14, by retaining the Bruides and rejecting the Ur- Bruides. For nothing 
can be surer than that the Ur-Bruides meant something, and what they did mean I 
have already offered a surmise, above, p. xlvi. n. The purpose for which these four- 
teen Bruides are sought, requires them to be all living and reigning at the same 
time. Consequently we are told, vol. i. p. 251, that " Bruide is here stated to have 
thirty sons." Let us hear the statement : ' Brude Bout (a quo xxx. Brude regnaverunt 
per centum quinquaquinta annorum spncmm) xlviii. annis regnavit." A series of 
kings, succeeding B. Bout during 150 years, are converted into a family of brothers. 
Lastly, I am far from persuaded, that the Situs Albania- did by its " septem reges . . 
septem regulos sub se habentes," mean to express fourteen persons, not fifty-six persons. 
The latter scheme would extend the type of the Pictish constitution from the king- 
dom of the Ardrigh to each Muormor kingdom. We know that type existed in the 
Cruithne of Ualn'araidhe. Cenliu-lad, cit. Tigh. in A. 1). 563. 

The idea of a subsisting bifarious division of Pictland in the eighth century, 
Cruithne being the northern and Piccardach the southern, seems to me an illusion 
built on verbal trifles. The form Piccardach exhibits the only Irish name, founded 
on Pictus, that Tighernach employs. It is a general term, or used, if with any 
antithesis, in contrast to those of Ireland. Its combination with ard or ardach 
seems to imply Picts of the mountains; in which case, it is with infelicity restricted 
to the lowlands. Mr. Skene alleges that " whenever Tighernach has the word Pic- 
cardach, the Annals of Ulster use the word Pictores, in Latin, instead of Picti, 
usually applied by them to the Picts." i. p. 36. In fact, Tighernach has the word 
Piccardach in 728, 729, 734, and 750; and Pictones in 669, 750, and 752. Ulster 
Annals have Pictores thrice, in 668, 675, and 727 ; Picti (so far as I observe) not usually, 



but twice, in 697, and 787 ; and the common genitive, Pictorum, eleven times, in 630, 
652, 656, 728, 733, 735, 861, 864, 870, 874, and in 877, where they last mention that 
nation by name, saying afterwards only Fir Albain. The 728 of Tighernach is Pic- 
tores in 727, Uit. His 729 and 734 are the genitive Pictorum in 728, 733, Ult. But 
the Pictones and Piccardach, both applied by Tighernach to the same people in 750, are 
reduced by the Ulster Annals to the one word, Pictores. Tighernach thought fit to 
borrow the name of the Pictones, or Gauls of Pictavia. So Hermannus Coutractus, an 
historian of his age, says at A.D. 446, " contra Scotos et Pictavos." It is evident that 
his learning was wasted upon the Ultonian annalist, who converted it into Pictores, 
Painters. This phrase of Pietores has no relation whatever to Piccardach, only to Pic- 
tones. If the common genitive is to be fetched from Pictores, that rule must extend to 
all the eleven instances, including five subsequent to the fall of the Pictish dynasty. 
Talorcaii M'Congusa was, it is said, a Pict of the north ; and, as he delivered* 1 up his own 
brother into the hands of the Piccardach, there must be " a complete distinction" be- 
tween the latter and the Picts. But surely a fugitive and outlawed Pict (see Tigh. 
A.D. 73i)can make his peace with the Picts by giving up his brother to them, without 
our using the word Pict in two senses. Hungust, it is said, receives the title of ri na 
Piccardach two years before he became king of Pietland; therefore Piecardach was 
another sovereignty. But ri, a king, does not always mean ardri, the king; and it is 
a term applied to maormors of Albany, and Irish toparehs, governing provinces under 
the ardrigh. Thus the maormor Finleg is styled Ri Albain, Tigh. 1020; and in Ult. 
1085, Ceaunmor reigning, one Domhnall M'Maelcholuim is also Ri Albain. When the 
general name is improperly added to ri, instead of the name of the toparchy, it only 
shews the details to be unknown or pra;termitted by the writer. I know not whether 
all Pict princes of the royal blood and succession were personally so styled, perhaps 
not; but we read concerning the Irish Picts at 629 Tigh., Dicuil ri cenedt/l Cruithiu- 
ceeidit. Any dynastic theory built upon the mere use of the word ri is vain ami 
unfounded. Feebler yet is the suggestion that the northern Picts " were a distinct 
body under their peculiar appellation of Cruithne." Since the Piccardachs were the 
southern Picts (we are told), " consequently the name of Cruithne, although occasion- 
ally applied to all the Picts, would in its more restricted sense belong to the Dicale- 
dones or North Picts." pp. 36, 37. Whatever it would do under certain conditions, 
it never did so in fact. Its more restricted sense, that is, its more frequent sense, 
to which its Latin (Crutheni) seems really restricted, was the Picts of Erin. The 


" Mr. Skene adopts the converse statement from retaining Me year of Tighernach. Why this is 
Ult., viz., that his brother surrendered him, while done, I know not. 


only prop to this manifest fiction is another equally novel, viz., the interpreting 
Cruithen-Tuath, Picts of the North, p. 63, whereas the word tuath in that, as in 
many analogous combinations, is never rendered the north, but the people or nation. 
Cruiten tuath is actually applied by the Masters to the Picts inhabiting Ireland. 
Quat. Mag. p. 29; and see above, pp. 126, 158. 

I have a word to add on the theory that the Cruithnich came from Albany to Erin, 
instead of the reverse. If strong arguments combine to confute the declarations of all 
our earliest authors let them stand confuted, but not otherwise. The system of Mr. 
Skene requires the Cruithnich or Gaelic Picts to have always held their territory, 
even from the earliest Roman records ; and therefore he is led, systematically, to 
maintain the above theory. The argument for it runs thus : " In all the Irish annals 
the name given to the earliest inhabitants of Scotland is Cruithne." p. 209. For 
which read, " given to some inhabitants of Scotland, by me regarded as the earliest;" 
for more than that is incorrect. " And this appellation is always applied by them to 
the inhabitants of Scotland, in contradistinction to the Scots or inhabitants of Ire- 
land." Of the instances (certainly rare) in which Tighernach carries that name out 
of Ireland, I have only noted three or four, in every one of which it is otherwise. In 
505 and 663 there is no contradistinction to anything ; and in 560 Cruithnechaibh 
is contrasted with Albanchaibh, meaning the Scots of Britain. It is the same in 
731, where Cruithne are opposed to Dalriadhe, unless that whole passage relates 
to Ulster. The inference follows: " [In thu first 6 place,] therefore, it can be proved 
from Tighernach that the Ultonians or inhabitants of the north of Ireland were 
Cruithne, and therefore must have come from Scotland." It can be proved from him 
and from others, that a very limited portion of the Ultonians were Cruithne. We 
are only carried thus far, that the name Cruithne was applied to a portion of each 
island; and thence we are to dedu"c, that Ireland received it from Albany. By the 
same process, mutatis nominibus, and with a like disregard of all tradition, we may 
prove that Ireland was peopled from Argyle and Lorn, and Saxony from England. 



c What follows, in the second place, is a des- of the Cruithne. But even these verbal dia- 

perate allegation that Cruthnia was all Ulster, lectics break down, for the text runs, " against 

when it is well known to have not even included Cruithnia and against Fiach Araidh." Two 

all Down and Antrim. The plea is, that Fiach againsts, because two powers, viz., the tribe 

Araidh reigned at Emania, and that Cormac of which he was ri or chieftain, and the kingdom 

fought " against Fiach and the Cruithne." Ergo of which he was ardri or pentarch. See Tigh. 

the kingdom of Emania is identical with that in 236. 


No. XVIII. Seepages 122-124. 

The legendary history of the Picts or Cruithnians, as given in the foregoing 
additions to the Historia of Nennius, will be found in a somewhat more detailed 
shape in the following documents, which seem worthy of preservation here, as tending 
to illustrate and complete the subject. 

I. The first is a tract on the History of the Picts, which is preserved in the Book 
of Lecan, fol. 286, b, col. 2, and is evidently compiled from the same traditions which 
formed the basis of the narrative given in the text, and in the historical poem on the 
history of the Cruithnean colony, which has been printed, pp. 126-153: 

lap rnapbao Gbip la li-Gpemon in After Eber had been killed by Erenion 

Oipjfcpop po job pfn piji n-Gpenn co in [the battle of ] Airgeatros, he (Eremuii) 

reigned over Eri fifteen years ; but Eber's 
year was not in that computation. lie 
built two royal forts, viz., Ratli Ainninn 
in the country of Cualann f , and Rath 
Beothaigh 8 over the Nore. He then made 
provincial kings of Eri, viz., he gave the 
sovereignty of the Gaileon province to 

cfno cuic m-blia6an Dec, ace ni bai 
bliaoam Gbip ip an uipfm pin. Ro 
clapa DI pij puich lep .1. patch GmomD 
i cpich Cualano, -\ pinch &eochaij uap 
6eoip. t)o pinoi imoppo coicfoaich ap 
Gpmo lapcain .1. Do pao pigi coicio 5 U| - 
leom Do Clipeamchuno Sciachbel DO 
tDomnannchaib, -| Do pao piji niumun 
DO cheiclipi macaib Gbip .1. Gp, Opbu, 
Pfpon, Peapgna. Do puD piji coicio 
Clionoacc DO Un muc Uici, -\ Do Gucan 
mac Uici. Do pao pi^i COICID Uluo DO 
Gbep mac Ip a quo UlaiD Gamna. 

Ip pe lino DO pmoeaD na jnima pa .1. 
carh Chuile Caichfp la h-Qimip^m n- 
glum-jel ; i cmo bliaona lappn Do cheap 
Gimipjin i each 6ile Clnneao i Culaib 

1 Country of Cualann __ Cualann originally com- 
prised a considerable portion of the present county 
of Wicklow ; but in the latter ages it was con- 
sidered as co-extensive with the half barony of 


Creamthann Sciathbel, of the Domnann 
race ; and he gave the sovereignty of 
Munster to the four sons of Eber, viz., 
Er, Orba, Fearon, Feargna. He gave the 
sovereignty of Connaught province to Un, 
son of Uici, and to Eatan, son of Uici. He 
gave the sovereignty of the province of 
Uladh to Eber, son of Ir a quo the Ulto- 
niaus of Emania. 

It was in his time the following deeds 
were done, viz. : the battle of Cuil Caithear 
was fought by Aimergin the White-kneed. 
In a year after Aimer-gin was slain in the 


Rathdown, in the north of that county. See In- 
quisition, 21st April, 1636, and Ussh. Primordia, 
p. 346. 

B Rath Beothaigh, now Rathveagh. 



6pejpe h-6pemon. 1pm bliaoain checna 
po meubabap po rhip .ipe. m-6popnocha 
6le, i cpi h-Umopinba Ua n-Qililla, -| 
.1,1. Rig 

1pm bliabam chectia pin cancaoap 
Cpuichnich a cip Oipaijjia .1. clanoa 
^elom mic Gpcuil lab, Icarippi an- 
unmanou. Cpuichmjj mac Inje rnic 
?,ucca mic pappchaloin mic Gjnom 
mic Guam, mic IDaip, mic paicpeachc 
mic lapfo mic Maei. Jpeachaip Cpuirh- 
neach, -\ cCc bliubam Do i pijje. Seaclic 
meic Cpmchmc anopo .1. pibpa, pioach, 
pocla, poipcpenn, Caicche, Qipij, Ce- 
cach ; -\ a peachc paribaib DO panopub 
(i peapanna, amail abpeo in pile: 

TTIoippfpfp mac Cpuithnech ann 
panopao ap peachc a peapano 
Caicche, Qipij, Cfcach clano 
pib Pibach Pocla Poipcpfno. 
Qcup ipe amm each pip oib puil pop 
a peapanb. 

pib, imoppo, bliaoam ap pichic bo a 

pibach /rl. bliabam. 


battle of Bile Tineadh, in Culaibh Breagh, 
by Eremon. It was in that same year the 
nine rivers Brosnach of Eile broke over 
the country ; and the three rivers Uinn- 
sinn ofUi Aililla; and the nine n'wsKigh 
[Rye] of Leinster. 

It was in that same year the Cruith- 
nians came out of the country of Thracia, 
i. e. they were the descendants of Gelon, 
son of Ercal: Icathirsi was their name. 
Cruitlmigh was the son of Inge, son of 
Luchta, son of Parrtholon, son of Agnon, 
son of Buan, son of Mas, son of Faith- 
feacht, son of Jafead, son of Noah, 11 . He 
was the father of the Cruithnians, and he 
reigned an hundred years. The seven sons 
of Cruitlmigh were these, viz.: Fibra, 
Fidach, Fotla, Foirtrcann, Caitche, Airig, 
Cetach. And it was into seven divisions 
they divided their territories, as the poet 
relates : 

Seven sons that Cruithnech had ; 
They divided by seven their territory : 
Caitche, Airig, Cetacli the fruitful', 
Fib, Fidach, Fotla, Foirtreann. 

And each of them gave his name to his 
own territory.). 

Fib, therefore, one year and twenty was 

his reign. 
Fidach, xl. years. 


" See above, p. 51, and note k . 

' Cetach the fruitful : lit. Cetach of children. 
Cetach is here made a proper name ; but in the 
copy of these Terses given above, p. 50, cecach 
clano was given as the cognomen or surname of 

one of the seven sons; and instead of Caitche 
and Airig, we had Cait, Ce, and Cireach. See 
p. 155, n. 

Territory. See p. 50, note '. 


Poipcpfno .Ijri. bliaoam. 
Uppanncaic Da bliuoam ap picluc. 
Uploici ba .p. bliaoam. 
Uileo Cipic .li,x;c. bliaoam. 
^ancaen 6ecan, itnoppo, bliaoam. 
Upjanr Caic cpicha bliaoam. 
^nir pinoechca ,\p. bliaoam. 

5 U101C 5 a kp e 5 bliaoum. 

Caluipjpfc cpicha bliaoam. 

Upchal 6puioi pone cpica bliaoain. 
pij Ulao oe abbapca &putoi ppia 
each peap Dib -| panna na peap. 

6puioi Cino 

Uipchino bliaoam. 

pfc bliaoain. 

Uippeac bbaoain. 


Ro jobpao caeca ap &a cheobliaoain, 
uc epc illebpaib na Cpuicnech. 6puit>e- 
6po, 6puioe-5apc, 6puioe- apjapc, 
&pmoe-Cino, 6puiDe-Upcino, 6pume- 
Uip, 6pumi- Upuip, &puioi-5p>eh, 
6puioi-Up5pir, 6pumi-muin, 6puibi- 
Upmum. Oo p'jaib Cpuicneac annpin. 

Seipeap caipeach cangacap co h-fpmo 
.1. pfpeap oeapbpaichpi .1. Soilen, Ulpa, 
Neachcam, Cpopcan, Qenjup, 6ficmo. 

Pach a ciachca a n-6pmn, imoppo, 
polopnup pi Cpaicia Oo pao jpao Dia 
piaip co po cpiall a bpeich can cochpa. 


Foirtreann, Ixx. years. 

Urpanncait, two years and twenty. 

Urloici, two years and ten. 

Uileo Ciric, Ixxx. years. 

Gantaen Becan, one year. 

Urgant Gait, thirty years. 

Gnith Findechta, Ix. years. 

Burgnith Guidit Gadbre, one year. 

Fethges, one year. 

Uirfechtair Gest Gurid, xl. years. 

Caluirgset, thirty years. 

Urchal Bruidi-pont, thirty years, king of 
Uladh k , from him the name of Bruide 
is given to every man of them, and to 
the divisions (territorial) of the men. 

Bruidi Cinn, one year. 

Uirchinn, one year. 

Feat, one year. 

Uirfeat, one year. 


They reigned fifty and two hundred 
years, Tit est in the books of the Cruith- 
nians. Bruide-Ero, Bruide-Gart, Bruide- 
Argart, Bruide- Cinn, Bruide -Urcinn, 
Bruide-Iup, Bruide-Uriup, Bruidi-Grith, 
Bruidi-Urgrith, Bruidi-Muin, Bruidi-Ur- 
muin. Of the Cruithnian kings so far. 

Six leaders came to Eri, viz., six 
brothers, viz., Solen, Ulpa, Neachtain, 
Trostan, Aengus, Leitinn. Now the 
cause of their coming to Eri was, Polor- 
nus, King of Thracia, fell in love with 
their sister, and he attempted to get 


correct reading, which in another copy is given 
ippi je nUlat) . If t>e, &c. Book of Leacan. 
erased, but he, probably, omitted to substitute the fol. 13, b., col. 2. 

i 2 

k Uladh In the words pig ulao oe, a cor- 
rector has marked the letters pig with dots, to be 


f.ocap lappin co po cpiallpao cap 
manchu co Ppanjcu, -| po cumouijl'eaD 
cachaip uno .1. piccaipip a piccup a 
h-amm .1. o na peanoaib, -\ oo pao pij 
ppanjc 5pao oia piuip. 6ocap pop 
muip jap n-fj; in chuicfo bpacap .1. La\- 
rfnn. 1 cino DU la lap n-oul ap muip 
aobach a pup. ^abpao Cpuichnij; a n- 
inobep dame [read c-Slaine] a n-ib 

Ocbeupc ppiu Cpemchano Sciachbel 
pig taijfn oo bepab pailci boib ap 
oichup Chuaichi p'bja DO|D - Qbbeapc 
cpa Cpopcan opai Cpuichnech pin, co 
poippeab lab ap log o'pajbail, -| ipe 
Ifijfp .1. bleogun .un. pichic bo mael 
pmn oo oopcuo i puil a peappaioea in 
cuch ooib .1. each Qp&a ^eamnachca a 
n-lb Cfnopealaich pe cuuchuib pigoa 
.1. cuach oo 6peacnuib po bai i pocli- 
cipcaib -| nfm ap a n-apmuib. ITIapb 
each aenpfp ap u n-oeapjjbaip -| ni 
^ebbip ace lapnami nfmi umpu. Cach 
uen oo jobra DO tutjjnib ipm chach ni 
ofnoaip ace laij^i pin leutnnachr -\ ni 
cumjio nfm ni ooib. TCo niapbcu lappin 
Cuach phioja. 

TYIapb ceachpap lappin Do chpuich- 
neachaib .1. Cpopcan, Solen, Meach- 

her witliout paying a dowry. They theu 
set out and passed through the Romans 
into France, where they built a city, viz., 
Pictairis, a pictis, was its name, i. e. 
from the points (pikes). And the King 
of France fell in love with their sister. 
They set out upon the sea, after the death 
of the fifth brother, viz., Laitenn. In two 
days after they had gone to sea their 
sister died. The Cruithneans landed at 
Inbhear Slaine in Ui Cennsealaigh. 

Cremthann Sciathbel, the King of 
Leinster, told them that they should have 
welcome from him, on condition that they 
should destroy the Tuath Fidga. Now 
Trostan, the Cruithnean Druid, said to 
them, that he would help them if he were 
rewarded. And this was the cure he gave 
them, viz., to spill the milk of seven score 
hornless white cows near the place where 
the battle was to be fought, viz., the 
battle of Ard Leamhnachta in Ui Ceinn- 
sealaigh, against the Tuatha Fidga, viz., 
a tribe of Britons, who were in the Foth- 
arts 1 , with poison on their weapons. Any 
man wounded by them died, and they 
carried nothing about them but poisoned 
iron. Every one of the Leinstermen 
who was pierced in the battle had no- 
thing more to do than lie in the new 
milk, and then the poison affected him 
not. The Tuath Fidga were all killed 

Four of the Cruithnians died after, 
viz., Trostan, Solen, Neachtain, Ulptha, 


1 The Fotharts, now the barony of Forth, in the County Wexford. See above p. 1 23, note '. 


cam, Ulpca, lap n-oichap in chaca, 
conao ooibpin po chan in p fnchaio po. 

Gpo leamnachca ip cippea cheap 
pinoao each an each ejfp 
cpaeo oap lean in c-amm iplomo 
pop job o aimpip Cpimcomo? 

Cpimchanb Sciachbel h-e po job; 
DO capaiD ap car cupao, 
cen oin ap nfmib na n-aptn 
na n-achach n-uaerhap n-ajapb. 

Seipfp Cpuichneach po chmo t)ia 
canjaoup i cip Upajia. 
Solen, Ulpa, Nechcam nap, 
Qenjup, ^eichcfno, ip Cpopcan. 

l?o chiolaic t)ia ooib, cpe clup, 
oia n-oil ip Oia n-oucupup, 
Oia n-Din ap nfirnb a n-aptn. 
na n-aichech n-ficij n-ajapb. 

Ip e eolup DO puaip ooib 

opai na Cpuichnech po ceooip 

cpi .1. bo mael oon muij 

DO bLaejan DO a n-aen cuicij. 

Ro cuipea& in cac co cacc 

ition cuicij a m-bai in lemnacc 

Ro muio in cac co calma 

pop acacaib apD 6anba. Q. 

Ip i n-aimpip h-epeumon po jobup- 
caip ^uba -\ a mac .1. Cachluan mac 
.1. pi Cpuichneach neapc mop 


after the battle had been gained ; and it 
was for them the poet sang this: 

Ard Leamhnachta in this southern 


Each noble and each poet may ask, 
Why it is called by this distinctive name, 
Which it bears since the time of Crim- 

thann ? 

Crimthann Sciathbel it was that en- 
gaged them ; 

To free him of the battle of heroes, 
When defenceless against the poisoned 

Of the hateful horrid giants. 

Six Cruithnians so God ordained 
Came out of the country of Thragia. 
Solen, Ulpa, Neachtain the heroic, 
Aengus, Leithcenn, and Trostan. 

God vouchsafed unto them, in muni- 

For their faithfulness for their reward 
To protect them from the poisoned arms 
Of the repulsive horrid giants. 

The discovery which was made for 


By the Cruithnian Druid was this, 
Thrice fifty cows of the plains 
To be milked by him into one pit. 

The battle was closely fought 
Near the pit in which was the milk, 
The battle was bravely won 
Against the giants of noble Banba, 

It was in Bremen's time that Cuba 
and his son, viz., Cathluan mac Guba, 
King of the Cruithnians, acquired great 



pop Gipmb. No co pup inbapb Gp- 
fmon a h-Gpinb -\ co n-beapnpab pib 

Ho ip o macaib ITlileao pfn bo chuaio 
Cpuichneachan mac Inji la 6pearnu 
poipcpeanb DO chachujao pe Saxanchu, 
1 popellab a clann -| u claioeam-chip 
ooib .1. Cpuicheancuuch ipeao ni po ba- 
oup [mna] accu ap abbach banocpochc 
Qlban bo gullpoib. Do luib bno, ap 
u cul bo chum meic TTlileao -| po jubub 
nfm -| talum jpian -\ epca, muip -\ cip 
beich bo maich piu plaich poppo co 
bpach; -| abbepc of mnai oec popcpaio 
bo babap la capcap Dlac FDileab i n- 
Gpmn, uaip po baicea a pip ipa n-aippji 
c-piap mapaen pe t)onn ; conab o pfpuib 
Gpfnn plaich pop Cpuichericuaich bo 
jpepiap poipinb. Ulna 6pfipi, imoppo, 
1 6uaibne-| 6uaipi -| na cuipfc po baicea 
uile. Ocup anaip pfpfp oib op 6pTj mcn^, 
-| ip uuichib each jfp i each pfn -| each 
ppfo i jora fn ] each mana -\ each obaip 
oo jnireap. 

Cacluan ip e ba pij oppcha u lie -\ ip e 
cfc pig po job Qlbain bib. C^c. pig 


power in Eri ; until Eremon banished 
them out of Eri, after which they made 

Or, it was" 1 the sons of Mileadh them- 
selves that sent Cruithneachan mac Inge 
to assist the Britons of Foirtrenn to war 
against the Saxons ; and they (the Cruith- 
neans) made their children and their 
swordland, i. e. Cruithean-Tuaith, sub- 
ject to them. And they had not wives, 
because all the women of Alban died of 
diseases. They, therefore, came back to 
the sons of Mileadh, who bound them, as 
they expected the heaven and earth, the sun 
and the moon, the sea and the land, to 
be propitious to them, that they would 
submit to them as kings over them for 
over. And they took twelve supernu- 
merary women, who belonged to the Mile- 
sian expedition to Eri, whose husbands 
were drowned in the western sea along 
with Bonn. And hence sovereignty over 
Cruithentuath belongeth to the men of 
Eri, according to some authorities. And 
they were the wives of Breas, and of Buaidne, 
and of Buas, and of the other leaders, who 
were all drowned. And six of them re- 
mained in possession of Breagh-Mhagh ; 
and from them are derived every spell and 
every charm, and every divination by sneez- 
ing, and by the voices of birds; and all 
omens, and all talismans" that are made. 

Cathluan was then king of them all; 
and he was the first king of them that 


"' Or, it was Here the writer gives another " Talismans For obaip read upaib. See 

account, from some other authority. p. 125, supra, and note *, p. 144. 


pop Glbam oib o Chacluan co Con- 
pancin; ip e Cpuichnech oeijinach pop 
job oib. 

t)a mac Cacluam .1. Cocanolocap -| 
Cacalachac. Q Da cupaiD, im. P'pn 
-] Cmj achaip Cpuichnich. Q Da ppuich 
.1. Cpup i Cipic. Q oa mileao .1. 
Uapnfm a pil'5 -[ Cpuithne a cfpo. 
t)omnall mac Qilpm ipe a raipec. 

reigned over Alba. There were seventy 
kings of them over Alba, from Cathluan 
to Constantine, who was the last of them 
that reigned. 

Cathluan's two sons were Cotanolotar 
and Catalachach. His two champions . . . 
. . . Pirn, and Cing the father of Cruith- 
nich. His two wise men were Crus and 
Ciric. His two heroes .... Uasneam his 
poet, and Cruithne his worker in metals". 
Donall mac Ailpin was their leader. 

And others say, that it was Cruithne mac 
Loich mac Inge himself, that came to ask 
the women from Eremon ; and that it was 
to him Eremon gave the wives of the men 
who were drowned along with Donu. 

Ocup ipeao aobepaiD apoile cumao 
h-e Cpuichne mac f.oich mic Inge pfn 
eipao Do chumogiD ban pop 6pemon -| 
comao DO oo bepeaoBpemon mna na pfp 
Do baicea muille pe t)onn. 

II. In another part of the Book of Lecan (fol. 141, a, col. I.), the story of the wives 
given to the Cruithnians is repeated in a somewhat different form. This document 
mentions the name of the place where this remarkable treaty between the two na- 
tions was said to have been agreed on, and contains also a list of the seven Chruithnean 
kings of Ireland: 

t)a n-occ Dec mileao oo chuachaib 
Cpaicia oo locap ap ceario loingpe 
meic IDileaD Gppame DO ^fprnuin, Dop 
bepcaoap leo co m-baoap a mill cache. 
Ni calcacap mna leo pcacim, conuo Do 
pil meic ITlileaD appo paecap mna lap- 
pin. t)o bpeich ingfna oigclnsfpnna 
Doaib o pluichnia 6pinD,i ap n-jlanaDa 
claioeam-cip ooib allae icip 6peacnaib 
.1. ITIaj Popcpfnn ppimo, -| ITlaj Cip^m 
.1. popcea, conao lap macpa jabaic 
plaich -) each comapbup olcheana lap 
na napcaD poppu o peapaib 6pmo .1. 


Twice eighteen soldiers of the tribes of 
Thracia went to the fleet of the sons of 
Mileadh of Spain, to Germany ; and they 
took them away with them and kept them 
as soldiers. They had brought no wives 
with them at that time. And it was of the 
Milesian race they took wives afterwards. 
They received the daughters of chieftains 
from the sovereign-champion of Eri, and 
when they had cleared their sword-land 
yonder among the Britons, viz., Magh Fort- 
renn, primo, and Magh Cirgin, postea; so 
that it is in right of mothers they succeed 


There is some confusion in this passage, as p. 124. The scribe appears to have taken the 
the reader will perceive by comparing it with proper name 1m for imoppo. 


cpi chaeca injean po ucpao a h-6pe DO 
maichpib mac, moe die na n-mjfn a 
cpich tDal n-Qpaioi ipeao aolocap leo. 

Cpicha pij DO Chpuichmb pop Gpmo 
1 Qlbam .1. DO Chpuichnib Qlban -| DO 
Chpuichnib Gpenn .1. Do Dail GpaiDi. 
Oca Din, Ollumam bia ra mup n-olla- 
man i eeamaip conije piacna mac 
6aeDain; po naipc pioe jiallu Gpenn -j 

Secc pi oin DO Chpuichmb Qlban 
po pallnupcaip Gpmn i ceamaip, OUam 
mnm in checna pij po job Gpmo a 
Ceamaip -| a Cpuachnaib, epica bliaDan 
ano. Ip De aca TTIup n-OUaman i 
Ceamuip; ip leip cecna oepnao peip 

QilillOUpinDacca capeip in Ollaman 
a piji pop Gipinn uili a Ceamaip cpica 
ano. Ip ina plaich piDe peapaip inpne- 
achca pfna co n-oemecha pep ipin 

pinooll Cipipne caipeip in Qililla 
cpica annip a Ceamaip -| i ceano [read 
ceananoup]. Nach n-aj po jenaip ma 


to sovereignty and all other successions, to 
which they were bound by the men of Eri. 
They took with them from Eri thrice 
fifty maidens, to become mothers of sons, 
whence Alt-na-n-Inghean p , in the terri- 
tory of Dal Araidhe, from which place 
they departed with them. 

There were thirty kings of the Crutli- 
nians over Eri and Alba, viz., of the 
Cruithnians of Alba and of the Cruith- 
nians of Eri, i. e. of the Dal Araidhe. 
They were from Ollamhan, from whom 
comes the name of Mur Ollamhan at Tea- 
mhair, to Fiachna mac Beadain, who fet- 
tered the hostages of Eri and Alba. 

There were seven kings of the Cruith- 
nians of Alba that governed Eri in 
Teamhair. Ollamh was the name of the 
first king that governed Eri at Teamhair, 
and in Cruachan; thirty years were his 
annals' 1 . It is from him Mur Ollamhan 
at Teamhair is named : by him was the 
feast of Teamhair first instituted. 

Aillill Ollfhindachta came after Ollamh 
in sovereignty over all Eri at Teamhair, 
for thirty years. It was in his reign the 
wine snow fell which covered the grass in 

Findoll Cisirne succeeded Ailill thirty 
years at Teamhar and at Ceanannus 
[Kells]. Every cow that was calved in 


i 1 Alt-na-n-ingltean This place is not now- 
known. The name signifies " height or mount 
of the maidens." It will be observed, that this 
version of the story represents the women who 
were given as maidens, not widows. See Reeves's 

Eccl. Antiq. of Down and Connor, p. 337. 

11 His annals : that is, the length of his reign. 
This was the celebrated Ollamh Fodhla. See 
Petrie on Tara, p. 29, et teg. ; Keating, p. 329, 
(Hallidav's edit.) ; O'Flahertj, Ogyg. 


plaichpioe po bochfninoa, ipoe icaCean- 
annup ma lochce. 

Olljjochac ma DIQID pioe i 
Ceamuip -| pop puin-laibe a eipib 
TTIugbopna, po pollnupcaip cpita uno. 
Ipna plaich pioe ba binoiehip lu each a 
laile amail bio chpoc up meac in cain- 
chompaic bai ina plaich. 

Slanoll capeipi n-^Jeici ip inu pluich 
pioe ni paibe ^ulap pop ouine i n-Gipe; 
po pollnupcaip a Ceamaip -| plan pop 
Gipe cpicu ann. 

60505 OUpiaca cupeip Slonuill, po 
pollnupcaip pop Gipi a Ceamaip cpicu 
unn; ip ma plcnch pioe tinopcunca coicci 
in hpe. 

6eapnjal capeipinftajaij; po pollnu - 
pcaip pop Gipi a Ceamaip cpica ano. ip 
ma pluich pioe ap pochuip ich a h-Gipi 
ucc miach up meao in choicche m6pe-| 
apa lin. 

Ipe pin cpa nui .un. pij po gobpuc 
Gpmo oo Chpuichnib Cllbun. 

t)o Chpuichnib Opeim oin, DI Oul 
Qpaioi .1. na peace ?,aijjpi ^uigen -j .un. 
So^ain, i cac C[on]ailli pil i n6pmo. 

Ins reign was white-headed : and it is from 
him that the name of Ceananmis is given 
to his places of residence. 

GeideOllgothach after him atTeamhair, 
and over Fain-Laibe, in the country of 
Mughdorn [Mourne], he ruled for thirty 
years. In his reign the voices of all 
sounded as the music of the harp to each 
other, so great was the peace in his reign. 

Slanoll after Geide. In his reign no 
person in Eri was diseased. He governed 
at Teamhair and health was over Eri 
thirty years. 

Bagag Ollfliiaclia after Slanoll. He 
governed Eri at Teamhair thirty years. 
It was in his reign that wars were first 
begun in Eri. 

Bearngal after Bagag. He governed 
Eri at Teamhair thirty years. It was in 
his reign that all the corn of Eri, except 
one sack, was destroyed, on account of the 
wars in Eri, and for their frequency. 

These, then, are the seven kings that 
ruled over En of the Cruithnians of 

Of the Cruithniaus of Eri, i. e. of Dal 
Araidhe 1 ", are the seven Laighsi s [Leix] 
of Leinster, and the seven Soghains and 
all the Cailli 1 that are in Eri. 

III. The following brief account of the battle of Ardleamhnachta is taken from 


r Dal'Araidhe. These were Cruithnigh by 
the mother's side only. See Ogygia, part III. 
c. xviii. 

1 The seven Laighsi, i. e. the seven septs of 
Leix. According to the tradition in the country 
these, after the establishment of surnames, were 

the O'Mores, O'Kellys, O'Lalors, O'Oevoys <>r 
Deevys, Macavoys, O'Dorans, and O'Dowlings, 
who are still numerous in the Queen's County. 

' Cailli. This is a mistake for Conailli, as 
appears from Duald Mac Firbis's copy of the 
genealogy of Dal Araidhe, in which it is stated 


the Book of Leinster, a MS. of the twelfth 
Dublin. (H. 2.18. fol. 8.0.) 

hippin ampip fin [.i. amp ip hepimomj 
cancacap Cpuchntj conjubpac mbfp 
Sldne in h. Cenbpelaij. Ropleic Cpim- 
tan cuce ap in lejfp puaip bpu! Cpuich- 
nec DO DO car ppi Uuaich pibja (i poch- 
apcaib) .1. cuach oe Spfcnaib. Cac ofn 
pop i n-bepjcaip ba mapb, -| nip jaib- 
cip ace lapna nfmibe. Conio e in le^fp 
blejon p6 picec bo mael pino oo bop- 
cub ip na h-eccpijib bale ipfppaice in 
car. Unoe each Qpooa lemnacc. Qcup 
DO pocpacap uile Cuac pioba cpiup in 
ceilj pin. 

Co po 5"ib Cucluan mac Cinj bo 
Chpucfncuaio nfpc mop fop lifpinn. Co 
pop mnapb hfpimon. 

Ip anopm canic Cputrnecan mac 
Cmje Do cuingio ban pop llfpimon. Co 
capac hfpimon DO mnaa nil pfp po 
bacce oc na t)umucaib .1. 6pfp -| 6pofp 
1 6ua5ne. Qcup par jpene -| fpca 
poppa co na bab luju po jabcha pfpano 
6 pfpaib i cpuicfncuaich quam 6 mnuib 
co bpar. 

that Irial Glunmhar, the son of Conall Cearnach, 
was the first of his race who was called Crta'Mne, 
and this because he was a ma Cruithne, i. e. filius 
sororis Cruthnei, Loineeadha, the daughter of 
Eochaidh Echbheoil, of Alba, being his mother. 

century, in the Library of Trinity College, 

It was at that time [the time of Here- 
mon] the Cruithnians came to Eri, and 
landed at Inbher Slaine in Ui Cennselaigh. 
Crimthan allowed them to settle in his 
territory, on account of the remedy which 
the Cruithnian druid discovered for him, 
for making battle with the Tuaith Fidga, 
in Fothartaibh [Forth], viz., a people of 
the Britons. Because every one whom they 
wounded was sure to die; and they used 
no other than poisoned weapons. And the 
remedy was, to spill the milk of six score 
white hornless cows into the furrows of the 
place on which the battle was to be fought. 
Whence it was called the battle of Ard- 
leamhnachta. And the whole of the Tuath 
Fidbha were cut off through that artifice. 

And Catluan, son of Cing, of Cruith- 
entuaidh, acquired great sway over Eri. 
And Hcremon banished him. 

After that Cruithnechan, the son of 
Cing, came to beg for wives from Here- 
mon. And Ileremon gave him the wives 
of the men that were drowned at the 
Dumachs, viz., Breas, and Broes, and 
Buagne. And they were obliged to give 
the sun and the moon as guarantees that 
not less should territorial succession be de- 
rived from men than from women, forever. 


The principal sept in Ireland called Conailli were 
the Conailli-Muirtheimhne, who inhabited the 
level part of the county of Louth, extending from 
the Cuailgne, or Cooley mountains, to the Ri?er 


IV. The following fragment contains a portion of the Irish version of the Chro- 
nicon Pictorum, and is here given from a copy made by Mr. O'Donovan from a MS. 
(Laud. 610, fol. 87, a.) in the Bodleian Library, Oxford : 

&puit>e Upmum. 

Rejnauepunc .cl. an. uc oipcimup, -\ po boe Qlbo cecpij [read cen pig] pp lu P e 
huile co haimpp 5 UD cec P 1 P 5b Cdbain huile cpi chomaipli no up ecm. 

Qtbepac apaile comao he Cacluan mnc Cacmino no jabao pije ap eicin hi 
Cpuchencuaich -] in 6ipmo .1. .Ipc. bliaoam, -| lap fin po jab "faun .1. .1. 

Capam .c. an. pejnauic. 

IDopleo a .pcu. a. pe. 

tJeocillimon .pel. an. pe. 

Cinioioo mac Gpocoip .un. a. p. 

Oeopc .1. a. p. 

6lieblich ,u. a. p. 

t)eococpeic ppacep Cui .pel. a. p. 

[Upconbupc .^pc. a. p. 

Cpaucpeic .pel. a. p.] u 

Deopoiuoip .pep:, a. p. 

Uipc .1. anmp p. 

Ru .c. an. p. 

bole .un. a. pe. 
* mi [or perhaps im. for imoppo] .ipc. a. p. 

6perh mac 6uchuo .1111. a. p. 

Uipo ijnauifc .ptp:pc. a. p. 

Canuculahma .111. a. p. 

Uupaoech uecla .11. a. p. 

^apcnaic t)iupepp .Ipc. a. p. 

Calopc mac Qchiuip .Ipcp:. u. 

Opupc mac pp .c. a. p. ~\ ceb each pojni. Nono oecimo an. pejni eiup 
Pacpiciup panccup Gpif ao hibepniam pepufnic mpolam. 

Calopc mac Qmel .1111. a. p. 

Neccan mop bpfc mac Gipip .pcpcnn. an. peg. Cepcio anno pe^ni eiup Dap- 


" These two names are omitted here, but are forty instead of seven years, which leads to a 

added in the margin by the original hand. The suspicion of some confusion with Deototreic, 

name of Crutbolc, as it was given p. 159, is here arising from the similarity of termination, 
changed to Crautreic, and his reign is made x See above, p. 160, note a . 



lujoticli abbacippa CiUe Dapa oe llibepniu e;culac ppo pcp'o ub 6picuniam, p. h. 1 
unno aouemcup cui [read pui] immolauic Neccomup anno uno Qpupnije t)eo -| 
punccue &pijce ppecence [sic."] tJuplujoach, que cuneuuic all. pupep ipcam. 

tDpepc ^upehimor .ppp. a. p. 

^alancipilich .;cu. a. p. 

Ouopepc" .1. t)pepc pil. 5'P OM 1 t)pepc pin. 6uopop .pu. unnip pejnauuc. Dpepc 
pin.^'P ' 1 polup ,u. a. p. 

5pcnaic a F ln> <5'P n - u "- u - P- 

Cailc uptu pin. 5'P om uno unno pejnuuic. 

Calopj p. IDupcoloic v ti. a. p. 

Opepc p. ITIiinaich uno a. p. 

5<ilarn cfnnaleph .1111. ci. p. Cum ftpiomo i". antio pfjnuuic. 

6pume mac TTlelcon .ppp. u. p. In octuuo unno pfjni eiup 6opcijucup epc u 
puncco Columba. 

J)apcnuic p. Oomfch .ti. a. p. 

Neccan nfpo Uepb .pp. a. p. 

Cmiucli p. 6ucpm .ptp. a. p. 

^apcnuic mac Uum .u. a. p. 

Calopc ppacep eopum ouooecim a. p. 

Calopcan p. 6nppfcli .1111. u. pe^. 

^apcnuic p. Oonuel .111. a. p. -| Dfmeoium utini. 

Opupc pparep eiup .un. unnip p. 

6puioe p. pile .^i. a. p. 

Capan p. 6npmaij .1111. a. p. 

6pei p. Depelei v xi. a. 

Mechcan p. Depilei .p. a. p. 

t)pepr -) Glpm conpfjnauuc .u. a. 

Onuip p. Upguipc .ppp. p. 


y These contractions probably stand for " sc- It appears also that the contraction ucuc, p- 162, 

rundo auteni." See above, p. Ki3, and note. which I there supposed to be intended for " com- 

' The reading here given strongly confirms the muniter," is rcallj a corruption of the termina- 

conjectural emendation of the passage suggested tion vtrunt, of the word " regnaverunt." 
note e , p. 162. The word pin. is an evident Here one of the kings, viz., Galum-cenam- 

mistake of the transcriber for pil. or Jilius, lapeh, is omitted, but he is placed after Drest, 

arising from his not understanding the contraction son of Manaith, as in the Chron. Pictorum. See 

pi, which he has himself sometimes retained. p. 163, note '. 


6pece pi. Uupjuc .;eu. a. p. 

Oimoo p. Uupfoeg .pen. a. p. 

Glpm p. Uupoio .ui. a. i oimfoio pegni 1 ". 

Opepc p. Calopcan 1. a. p. 

Calopgfn p. Opuipcfn .1111. uel .u. a. p. 

Calopcfn p. Omuipc .pen. -| oimfoio a. p. 

Canaul p. Carijj .u. a. p. 

Caupcancm p. Uupjuipc .^jyc. u. a. p. 

Uionuipc p. Uupjuipc .;cii. a. p. 

Dpepc p. Conpcancin -| Calopc p. Uuchoil .111. a conpejnauunr. 

Unfn p. Unuipc .111. a. p. 

Uupao p. 6apgoic .in. a. p. -\ 6peo i. a. p. 

Cinaeo p. Qlpm .;cui. a. p. 

Oomnall p. Qlpm .1111. a. p. -j Cupcancin p. Cmueoa .^. a. p. 

Qeo p. Cinaeoa .11. a. p. 

5'p'c mac t)unjaile .^i. uel .111. a. p. 

tDomnull p. Conpcancin .;ci. a. p. 

Cupcancin p. Geba.;cl. a. p. 

ITlaelcolaim p. t)omnaill .i^s. a. p. 

Culfn p. llooilb p. Conpcancin .111. a. p. 

Cinaeo [uel Dub] c p. maelcolaim .un. a. p. 

Culfn p. llooilb .1111. a. p. 

Cinaeo p. Cot. .;cj:.iin. a. p. 

Cupcancin p. Culeam 1. -\ oimfoio a. p. 

Cinaet) p. t)uib .uni. a. p. 

ITlaelcoluim p. Cinaeoa .fyp. a. p. 

t)onnchao hua mailcolaim ,ui. a. p. 

ITIac 6fchao mac pin mic 6aig .yui. a. p. 

tulach .u. mip. 

maelcoluim mac tDonnchacha lappfin. 

A.S the foregoing list of kings is so nearly the same as that printed above, pp. 158 
-167, it has not been thought necessary to add a translation. It ends fol. 87, a, b, 
and occupies two columns of the manuscript, which evidently contained a complete 


b Read anni. It is curious that the same c The words " vel Dull" are written over the 

error is committed in the MS. from which the line by a later hand, 
text is printed, see p. 164. 


copy of the Irish version of Nennius, although only a single page now remains. It is 
followed, as in the text (see p. 168, supra), by an abridged translation, in Irish, of the 
beginning of Bede's Church History. 

V. To the foregoing documents, which may be regarded as the principal sources 
of the history, may be added the narrative of Keating, which was compiled from 
them; but this is so accessible to students of Irish history, that it will not be necessary 
to reprint it here (T.) 

No. XIX. Seepage 153. 

The viijorous Mac Brethach. The number of fifty kings demonstrates that Mac- 
bethach, i. e., Macbeth, is the name here signified ; the letter r having crept in by 
an error of transcription. Macbeth Mac Finleg succeeded Donnchadh Mac Crinan in 
the united sovereignty of Fortren Mor and Dalriada. His contemporary and subject, 
the author of the Duan, calls him Macbeatha Mac Finlaoich, vv. 102, 103. In the 
Nomina Rcgum Pictorum, Innes ii. p. 803, Chron. Regum Scotiae, ib. p. 791, and 
Register of Loch Levin, his father is respectively called Finleg, Findleg, and Finlach. 
The catalogue in Cambrensis Eversus writes Finlaigh. That which is given above, 
p. 1 66, and p. Ixxvii., absurdly says, Macbeathad, son of Fin, grandson of Laig! This 
is the ancient Irish name of Finloga, borne by the fathers of Finnian of Clonard and 
Brendan of Clonfert ; and it is the modern Scotch name Finlay. John of Fordun (with 
im in-norance, or contempt of truth, of which the former would be surprising) makes 
it the woman's name, Finele ; of which hereafter. Hector Boece, his right worthy 
follower (246 b. 249 b.), has changed her into a man, Synele, yet retains the locality 
of that famous woman in Angus; and he furnished the history to Holinshed and 


" By Sinel's death, I know, I am Thane of Glamis." 

Among those hereditary lords of provinces, who were called in North Britain 
maormors or mormaers, and whom the Irish writers often called righ or ri, was a 
certain Rudri or Ruaidhre. He had two sons, Malbrigid and Fiuleg. The latter, 
whom Ulster Annals describe simply as being a " ri Alban," was, according to Tigh- 
ernach, " the mormaer of the sons of Croeb ;" but I cannot find it stated what terri- 
tory that clan possessed; and he was, in 1020, "slain by the sons of his brother 
Malbrigid." In 1029, one of his nephews and destroyers, Maelcolaim Mac Maelbrigdi 
Mac Ruadri, called by Tighernach a " ri Alban," died. And, in 1032, another nephew, 
" Gilla-Comgan mac Maelbrigdi, Mormaer Murebe (of Moray or Murray), was burnt, 
and fifty others with him." In 1040, Mac beth Mac Finleg MacRuadri became ardrigh 
of Albany, and was slain in the last days of 1056. In 1057, Lulach, son of Gilcorngau, 


was reigning, and died ardrigli of Albany. And, in 1085, Maelsnectai, son of Lulach, 
and ri Muireb, died feliciter or in peace. Such, I believe, is the amount of the ex- 
tant notices of the house of Ruadhri. 

Finnleikr Jarl the Scot is mentioned at the close of the tenth age, as contending 
against Sigurd Hlodverson, Earl of Orkney (who afterwards fell in the battle of 
Clontarf), with superior forces but inferior fortune, in a battle fought at the 
Skidamyri d in Caithness. Olaf's Tryggvasonar Saga, i. p. 199. 1825. The same page 
mentions a previous victory gained in Caithness by Liot, Sigurd's uncle, over Marg- 
biodr, another Scozkan jarl, or Scottish maonnor. Macbeth Mac Finleg was too young 
for the tale to be true of him ; yet I think it exhibits a Norse 6 corruption of some of 
the spellings of ,his name. The celebrity of Finleg's name among the Northmen may 
be argued from the fabulous romance entitled Samson Fagra's Saga, where Finlauar 
figures as a Jarl of Brettaland, Britain. See that Saga, c. v. p. 6, c. vii. p. 10, in 
Biorner's Nordiska Kampa Dater. We know that Moray was hereditary in the house 
of Malbrigid ; and I suspect the mic Croeb were seated in Crombath or Cromarty, or 
more generally in Ross. For in Macbeth's dream of the weird sisters, the first of the 
three salutations, descriptive of his natural and first estate, was, "Lo! yonder the 
Thane of Crwmbawchty !" Wyntoivit's Cron. vi. cap. xviii. Crombath, as now 
limited, is the eastern angle and estuary of the extensive Land of Ross ; in which 
territory it is, therefore, probable, that Finleg Mac Ruadri had his estates or domi- 

I think that his brother, Malbrigid (whose death is unchronicled, but seems to 
have occurred anterior to 1020), was probably that jarl of the Scots, Melbrigda Tonn, 
or Malbrigid of the Long Tooth, treacherously slain at a parley by Sigurd, the Nor- 
wegian Earl of Orkney, who had overrun Caithness, Sutherland, and Ross, and even 

built a fort in the Australis Moravia Olaf. Trygg. cap. xcv. p. 194; Torf. Ore. i. 

cap. iv. But this story is told of Sigurd, son of Eystein ; whereas the date of Mal- 
brigid, as well as the magnitude of this Sigurd's encroachments upon Scotland, would 
rather require it to be understood of Sigurd Hlodverson. We collect elsewhere who 
that Maormor was whom Sigurd Eysteinson had put to death; it was Malduin 
(Meldunus comes e Scotia) father of Erp, and husband to Mirgiol, daughter of 

Gliomal, an Irish rex Torf. Ore. i. cap. v. p. 1 6. 


11 Marsh of Skida. Melbrigda. And lie represents the defeat of this 

K Torfseus had somewhere found it written maormor as occurring at the same Skidamvri. 

Maghragda, which comes nearer to Mac, in the Orcades, c. ix. p. 25. 

first syllable, while the residue is borrowed from 


Macbeth Mac Finleg was certainly married to the lady Gruoch, daughter of Bodhe 
or Boidhe. Chartulary of Dunfermlin, cit. Pink. ii. p. 197; Reg. of St. And. cit. 
Chalmers Cal. i. 397, n. ; " Dame Grwok," Wynt. vi. p. 18, 35. That Bodhe is sup- 
posed to have been son to Kenneth III. f or IV. whom Malcolm II. slew and succeeded 
in 1003. Ulster Annals, at 1033, say, ITlac mic &oeche mic Cmeaoa DO mapbao 
la muelcolaim Hlac Cinaeou. The son of the son of Boethe, son of Kenneth, was 
slain by Malcolm, son of Kenneth. Dublin MS. This unnamed man, grandson of 
Boethe, nephew of Gruoch, and great grandson of Kenneth IV., was slain in 1033; 
but nothing is known of his grandfather's fate. The violent death of Gilcomgan and 
his friends, in 1032 (and perhaps the death of his brother Malcolm, in 1029), was, 
probably, the penalty of Finleg's blood, which the young Macbeth would naturally 
desire, and, I think, did not want the power, to revenge. That Gruoch was his 
widow may be conjectured on the following ground: Gilcomgan was maormor or ri 
of Moray; and that province descended peaceably, through his son Lulach, to his 
posterity. Yet her husband Macbeth, Maormor of Cromarty, was reputed to have 
somehow acquired the government of Moray, inasmuch as the second of the " werd 
systrys," saluted him as the _/"/* thane of Morave Wyntown, torn. i. p. 216. The 
intimate connexion between Lulach and Macbeth will appear presently. 

The claims of Finleg's son to the united crowns of Dunstaffnage and Scone remain 
unknown and unexplained. Donnchadh, daughter's son and successor to Malcolm II. 
and son to Crinan, Abbot of Dunkeld and Abthane 11 of Dull, was, as the Annalists 
write, a suis occisus; or, as the Nomina Keguin say, was slain by Macbeth at Beth- 
gowanan (Lochgosnanc ap. Fordiin) near Elgin : or, according to the Elgiac Chro- 

" A Finleg natus percussit eiim Macabeta, 
Vulnere lethal! rex apud Klgin obit." 

However Marianus, who was about twelve years old when it happened, acquits Mac- 

f Kenneth Grim Mac Duff, cousin-german to Inverness, was in ancient Moray ; ami that mo- 
Malcolm II. dern salutation is equivalent to the ancient, 

6 In that legend, the existing and apparent fact describing the Moravian Mormaer by one of his 
is elegantly distinguished from the second sight, jrincipal fastnesses, as the Angusian is described 
or vision of things future: I. Lo! yonder the by that of Glainmis. See Hhind's Sketches of 
thane of Crwmbawchty ! II. Of Moravo yonder Moray, p. 1. The modern division into counties 
/ see the thane. III. 1 see the king. By what is of no use for those times. 

lying folly Angus or Glammis was, in later times, '' For the Abthanate of Dull, see Macpherson's 

substituted for Cromarty, will appear in season. notes to Wyntown, and the authorities there 
Calder or Cawdor, now situate in Nairn and cited. 


beth of direct agency in that bloodshed, saying: " 1040, Donchad king of Scotia is 
slain a duce suo. Mag-Finloech succeeded to his kingdom." For here the dux and 
the successor seem distinct persons. Duncan had succeeded Malcolm in 1033, and 
therefore, when the blood of the Lady Gruoch's nephew was still fresh ; but nothing, 
unless it be his perishing by her husband's means, points to him as guilty of it. But 
if we may credit an ancient tradition (not to surmise any lost compositions in prose 
or verse) which flows through channels rather friendly than neutral, and comes to us 
conjoined with virulent abuse of his destroyer, the son of Crinan had provoked his 
fate by vicious and impolitic behaviour. For Wyntown tells us, that he made the 
miller's daughter' 1 of Forteviot " his lemman luwyd," and begat on her a bastard son 
who afterwards reigned as Malcolm Ceannmor. After Duncan's death (so the story 
runs) she married a boatman or batward, whose piece of land was transmitted to their 
posterity, and called the Batwardis land. Wyntown proceeds to boast that the 
Empress Maud, many kings of England and Scotland, and Pope Clement II., were 
descended from the miller of Forteviot. He certainly knew nothing of what his 
contemporary, John of Fordun, had written, or was just about to write, that Duucan's k 
wife, " consanguinea Sywardi comitis," bore him Malcolm and Donald, iv. c. 44. 
The early writers assign no sort of domestic or personal motives for Earl Siward's 
march into Scotland, which was simply made jussu Eadwardi regis. Simeon Dunelm. 
in 1054. Duncan proceeded to load this girl with honour and dignity, 

" This woman he would have put til hyeht, 
Til great state, and til mekyl mycht ;" 

but that bad policy was put down by the revolt of the son of Finleg, 
" But Macbeth-Fynlak, his syster sowne, 
That purpose letted til be downe," 

and the crown was transferred to his head, on the death of Duncan at Elgin. cap. xiv. 

p. 206. These events happened in 1039 or 1040. Macbeth then reigned for seven- 
teen years in prosperity and affluence, 

" Rex Macabeta decem Scotise septemque fit annis, 

In cujus regno fertile tempus erat." Chron. Eleg. 

1 think 

1 Perhaps the fame of it reached the northern brought about. The miller and giantess are de- 
kingdoms. For the Samson Saga mentions, that stroyed, but the wicked son survives. Farther 
Finlog, the Jarl of Brettaland, had among his than as above, the matters are totally irrelevant, 
subjects a miller Galin, and a giantess living k He does not say " wife," but it is sufficiently 

under the mill stream ; by whom, and by their implied. Boece and Buchanan improve consan- 
son, all the distresses of that wild romance are guinea into filia. 


I think the death of Malcolm II., leaving only grandchildren through his daugh- 
ters, produced a disputed succession ab initio. Simeon of Durham was perhaps born 
about the time of Macbeth's death, since he died about seventy-two years later. He 
lived near the Scottish border at the time Duncan's sons were reigning, and ignorance 
on his part is hard to suppose. Yet he takes no notice of any King Duncan, and 
says, " anno 1034, Malcolm rex Scotorum obiit, cui Machetad successit." Sim. in 
anno in Twisden. This is the more remarkable, because Marian, of whose work 
Simeon made use, had said, " 1033-34, Maslcoluim, king of Scotia, died; Donchad, son 
of his daughter, succeeded him for five years." Simeon must have held with some 
persons who counted Duncan as an intrusive pretender; and implies that Finleg's son 
asserted his rights during the whole time. This becomes clearer at the accession of 
Malcolm III., whom Simeon describes as " son of the king of Cumberland," thus 
owning that Duncan had been appointed tanist under his maternal grandfather, and 
entitling him accordingly, but denying that he had ever been king of Scots. Sim. 
Dunelm. et Florent. Wigorn. in 1054. It is recorded by the Northmen that, at this 
same epoch of the second Malcolm's death, one Karl Hundason " took the kingdom 1 
of Scotland," that is to say, assumed the style of ardrigh ; and they appeal to m the 
contemporary and undeniable authority of the Orkney bard, Arnor Jarlaskald, of whose 
poems the authenticity will hardly be questioned. He appeared as king of Scots in 
Caithness, supported by the forces of an Irishman acting in Caithness, named 
Moddan of Duncansby, and called" brother (in the sense, I suppose, of brother-in-law) 
to the king of the Scots, whom Karl appointed to be his general, and, on Thorfinn's 
refusal of tribute, to be Jarl of Katanes. He appears to be described as cousin- 
german of Karl. But in various actions Moddan was defeated, and slain, by Thorfinn 
Sigurdson (daughter's son to Malcolm II.), and by his tutor, Thorkell-Fostri; and 
Karl, equally unsuccessful in hie own subsequent efforts, disappeared from those 
parts, and his fate was never ascertained. Orkneyinga Saga, p. 31. Karl's forces, 
besides those from Ireland, were raised both in East and West Scotland, and especially 
in Cantire . He was son to Hundi, i. e. Canis, otherwise Hvelpr, i. e. Catulus. 


1 Tok iha riki i Skotlandi Karl Hundason. ther saint or reprobate, Lanigan ii. 325-6), 

m Pinkerton lias the arrogance to say, " this and that of a Scotch saint, 

fable needs only to be read to be rejected."_ii. .. ^ to 8t M<xUm ^ ^ ^ 

p. 196. Some to St. Mary of the Lowes." 

" Skota konung's brodur Nial's Saga, cap. 86. Lu V S Latt M '""rel, vi. st. 27. 

Moddan is the same Irish name, as that of Modan Called in the Norse tongue Satiria. See 

of Kilmodan Abbey in Longford ^doubtful whe- Orkn. Saga, p. 39, p. 115. 


Sigurd, before marrying that king's daughter, had defeated the two Scottish jarls, 
Hundi and Melsnaddi or Melsnata 1 " (Maelsnectai), not far from Duncansby, and slain 
the latter. See Nial's Saga, cc. 86, 87. This Hundi should be Karl's father. Sigurd 
also himself had a son Hvelpr or Hundi, whom Olaf son of Tryggvi took to Norway 
as a hostage, and christened Hlodver. These events happened from twelve to thirteen 
years after Finleg's death ; and when Karl' 1 was quite in his youth, for Arnor Jarlas- 
kald, Earl Thorfinn's bard, says of him and the war he carried on, 

" tlngr olli r thvi theingill," 

" The youthful king was the cause thereof." 

Therefore Karl coincides with Macbeth in these points : in his probable age, in that 
he was a claimant of the crown on Malcolm's death, that he did not then succeed in 
his claims, and that he is not averred to have perished in the attempt. But he differs 
in the names, Karl Hundason being very different from Macbeth Mac Finleg. The 
difference however is evanescent; for the Norse word Karl is no more of a Scoto- 
Pictish name, than Philadelphus or Soter were Coptic names. And the Norse word 
Hundi was not any name at all, but a nick-name, being given (both to this Celt, and 
to Hlodver Sigurdson) in the alternative, Hvelpr edr Hundi, Hundi etha Hvelpr, 
anglice, " either hound or puppy." We chiefly, if not solely, meet with it for a 
name 5 in Orkney and Caithness ; and perhaps it was adopted from the Gaelic appella- 
tion by which alone a king of Scots of the tenth century (a vile person, but whether 
so called on that account I do not say) is known to us, Culen or Catulus. Vide Olaf. 
Trygg. cap. xcviii. torn. i. p. 202, ed. 1 825 ; et ap. Snorro, cap. xi. p. 145 ; Torfaii Ore. i, 
cap. x. cap. xiii. Considering the synchronism of Simeon Dunelmensis; that Malcolm II. 
could scarcely have any claimant of his inheritance named Karl, otherwise than 
through his daughter, Sigurd's wife; that no idea of a Norse claim to the succession, 
through Sigurd, is anywhere hinted ; and that the right and might of such a claim, 
had it been raised, would have been with Malcolm's grandson, the valiant Thorium 
Sigurdson, Earl of Orkney and Katanes ; I am induced to the belief, that Macbeth in 
his youth was known in the northern jarldoms by the Teutonic appellation of Karl, 
man, and that his father, Finnleikr Jarl, who fled before Sigurd Hlodverson at the 


p Mel is the regular equivalent of the Gaelic 'Olli, in causa fuit, from the verb velld, efficere, 

Maol or Mai. in causa esse. 

i Therefore I have rendered the ambiguous * I mean standing by itself ; for, added on to 

word systrson, applied to Moddan (Orkn. p. 30), other names, we find Sigurd Hund and Thorer 

by cousin-german, and not nephew. Hund in Norway. 



Skidamyri, was likewise the Hundi Jar], dog, whom the same prince defeated, also in 
Caithness ; the son's title standing in favourable antithesis to the father's. Finleg 
did not fall by northern hands, neither did this Hundi or Hvelpr ; and* Maelsnectai, 
the name of this Hundi's colleague in the war, was a name used in the house of 

The most violent domestic occurrence of Macbeth's reign happened in 1045, 
namely, the bloody battle in which Crinan, father of the deceased Duncan, fell, 
preelium inter Albanenses invicem, in quo occisus est Crinan Abbas Dunceldensis et 
multi alii cum eo, i. e. novies viginta heroes. Tigh. It is written, that Macbet filius 
Finlach gave lands to the Culdees, i. e. the Chapter, of Lochlevin. Eegr. of Lochl. 
But very few of his acts have been permitted to survive. In 1054, Siward, Earl of 
Northumberland, was sent into Scotland by the Confessor, and gained a battle over 
Macbeth, whom he put to flight, fugavit. Sim. Dun. in anno. Chron. Sax. ibid.; 
Flor. Wig. ibid. Two Norman nobles who had found refuge at his court in 1052, by 
name Osbern and Hugo, fought on Macbeth's side and were slain Roger Hoveden 
in anno. Ulster Annals describe it as a battle between the men of Albany and the 
Saxons, in which 3000 of the former and 1500 of the latter fell, and on the Saxon 

side a certain Albanian (to judge from his name) called Dolfinn, son of Fiuntur Ann. 

Ult. in 1054. By like order of King Edward, the Earl constituted Malcolm Ceannmor 
king Sim. et Flor. ibid. It cannot be said what portion of the country he succeeded 
in conquering. But whatever Siward may have proclaimed after gaining the battle, 
the accession of Malcolm is universally dated more than two years later. Siward 
died the next year, and Malcolm resumed the war in 1056. On the 5th of De- 
cember 1056 (Fordun) Macbeth was slain in a battle fought against Malcolm, at 
Lumphannan in Aberdeenshire ; and he was buried in the royal cemetery of lona. 
His fame has been both obscured .nd magnified through a mist of lies, partly fabri- 
cated in honour of the house of Stuart, but now immortalized and enshrined for 

After the battle of Lumphannan, Lulach Mac Gilcomgain, son to the burnt Maormor 
of Moray, first cousin once removed from Macbeth, and perhaps his stepson and 
ward, was proclaimed King at Scone by the opponents of Malcolm. In the Nomina 
Regum he is Lulach Fatuus; in Wyntown, vi. 19, Lulawch Fule; in the Chron. 
Regum Scotise, temp. Willelm. filii David, simply Lulach ; and in the Chron. Rhyth- 


1 It may be answered, that perhaps Macbeth main just the synchronism of Simeon, and what- 
did not claim from the Malcolms, but from the ever is conformable in the circumstances of Fin- 
competing line of Indulf. If so, there would re- leg. 


micum (before 1291) it is, absurdly, Lahoulan; MSS. of the Duan have Lulagh and 
Lugaidh". The Mac Gilcomgain of Ulster Annals is nepos filii Boidhe in Chron. Keg. 
Scotorum. Perhaps it should be filieo Boidhe, as Gruoch was termed; and the nepos 
is ambiguous in the Latin of those days. Whatever it means, the traditional filiation 
in Mac is of a greater weight than such a passage can have. But in that passage 
(howsoever we should correct either the copy or the author) we have Lulach's only 
title in blood, that I am aware of, to become tanist of the supreme crown, namely 
his descent, probably maternal, and through the lady Gruoch", from Boidhe, son 
of Kenneth Macduff. His reign was of four months (Nomina Regum), or of four and 
a half (Chron. Reg. Scot., and the prose dates in Chron. Elegiacum) ; but in the elegy 

" Mensibus infelix Lulach tribus extiterat rex. 
Nevertheless, the old Mr. O'Conor's copy of the Duan Albanach says expressly, 

" Seacht mbliadhna i bfhlaitheas Lulaigh," 

" Seven years was the reign of Lulagh." v. 104. 

Another copy of that poem has seven months, seacht mis. He was overpowered and 
slain by Malcolm at a place called Essei in Strathbogie (Norn. Reg. Pict.) in 1057. 
Though accounted daft or fatuus, headlong temerity was probably his defect, rather 
than supine imbecility. His want of prudence was fatal to his cause, for Tighernach 
states that he was slain per dolmn, and the Chron. Eleg. runs thus, 

" Armis ejusdem Malcolomi cecidit, 

Fata viri fuerant in Strathbolgin apud Esseg, 
Heu! sic incaute rex miser occubuit." 

He was buried along with Macbeth in lona, 

" Hos in pace vires tenet insula lona, sepultos 
In tumulo regum, Judicis usque diem." 

And the consideration of his case is essential to the reign of Macbeth, the topic of 
this note. 

His reigning seven years can only be true, in case he was associated to the crown 
during the seven last years of Macbeth's reign, and died in or after the seventh year 
of his own kingship, but only in the fourth or fifth month of his own separate reign. 

I would 

" The latter male, for it is a distinct name. only does Boece charge her with instigating the 

* This lady left a sinister reputation. For not usurpation he imputes to Macbeth, but Wyntown 


I would fling it aside as a clerical error, did I not meet with circumstances, indicating 
both that he so reigned, and for that number of years. Ulster Annals say, at 1058, 
" Lulach Mac Gilcomgain, arch-king of Albany, was slain in battle by Maelcolaim 
Mac Doncha;" and Tighernach had said at the same year, "Lulach, king of Albany, 
was slain by Colum Mac Donchada, by stratagem." Then come other intervening events ; 
after which, in the same year, " Macbeth Mac Finnlaich, arch-king of Albany, was slain 
in battle by Maelcholaim Mac Doncha ;" and in Tighernach, " Macbetad Mac Finlai 
was slain by Maelcolaim Mac Donchada." These statements declare that, though one 
year killed both kings, Lulach died first. Now Tighernach O'Brain died at Clon- 
macnois in A. D. 1088 (Ann. Inisfal.), thirty-one years after Macbeth and Lulach. 
And he was not born later than about 1020, though perhaps earlier, for Marianus 
was born in 1028, and spoke" of liim as " Tighernach senior meus." And, therefore, 
the latter is likely to have been Lulach's senior himself. But Tighernach could 
scarce have been ignorant" that Macbeth had ruled the whole of Albany during seven- 
teen years of his own lifetime. Therefore when he represented Lulach (no matter if 
incorrectly) as dying king of Albany before Macbeth, who had been such for so many 
years, he did, in effect, declare that they had been kings together. He did, in effect, 
deny that Lulach was, in the common sense of it, Macbeth's successor; for had he 
been such, the very phrase, Lulach, king of Albany, previously unheard'of, must have 
first reached the ears of Tighernach, together with the news of Macbeth's death. Con- 
joint reigns occur among the Picts, num. 43, 48, 63, 73; and of the Scoto-Picts, 
Kochaidh and Grig reigned together for eleven years. Such authors as Boece and 
Buchanan are not to be quoted as evidence per se; but their unexplained statement, 
that Macbeth reigned for ten years like the best of kings, and for seven years like the 
worst of tyrants, strangely coincides with the premises. Boetius, xii. fol. 246, b; 


even imagined she was Duncan's widow, and mar- historian died at fifty-five, he was twenty-four at 

ried his slayer, who the death of Macbeth. 

" Dame Grwok his emys wyf * It would be captious to reply, that this an- 

nalist has mistaken the year, putting 1058, for 

The truth may be, that she was privy to her December, 1056, and April or May, 1057. For 

husband's death and did marry with his destroyer, it is one thing to misdate slightly the occurrences 

in 1032, when Gilcomgan was burned. o f a foreign kingdom, and another to ignore a 

See O'Conor not. in Ann. Ult., p. 327. If long and famous contemporary reign. The priest 

this were understood of some other Tighernach, may now live at Clonmacnois, who will say, that 

the case would yet stand well. For sixty-eight Louis Philippe acceded in 1831, for 1830; but 

years was no long life for an ancient man of re- not he that will say, that he acceded four months 

ligion, and celebrated for learning. But if the ago. 


Buchanan, vii. 85. It divides his reign at the precise point of seven years, and changes 
its temper, with no alleged reason, but in harmony with that of a Fatuus. We 
read in a text of the contemporary Duan, that Lulach did reign seven years ; we 
collect from his other contemporary, Tighernach, that he must have reigned before the 
death of Macbeth ; and have found in historians the assertion, that Macbeth's last 
seven years strangely differed from the prior ten. It remains to corroborate the latter 
by the testimony of worthier authors. Marianus Scotus (born in 1028, as he states, 
p. 450, ed. Pistorii, 1613, and twenty-nine years old when Macbeth died) says, at the 
year 1050, Eex Scotias Machctad Komae argentum seminando pauperibus distribuit. 
Simeon of Durham, who died about half a century later than Marian, at the same 
year says the same, only putting the word fpargendo for the words seminando pauperibus. 
Lulach died in 1057, and 1050 is the year at which his Duan reign commenced, and 
at which the historians date the change in Macbeth's administration. Marianus 
neither avers that he took the money to Eome, nor that he sent it ; but he couples 
the ambiguous word distribuit with the gerund seminando, which graphically ex- 
hibits him casting his largesses among the crowd. Wyntown, a simple and faithful 
writer, so understood the matter: 

" Quhen Leo the Tend [ninth] was Pape of Rome, 
As pjlgryne to the curt he come, 
And in his almus he sew [seminavit] sylver 
Til all pure folk that had myster [need]." vi. p. 226. 

But he was again in Scotland before the end of the year 1052 Hoveden in anno. 
Certainly the fact of his pilgrimage to Rome (of which Canute the Great had set the 
example some twenty years before) can only be denied by putting a harsh construc- 
tion on the words of Marianus, or by rejecting his testimony, than which we cannot 
look for better, as he had not emigrated to Germany in 1050. But that fact, if ad- 
mitted, remarkably confirms the premises, for it shews him actually quitting for a 
time, and therefore intrusting to another, the helm of government in the year in 
question. And, if he intrusted it to another, then to what other than him, who is 
asserted to have come to the crown at that very date, and who is assumed to have 
been king of Albany before Macbeth's death ? Likewise the reading of the Duan, 
which confines him to months, gives seven months, a number quite different from all 
the other accounts of his sole reign. It may therefore well be credited, that his 
entire reign was seven years, and his sole reign of three or four months. For the 
authority of the Scottish documents in general leads us to suppose, in opposition to 
the Irish annalists, that Lulach did survive Macbeth. 

I am 


I am not only at a loss for Macbeth's claim (hereditary or 1 tanastic) to the crown, 
but am unable to satisfy myself as to his appellation. I do not understand how the 
son of Finleg is called son of Beth ; or how a filiation, even if true, could supply the 
place of a name in the ancient mode of nomenclature. Yet we read of his contemporary, 
Macbeathaidh M'Ainmirech : and in the ninth century St. Macbethu and two other Irish 
pilgrims visited England. Sax. Chron. in 891. Probably it expresses the mother's 
name, and so resembles the use of Mac Ere, with this difference, that the great fame 
of Erca, the mother of kings, partly superseded Muirchertach's own name, but Macbeth 
had no other. The name Beathaig is said, in Armstrong's Dictionary, to be Gaelic 
for Sophia, and the Gaelic Society's Dictionary says that Beathag means Rebecca. As 
wisdom is blessed, and Rebecca was blessed, this curious identity of dissimilar names 
resolves itself into the Latin Beata. We know not who Macbeth's mother was ; for 
Wyntown's tale, that she was Duncan's sister, and that of Boece, that she was Doada, 
Duncan's maternal aunt, have no firm basis in history. But the name Beathaig, or 
Beata in Latin, is the same with that of Bethoc (as the older Latin documents' term 
her), daughter to Malcolm II., wife to Crinan of Dunkeld, and mother of Duncan ; 
the Beatrix of Fordun, Boece, and Buchanan. That is apparent from the Elegiacal 
Chronicles of Melrose, for I cannot understand them otherwise than by taking Bethoc 
to mean Beata: 

" Abbatis Crini, jam diet! filia regis, 

Uxor erat Bethoc, nomine diyna sibi." 

The name is formed on the types, Beathaidh, Bethad, or Betad, and, by contemporary 
clerical error, Hetad; and Beathaigh, Bethach, or Betac; fortheBethu of the Saxon, 
though curious, cannot be relied on. This oscitancy may be referred to its irregular 
and exotic origin. It is singular that the very same alternation shews itself in Daoda 
and Doaca, Macbeth's mother in Boece and in Buchanan; being, as it were, decapi- 
tations of Bethod and Bethoc. Therefore I take Macbethach, Macbeathaidh, Mic- 
beatha, Macbeth, Macbethu, &c., to mean Filius Beata; ; and suspect it to signify, in 
this particular instance, that Bethoc, daughter of Malcolm, gave birth to Finleg's son, 
either before or during her union with Crinan, or after some dissolution thereof. The 
legend that he was son to Duncan's sister, would make him a grandson of Bethoe, 
while Boece makes him her nephew Wynt. vi. 1 6, v. 47 ; Boetius, 246, b. But the 


v Since the time of Kenneth III. or IV., son and the nearer line of Duff. 

of Malcolm, the two principles of succession had z And as other women were called. See Char- 

been conflicting; and the former gaining upon tul. of Jedburg, ap. Pink. ii. 192. 
the latter, to the prejudice of both Indulf's line 


same fable of his birth supposes the incontinence" of his mother ; for she sauntered 
into a wood, where she met 

" A fayr man 
Of bewte plesand, and of hycht 
Proportiowned well in all mesoure, &c. : 
Thar in tliar gainyn and thar play 
That persown by that woman lay, 
And on her that tyme to sowne gat 
This Makbeth." vi. 18, vv. 59-74. 

That lover, it is added, was the Devil himself; which accounts for Wyntown always 
calling him Makbeth- Fynlak, not son of Fynlak; but does not equally agree with hib 
Latin quotation, 

" Of this matere are thire wers 
In Latyne wryttene to rehers 
A Fynlake natus percussit eum Macabeda." 

But if we substitute Finleg for Satan, and Duncan's mother for his sister, Mac- 
beatach in one word becomes Mac Beatach in two, and the whole affair receives eluci- 
dation. The blood of Malcolm II. is as good in Macbeth as in his half brother 
Duncan, legitimacy excepted ; and if it was proposed to make the bastard of the 
miller's daughter tanist of all Albany, that argument was abandoned. 

In A. D. 994, Kenneth III. or IV. father of Malcolm II., grandfather of Bethoc 
and great-grandfather of Duncan, was a suis occisus, and per dolum. Tigh. and Ann. 
Ult. It is said, the lady Finele or Fenella, daughter of Cruchne or Cruthneth, thane 
of Angus or Forfar, and mother to Cruthlint, chieftain of Mearns, instigated her son 
to murder her father, for which he was put to death by Kenneth. To revenge his 
death and to advance the rival interests of the families of Culen and Duff, she allured 
Kenneth into her house (probably Glammis castle) and there assassinated him. It 


a Who, therefore, could not be " nomine the Scoto-Saxon era, the history of the house of 
digna." But it is very plain, that the Scoto- Kuadri in the lines of Finleg and Gilcomgan was 
Saxon successors of Ceannmor, and their writers, obscured, partly by silence and partly by false- 
delivered a different sort of history, both in state- hood, and to us remains the amusement of con- 
ment and in suppression, from the previous tra- jecture ; but we may as well judge the case of 
ditions. Till Fordun had established the manu- Warbeck by Tudor testimony, as that of Macbeth 
facture of Scotch history, both modes of thinking and Ceannmor by the language of the Duncanites 
continued alive, and between them Wyntown's of that era. 
honest mind was bewildered, and so are our's. In 
IRISH AECH. SOC. NO. 1 6. m 


may be supposed, from their names, that this family (otherwise unknown) were Picts". 
In 1033-4 a similar fate befell his son Malcolm II., who was treacherously slain at 
Glammis by the same Angusian family. See Fordun, iv. 32,41, 44; Boetius, 233, 
234, 246; Buchanan, vi. pp. 105, 1 10. John of Fordun, availing himself of that lady's 
name and of its resemblance to Finleg, has published this account of Duncan's death : 
" He was slain by the crime of that family who had killed both his grandfather and 
his great-grandfather, of whom the chief was Machabeus, son of Finele ." iv. cap. 44. 
By transforming Mac Finleg into Mac Fincle, Son of Fenella, he sought to load Mac- 
beth with odium as an hereditary murderer of kings. And in this knavery of Fordun 
originated the whole notion of his being thane of Angus, or, as it is sometimes styled, 
thane of Glammis, a residence of the lords' 1 of Angus, very near Forfar. Boece, who 
could not stomach the fiction of Mac Finele, reverted to the traditions which made 
him the near connexion of Malcolm and Duncan, but disguised his paternal origin 
under the fictitious name of Synele, and, with Fordun, placed him in the thanedom of 
Angus. In this manner the old, and probably true, traditions of Cromarty were 
upset. Thane of Angus or Glammis merely signifies son of Fenella. But Finleg, 
Malbrigid, and Macbeth were mormaers of the North, or country above the Grampians. 
See above, p. Ixxx, note g . 

However, without detracting from the infamy of these liars, I would offer this 
remark. All parties seem agreed to regard Macbeth, considered as an aspirant to the 
crown, as the son of a woman, and to find in her bloo^d, either his claim to the crown, 
or his hostility to it. And if in fact it were not so, I do not clearly see how that 
idea should have established itself. Though Finleg M'Ruadri, mormaer of Crombath 
and the Croeb, was a powerful toparch, nothing indicates him, and no one considered 
him, as contributing to the fulfilment of the third salutation ( //.) 

No. XX. 

b Those who record them having no such know- 
ledge or intention. But, on the other hand, the 
father is called Cunechat in the Norn. Kegum. 

c Mr. Chalmers asserts (Calcd. i. 406), that 
Fordun calls him son of Finlegh, ami that he men- 
tions nothing of him or his father being maormor 
or thane of Angus. It seems that he had not read 

Fordun, who never mentions Finlegh, but calls 
his mother filia Cruchne, comitii de Angus, cui 

nomen Finele c. 32. 

d Shakspeare, from topographical ignorance, 
has introduced (in Act v. scene 2) a thane of 
Angus bearing arms against the thane of Glammis. 


No. XX. Seepage 153. 

The section " on the origin of the Cruithnians," occurs in the Book of Ballymote, 
immediately after the opening section, beginning, 650 Nenniup, which I have num- 
bered sec. I. (see above, p. 26). It is as follows : 

t)e bunab Cpuicneach uno peo. 

Cpuichne mac Cmje, mic tuccai, 
tnic pappcalun, mic Gjnoin, mic 6uam, 
miclTlaip, mic Pachecc, mic lapech,mic 

Ipe achaip Cpuicneach -| cecbliaban 
&o ippi je. Secc meic Cpuichneac unnpo 
.1. pib, pibach, poola, popepeno, Ca- 
chach, Caicce, Cipig, i pecc panoaib po 
poinbpec in peapanb, uc bvjcic Colum 
cilli : 

TTIoippeipep bo Cpuichne clamn, 
Rambpec Glbam i pecc paino, 
Caicce, Cipijj, Cechac clunn, 
pib, pibac, pocla, popcpeann. 

Ocup ip e amm jac pip bib pil pop 
a peapanb, uc epc Pib -| Ce -\ Caic, -\ 

pib ,5^:1111. bliaona ippije. pioac .^l. 
bliaban. 6puibe pone, popcpeanb .Ij:;:. 
popcpeann .Vrpc. 6. Upponc. Caic ba 
bliaoan ap .pp. Uleo. Cipig .Itpcpc. b. 
6. 5 anc - Ce .jcn. bliaban. 6. Uleo. 
Qenbeccan, im. 6. Upjanc. Caic .fpf.. 


Of the origin of the Cruithnians here. 

Cruithne, son of Cing, son of Luchta, 
son of Partholan, son of Buan, son of Mas, 
son of Fathecht, son of Japheth, son of 
Noe e . 

He was the father of the Cruithnians, 
and reigned an hundred years. These are 
the seven sons of Cruithne, viz. : Fib, Fi- 
dach, Fodla, Fortrenn, Cathach, Caitce, 
Cirig; and they divided the land into 
seven divisions, ut dixit Colum-cille: 

Seven of the children of Cruithne 
Divided Alba into seven portions; 
Caitce, Cirig, Cetach of children', 
Fib, Fidach, Fotla, Fortreann. 

And it is a name of each man of them 
that is given to their respective portions, 
ut est, Fib, and Ce, and Cait, et reliqua. 

Fib reigned xxiv. years. Fidach xl. 
years. Bruide Pont. Fortreann Ixx. 
Fortreann Ixx. B. Urpont. Cait two 
years and xx. Uleo. Cirig Ixxx. years. 
B. Gant. Ce xii. years. B. Uleo. Aen- 
beccan, im g . B. Urpont. Cait xxx. years. 

B. Gnith. 

' See above, p. 51, where the genealogy of 5 Aenbeccanim. The scribe appears to have 

Cruithne is somewhat differently given. taken the numeral denoting the year of the reign, 

' See above, p. 155, note '. for im. the usual contraction for imoppo. In the 

m 2 


bliaoan. 6. J5 n ' c h' pmecca .lr. bliaoun. B. Gnith. Finecta Ix. years. B. Urgnith. 

ft.Upjmch. ^UIDID. 5 a bp e - 6. pech.i. Guididh. Gadbre. B. Feth i. Geisi.year. 

^eip .1. b. 6. Uppeicip. 5 e r c 5P UID & B. Urfeichir. Gestgruid xl. B. Cab. 
xl. 6. Cab. 

The remainder of the list is so corrupt that it would be useless to attempt a trans- 
lation. It is thus given in the manuscript: 

.^cpc. b. .6. Upcal. 6puioe ponr .per;:. b. Cnic pi Ulao .li. Upcinc oe 
oobeprea p' b. per jac pip oib. -| b. Upper panoa na peap b. Ruaile po jab- 
paoap .1. uc epc illeabpaiB na Cpuirneac 6pume Gpo b. 5 a P c b. CIpjapc b. cino 
b. Upcmo. b. Uip. b. Upuip. b. 5P lcn - b. Upjgiich. b. tTlum. b. Upmuin. 

The gross inaccuracies of the list of kings can only be accounted for on the suppo- 
sition that the transcriber (not perhaps the transcriber of the Book of Ballymote, but 
some former copyist) found the names written in double columns (a thing very com- 
mon in ancient Irish manuscripts), and, not perceiving that the columns were distinct, 
he copied them in one continuous line. On this supposition the list may be corrected 
as follows: 

pib .^pcmi. bliaDna ippije. 

piouc .pel. bliaonu. 6. Ponr. 

popceano .Ijcj:. 6. Upponr. 

Cuic oa bliaoan ap .p:r. 6. eo. 

Cipij .Vycx. bl. 6. 5 ar >c. 

And so on, where the reader will observe that the intermixture of the Bruides 
with the other names will be fully explained until we come to the paragraph which 
has been given above without a translation ; in it the corruption is much greater: 
but it is also explained by supposing the manuscript from which the transcriber 
copied to have been written thus : 

Up^ep .ppp. bliaoan. 6. Upcal. 

6pume pone -Wf- bli. 6. Cine. 

pi Ulao ...... [bpui] 6. Upcinc. 

oe aobepceup'. [i. e. ppi] 6. per. 

jac pip oib i 6. Upper. 


former copy of this list of kings Oenbegan is as- But the present copy is so full of errors and cor- 
signed a reign of 100 years ; see above, p. 15o. ruptions that it is of no value. 


panoa na peap ...... 6. Ruuile. 

po jabpaoap .1. uc ept 

illeabpaib na Cpuicneac 6. Gpo. 



6. Cmo. 

And so on. ' The transcriber ought to have written down the first column, until he 
came to the words illeabpaib na Cpuicneac, and then to have begun the second 
column, 6. pone; 6. Upponc, &c. If this conjecture be well founded, it will follow 
that Bruide Pont was the last of the first series, and the first of the kings who took 
the common title of Bruide. The words pi Ulab would seem to imply that B. Pont 
was King of Uladh, or of the Dalaradian Picts ; but it is more probable that for pi ulao 
we should read ano uao. (See above, p. 156.) 

The Book of Lecan contains three different copies of this section. In fact, as I 
have already remarked (see p. 154, supra, note q ), the Book of Lecan contained two 
copies of the Irish Nennius. In the first of these the chapter which I have marked 
sect. I. p. 25, supra, is omitted, and the work begins with sect. II., " Britonia insola," 
&c., down to the word " Saxons" (sect. III. p. 29, supra), omitting, however, the 
list of British cities. Then follows : 

t)o bunao Cpuicnec po. 

Cpuichne mac Cinje, mic 6ucca, 
mic papcalon, mic Qjnon, mic 6uam, 
TnicTTIaip, mic pachechc, mic lauao, mic 
lachpeo, mic Nue, mic 6aimiach. 

lpheachaipCpuichnech-| ceo bliaoain 
oo ipp'5' amail a oeapap peamamo. 
Seachc meic Cpuichnech mpo .1. pio, -] 
Pioach, polcla, Popcpeno, Caic, Ce, 
Cip'5; T ' .UH. peanoaib panopaca peap- 
ano, amail aobepc m c-eoluch : 

TTIotppeirep DO Cpuichne claino 
Rainn Qlbain ippeachc paint); 


Of the origin of the Cruithni this: 

Cruithne was the son of Cinge, son of 
Luchta, son of Parthalon, son of Agnon, 
son of Buan, son of Mas, son of Fathecht, 
son of Jadud, son of Jathfed, son of Nea, 
son of Lamech. 

lie was the father of the Cruithnians, 
and he reigned an hundred years, as was 
said before. The seven sons of Cruithne 
are these: Fid, and Fidach, Foltla, For- 
trenn, Gait, Ce, Cirig ; and they divided 
his land into seven parts, as the learned 
man said: 

Seven of the children of Cruithne 
Divided Alban into seven portions; 



Caic, Ce, Cipij cecach damn 
Pib, Pioach, polcla, Poipcpeanb. 

Ocup ipe amm each pip oib pil pop a 
peapano, uc Pib, -\ Ce, -\ Caic, ipc. .;tiii. 
pioec DO jobpab bib. 

6puoa pone .f^ a . pijuao,-] &puioe 
aobepce ppi each peap oib, -| panna na 
peap aili; po jubpaoap cpe .1. ap. c. uc 
epe illebpaib na Cpuichnech. 

Gait, Ce, Cirigh of the hundred chil- 
Fib, Fidach, Foltla, Foirtrann. 

And each gave his name to his own land; 
as Fib, and Ce, and Gait, &c. Thirteen 
kings of them possessed [i. e. reigned]. 

Bruda Pont, thirty kings afterwards, 
and Bruide was the name of each man of 
them ; and they took the portions of the 
other men [i. e. of the former kings] for 
one hundred and fifty years, as it is in the 
books of the Cruithnians. 

The second form of this ancient fragment of history occurs in the same connexion, 
and is, for substance, the same as that given above, pp. 50, 5 1. After the same account 
of the children of Galeoin, son of Hercules, who seized upon the islands of Orkney, 
there follows the genealogy of Cruithne, as quoted already, note k , p. 50, and then 
we have: 

Ip he aehaip Cpuichnech, -| cee blia- 
Dain ippije. Seachc meic Cpuiehne 

He was the father of the Cruithnians, 
and reigned an hundred years. These 

tnopo .1. pio, -| p\oach, -| Poclu, -| Pope- are the seven sons of Cruithne, Fid, 

peann, Caic, 
Colam cilli. 

Ce, -\ Cipic ; uc oi;cic 

Then follow the verses, as given, p. 50, 

Co po pomopeac i .un. pannaib in 
peapann, ) ip e amm each pip oib pil pop 
a peapano, uc epc Pib, Ce, Caic, ipc. 
.;ciii. pi con jobpao bib poppo; -| jubaip 
Onbecan mac Caic mic Cpuichne aipo- 
piji na pecc pann pin. 

and Fidach, and Fotla, and Fortreann, 
Gait, and Ce, and Ciric, as Columbcille 


after which we read : 

So that they divided the land into 
seven portions ; and each man gave his 
name to his own territory: as Fib, Ce, 
Gait, &c. Thirteen kings of them pos- 
sessed [i. e. reigned]; and Onbecan, son 
of Gait, son of Cruithne, seized upon the 
supreme sovereignty of those seven divi- 

Then follows, as in the text (p. 50, supra), pinoacca pa plaich n-6penn, &c. 
The third copy of the same document occurs in the beginning of what I suppose 



to have been a second transcript 11 of the Irish Nennius, which begins as in the Book 
of Ballymote, and the manuscript from which the text of the present work is taken, 
with the section, Ego Nennius, &c. 

After that section we have the following : 

t)o bunaoaib na Cpuichneach anopo booeapoa. 

Cpuichne mac Injje mic lucca mic pappchalon mic 6uam mic TTlaip mic 
pachechc mic lachpec mic Naei. Ip h-e achaip Cpuichnech -| ceo bt. oo i pi^e. 
Sechc meic Cpuichne anopo .1. pib ) ce -| Cipich, pt. -\ i peachc panoaib po 
pannpao a peapano, ) ipe amm each pip oib pil pop a peapann amujj. pib imoppo 
ceachpa bliaoaria pichic t>o i piji. Pioach .;cl. bt. 6puio puinc. Poipcpenn .Ijc^e. b. 
Upponncatc V T;CII. Upleoce p\. Upleocipich .Ipy:^. b. ^jancaenbeccan .m. b. 
Upjjanc caic .ppp. b. ^jnich pmoacca .1*. 6pu5nich 5111010 juobpe, b. Pech .1. 
^ep.i.b.b. Uppechcaipsepcjuipio .1. ^l. b. Claupjapc cpichu b .b. Uppcal 6puioi 
POHC cpicha .b. pijulao oe aobepchea ppi each peap oib -| punoa na peap. 6. 
Cmc. 6. Upchmoc. 6. PCUC. 6. Uppeuo. 6. Ruale po jabpaoap. 6. ap bt. .uc 
oicicup a lebpaib na Cpuichneach. 6puio 6po. 6. 5 a ) 1!C ' ^- ^P5 a P c - & Cinn. 
6. Upchino. 6. Uip. 6. Upuip. 6. 5n ocn - 6.Up5poch, 6. ITluin. 6. Upumain. 6. Ip 
amlaio pin po ppic. 

This is also very corrupt ; and as it adds nothing to what we have learned from 
the former copies, it is not worth our while to attempt a translation or a correction of 
it. The scribe appears to have been sensible of its incorrectness when he adds the 
apology, Ip amlaio pin po ppic, " Thus it was found." It is followed by the section 
beginning, 6picania inopola, &c., as given above, p. 27. (T.) 

No. XXI. Seepage 154. 

Since the note vi. p. x. was printed, I have learned that the gloss scuite, wanderer, 
is not found to exist elsewhere, and that suspicion therefore arises of dictionaries 
having been interpolated, with a view to that very purpose to which I have applied 
them. This has induced me to expend some further observations on the subject. 

The first point in it is, that an indigenous etymology produced the word Scoti, 
having one T, and the O long by nature. Though Isidore's direct assertion, that 
Scotus was a word in their own language, may lose weight from his making it equi- 
valent to Pictus, and explaining it to mean punctured with the painting needle, 


h This second transcript begins immediately which the first copy seems to have concluded, 
after the Wonders of Britain and Man, with See above, p. 120. 


yet it shows that he knew of no origin for it out of their own language. Isid. Hisp. 
Etymol. ix. torn. iii. p. 41 4- Ed. Arevali. It is not a Latin word; it is not British, nor 
did it even become such by adoption ; nor is it fetched from the Teutonic tribes, in 
any form that I can esteem specious. But the name came up under Julian at latest, 
when those tribes were scarce beginning to move upon the empire's western shores 
and ocean: to which date other weighty considerations may be joined. Firstly, it is 
absurd, and out of nature, that the Roman authors should exchange a name handed 
down by Py theas, Eratosthenes, Cassar, Strabo, Pliny, Tacitus, Ptolemy, &c., to adopt 
one freshly introduced by Saxons, Franks, and Alans, supposing their dialects had 
furnished it. Secondly, the Irish historians restrict the use of it to one of their races, 
while foreigners employ it generally ; which exhibits the usual difference between the 
native and foreign, proper and improper, use of a term. Let us therefore pronounce, 
with Isidorus, that whosoever were called Scoti were so called propria lingua. 

It remains doubtful who they were that were so styled, and when, and why. That 
Porphyry, an Asiatic sophist of the third century, had used the word ZKurua or 
XKUTUIV, where Jerome put Scotica; gentes, seems to me very unlikely. The third of 
the fragments of geography' by different authors, but ascribed to one ^Ethicus, is a 
mere extract from the first book of Orosius ; and Ilegesippus is a composition of the 
twelfth century. Therefore Ammianus, circa 390, is our first written authority; but 
we cannot otherwise understand him, than that those marauders were known by that 
name in the year of which, as well as that in which, he wrote, viz., in A. D. 360. That 
Constans in 343 had been opposed to Scoti may be conjectured; but it cannot be in- 
ferred from the expressions of Ammian. When the name in question began to be used 
in Ireland is unknown, and how it was there used is important. If it were an ancient 
name of the Irish for themselves, unknown to foreigners until they had improved their 
acquaintance with Ireland, but then adopted by them generally (as foreigners know 
the names German or Allemand, but have to learn the name Duutsch), it follows that 
the name is vernacular among the Irish people. But such (I believe) it neither is, nor 
ever was. Unwritten discourse does not so style them, nor does that of the Celts of 
Britain. Then as to writers, their date is late in Ireland, and their manner of using 
the word perhaps unsatisfactory. They almost all possessed some Latin learning; 
and a Gaelicized adoption of the Latin word Scotus may prove no more than is proved 
by Tighernach's plain Latin " monumenta Scotorum." It is not evident what word 
we are to accept for it in Irish. The poem ascribed to St. Fiech of Sletty, st. 1 8, em- 
ploys the dative plural Scotuibh, than which an earlier instance may (perhaps) not 

1 Ad Calcem Pomp. Mete, p. 62. Ed. Gronovii, 1772. 


readily be found. That is Scotus with an Erse inflexion. But others have Cineadh 
Scuit. And a chronicle cited by Dr. O'Conor varies in the name, speaking of Rifath 
Scut or Scot, from whom proceeded the Scuit. Proleg. n, Ixxxvi. But this name 
is taken from Mount Riphseus ; the Scythian my thus, garnished with a scrap of Scy- 
thian geography. That either the Irish nation, or that major portion of it with which 
their mythologists connect the Scythian mythus, ever called or knew themselves by 
such a name, either generally, or vernacularly, or otherwise, than as some aborigines 
of America have learned to call themselves Indians, is opposed to the evidences of 

The derivation from Scythse is strictly impossible, for no nation so styled itself, 
though the Greeks did so call a large body of tribes or nations. Herod, iv. c. 6. 
Dr. O'Conor observing this, and that their true name was Scoloti (Herod, ibid.), tried 
to deduce Scoti from Scoloti; thus obstinately maintaining the historical derivation 
of the mythologists, but upon a different verbal etymology, and with the disadvan- 
tage of the additional and immutable consonant L. But it is the wildest excess of 
credulity, and the lowest prostration of the critical faculty, to believe that the eques- 
trian nomades of the East galloped away to the shores of Gaul, and there dismounted, 
and took boats, to go and tramp the forests and bogs of Erin, for no other reason 
than because semi-barbarous writers, of a class well-known throughout all Europe, 
have played some tricks with the letters S, C, and T, and (what is more) with the wrong 
S, C, T. The Scytho-Scolotian theory must rest on the basis of Scot having been the 
national and vernacular name, without interruption, from the first beginning down- 
wards, than which nothing can appear more untrue. That very portion of the fable 
which insinuates truth, by making the Scot colony the latest of the Irish denominations, 
proves it to be a fable, because the recency of the Firbolgian name, which preceded 
it, is proveable, as I shall show; but will not waste more words on such a topic as 

I have observed that Scoti was the name of the Scoti in their own language ; and 
I have also observed, that it neither is, nor ever was (to our knowledge) the name of 
the Gaoidhil, or Irish nation, in their own discourse; and can scarce be said to have 
established itself in their writings, always excepting such as treat of the Scythian 
mythus. Here is something to explain, if not to reconcile. 

Since the name is Irish, and the Irish nation did not call themselves so, who did? 
Those to whom the Romans first applied it. But who were they? The armaments 
of marauders who came over from Ireland to ravage the province of Britannia. Such 
is our original date and application of the word. The question is, whether it was an 
exclusive application. And the affirmative may be supposed, from its not being any- 

IRISH ARCH. soc. 1 6. n where 


where found earlier, and not being found national in Erin. Thus it would seem as if 
Irishmen were not Scoti, but expeditions of Irish warriors and pirates were. It may 
B here well to remind the reader, that many names more or less famous in history 
were not the names of nations or countries, but those of belligerent associations of 
men. Such were the Bagaud*, the Vargi, the Aiteach-Tuatha, the Maroons, the 
Chouans, and the Pindarrees; but none more to our purpose than the Vikingar' and 
the Buccaneers, names terrible in the ears of foreigners, yet belonging to no nation 
The first instance I know of the territorial phrase, Scotia, is in Isidore of Seville,' 
whom David Rothe of Ossory cites at the year 630. Tractatus, sect. iv. ap Messing- 
ham, Flor. Insulse SS.; Isidori Orig. xiv. cap. 6, torn. iv. p. 171. Arevali. 

The same Isidorus has flatly affirmed, that Scoti signfied men stained by acupunc- 
ture. And it were wrong, in our state of ignorance, to reject with flippancy a positive 
issertion, which may have been derived from the lost books of Ammian, or some other 
jrave authority. Nor is the statement absurd, either in word or in matter For 
h and sgoth are genuine Irish glosses for a flower, which will either apply to a 
people painted" with flowers, as the Britons opposed to Severus were with animals 
ypofoJj X W (uuv , or generally, to ornament by diversity of colour; AvOi^, varie- 
tated.stmguo.-E. Lluyd; O'Reilly; Scapula, Lex. This laxer sense shews itself in 
nh morbus (Lluyd), and sgot, common speech" for spot or blemish, macula (ap. 
Gaeh Soc. Diet.; and Macleod and Dewar's), seemingly in allusion to exanthematous 
^orescent maladies. And as regards the matter, it would not be improbable but 
e reverse, that those Irish marauders, who first came over in fleets of coracles to 
support the Gwyddyl Fichti in their depredations, were of the Crutheni and this 
bemg probable m itself, it is possible that the name thus originating may have inured 
to subsequent expeditions of the red Irish. 

But the same gloss hath other idioms, flowing (I believe) out of the idea of flower 
Scoth, chosen, selected (O'Reilly and O'Brien) ; scoth, choice or best of any thing 
pooch na B F eap, best part of the army (G. Soc. Diet.). To the same idea belongs scoth,' 
a youth, a young lad, a son, a young shoot of a plant ; and, perhaps, also scotha and 
scuite, said by Mr. O'Reilly to mean " brambles used for fences." Now it is certainly 
no violent supposition, that the bands, who sallied forth from Erin in her piratical era, 
both were, and called themselves, her r-corh na Bpeap, the flower of her warriors. 

Besides this masculine noun, we have the same word in the feminine, scoth, sgoth, 
a boat, or small vessel; scoth-long (boat-ship), a yacht O'Reilly; Gael. Soc.; Arm- 

" Scotha Hibernis idem sonat quod /ore* sell Colgan in Vit. S. Scutini vel Scothini, 1 1 Jan., 
florum variegatio, et scotadh idem quod celeritas. p. 10. 


strong. This will scarcely arise out of the first intention of flower. But if the " flower 
of warriors" had so adopted that description as to make a very name of it, then the 
vessels in which they plied their lawless business would, in the usual idiom of sailors, 
receive the same appellation, together with the gender commonly ascribed to ships. 
What is yon vessel ? She is a pirate. What is her captain ? He is a pirate. And so 
forth. Should any one say, that Isidore had lightly assumed Scott to be an Erse 
synonyme for the Latin Picti, that the general use of the name (so rapidly diffused 
through the West) agrees but ill with a narrow derivation from the Crutheni ; and that 
the desperate adventures of the Flower of Erin, in their pirate or flower boats, intro- 
duced this late but famous name, he would (as the case now stands) carry my humble 
approbation. When people get a new name, we may also suppose new circumstances. 
TheHiberni did greatly change, viz., from mere landsmen to a race of pirates under sea- 
kings. No light reasoning in the abstract; and reinforced by the fact, that those 
belligerents were the first (within our knowledge) that obtained the appellation. In 
considering Irish words with a view to the elucidation of ancient history, it will be 
right to bear in mind, that letters, as well as signs of aspiration, were always introduced 
into the writing of words for the purpose of being pronounced ; and that any eclipsing 
or obliterated pronunciation of a letter is necessarily an idiom of speech, subsequent 
in date not only to the word, but to the act of writing it. 

I have withheld, in No. V. p. ix., my own firm belief concerning the Tuatha Be, 
because the argumentation of it is long, and incapable of compression ; but, upon 
second thought, I will here briefly state my persuasion that they were the great order 
or college of British Druids, flying before the face of the Romans into Ireland ; and 
will, with equal brevity, set forth my general notion of Irish origins. 

Hiberni of the ancients. Emigrations from Great Britain, made at dates unknown, 
but old enough for the two dialects to have diverged from their common type, of 
course fed from time to time by the arrival of other adventurers or refugees, and 
forming a population of the extremest ferity. 

Firbolg. A colony of Gaulish tribes planted along South Britain, and retaining 
the same names they had borne in Belgium. Cresar speaks of it as a known and his- 
torical fact, which remote facts in those countries were not B. G. v. 12. Within 

living memory Divitiacus, king of the Suessones and other Belgians, had reigned 
also over a great part of Britain B. G. ii. 4. That is to say, British and Gaulish 
Belgium were remembered as forming one sovereignty. Within eighty-seven years of 
their planting in Britain, the Fergusian Scots denied the superiority of the kings of 
Tara. And we shall make liberal allowance, if we say the Belgaj had held South 
Britain 1 50 years before Ceesar assailed it ; a century would, perhaps, satisfy the truth. 

n 2 The 

The Firbolg invaded Ireland from Britain, not from Soissons or any other part of 
Belgium. Because the Dumnonii of Solinus and Ptolemy (popularly misspelt Dam- 
nonii), were the Domhnon or Domhnan of the Irish Firbolg. But they had their name 
from the dyvnon, i. e. deeps, little valleys among steep hills, from which their country 
is still called Devon, and in Welsh Dyvnaint the permutation of the V, otherwise 
single F, with the M, being of perpetual occurrence, and the two consonants used 
indifferently in manuscripts of no vast age. See Lhuyd's Archaeologia, pp. 221, 228. 
So the Irish MH sounds V. The same word is Doumn, Douvn, and Doun, in the 
Armorican ; and Dom Lepelletier found, in three lives of St. Gwenole, pars Domnonica, 
pagos Domnonicos, and rura Domnonicnsia, from which he collects that there was 
also a Domnonia among the hills and vales of the Armorican Cornwall Diet. Bret, in 
Doun. The name of the Firdomhnan described the surface of a particular district in 
the greater island; while the Firbolgian tribe Firbolg, or Belgae by excellence, were, 
I suppose, from the royal demesnes of Belgica, near the Vcnta Belgarum. 

But a people do not thus indelibly receive a name from the face of their country, 
till they have been long and fully settled there. Therefore the Firbolgian conquest 
was not much older than Ctcsar's time, if it were not a good bit later. And it 
was the first influx of a civilization, rude indeed, but much superior to that of the 
Hiberni; the first emerging of a gens effera towards the higher rank of the gentes 

Tuatha De. The people of Gods, or the people of the [i. e. dear and sacred to the] 
Gods. When the druidic college could no longer maintain in Britain its vast power 
and mysterious rites, it removed them to Erin, their only sure asylum. They ob- 
tained superiority in that island more by their treasures, arts, and learning, and the 
engines of religious awe, and as gods or divine men, a tribe sacer interpresque Deorum, 
than as men, by arms and numbers. At this date, the druidical magic was systema- 
tically organized in Ireland. They have been called Danann, either falsely, from the 
more modern Dani, or ancient Danai; but rather from dan, art, poem, song (see Keat- 
ing, p. 48, O'Connor's ed.), which derivation, if it do not express the Druids, sufficiently 
expresses the Bards. 

The time of the removal of the hierarchy was after the unsuccessful wars of Cyno- 
beline's sons against the Romans; of which events the capture of Caractacus, in A. D. 
50. was the cardinal point. I have already said that the argument vastly exceeds the 
space now at my disposal, and I must, therefore, be excused for speaking meo periculo. 
But Firbolg, saith Gilda Coeman, ruled during thirty-seven 1 years. Therefore, with 


1 A poem, cited by Keating, p. 39, but of no comparable authority, says fifty-six years. 


their fulcrum in A. D. 50, our compasses will sweep through A. D. 13 for the advent 
of the Firbolg ; and I suppose it was thereabouts. The magical dynasty prevailed, 
according to the Psalter of Cashel, during 197 years, when the era of the Gaoidhil m 
arises. That is to say, the Hiberni, or general population, quasi-indigenous, of Ire- 
land, resumed that superiority which the Brito-Belgic and Druidical migrations of 
Britons had wrested from them, changed and improved in its social energies by the 
infusion of those more advanced races. This falls, as it were, upon the year 247, 
according to the Irish chronologers, combined with my date of the transfer of Druid- 
ism. But the emancipation of the Gaoidhil from the yoke of the Tuatha De is myth- 
historically identified with the rise and establishment of the Scoti. And the year 247 
is only seven years before the accession of Cormac M'Art, to whom I have (by a curious 
coincidence, for I had not made this computation) conjecturally assigned the begin- 
nings of the Scoti, as being the first recorded sea-king. But the year 50 was only 
named as the cardinal year in the misfortunes of Cynobeline's house, and not with any 
idea of its being the actual year of that great transaction. Therefore there is not 
really any discrepancy at all. I cannot refrain from thinking, that the durations as- 
signed by the seannachies to these fabulous dynasties (durations as short and modest as 
the dates are remote and extravagant) were based in truth, and may serve us for 
clues to its investigation (H.) 

No. XXII. Seepage 180. 

The following documents seem worthy of preservation, and will give the reader 
some of the principal authorities for the history of the parties mentioned in the legend 
of St. Cairnech : 

I. The first is a legend preserved in the book of Dubhaltach, or Dudley Mac Firbis, 
in the possession of the Earl of Koden, p. 112. It relates to the history of Muredhach 
Mac Eoghan, and his wife, Ere, the maternal aunt of St. Carnech. 

TTluipeaoac mac Go^ain cecpe mec Muircadhach, son of Eoghan, had four 

luip, i aon maraip leo; nfluipcfpcac, sons, who had one mother : Muircheartach, 

TTloen, pfpn&ac, -| Cijfpnac. 6apc in- Moen, Fearadach, and Tighearnach. Earc, 

fean daughter 

m Nomen quo Hibernenses se ab iramemorabili ginal Irish (and their colonies in North Britain), 

distinguunt O'Con. Proleg. ii. Ixxxviii. as distinct from the Belgians and Dananns ; and 

But its history, meaning, and affinities, seem its etymological affinity to Galli and Galata; ap- 

quite unascertained ; it belongs only to the ori- pears to me devoid of solid foundation. 


jean toaipn pij Qlban tnacaip an 
cfrpaip pin, uc 

Cecpe mec la TTluipfoac 
ppia h-6pc pa paop p6un, 
TTluipceapcac, Gijfpnac, 
pfpaooc agup ITIoeun. 

lap n-euj riiec Gojain, cuj pfpjup, 
mac Conuill ^ulban, Gape mjean 
^oaipn, 50 puj pi cerpe mec ele Do .1. 
peolim, toapn, 6pennamn, -| Seuona, 
amail appeapr, 

Cerpe mec 05 pfpjup Ppia h-6pc 
ChuBuio ceuona, 
PeolimiD agup toapn, 
6pennainn ujup Seuona, 

Camij Gape pfmpare 50 Cuipnfc po 
nirpije, ajup oob 6 meuo a h-aicpije, 
jr,o pleuccao jaca oapa h-iomaipe 6 
Cliopaij 50 h-aipin i m-buoi Caipnfc 
naom i ccpic Roip Oilij (no Ctilij), 
made pe opucc pola 05 pnije cpd 
b'uip juc mfoip 61 uj poccam Chaipnij. 
Hlo cfn DUI.C ap Caipnfc, a Gape, -| poo- 
pia nfrh, agup jac oapa l?i bup uiprhfc 
jeubup Gpinn 50 bpur jupob ooo piol, 
-] buaib mnu, -| clepi j bib, -| buaio cura 

1 corhloinn 

daughter of Loam, King of Alba, was the 
mother of those four, ut dixit [poeta], 

Four sons had Muireadhach 
By Earc, of noble worthiness, 
Muircheartach, Tigearnach, 
Fearadhach, and Moen. 

After the death of the son of Eoghan, 
Fergus, son of Conal Gulban, espoused 
Earc, the daughter of Loarn; and she bore 
four sons more for him, viz., Fedhlim, 
Loarn, Brennainn, and Seudna, as was said, 

Four sons had Fergus by Ere, 
The same were worthy: 
Fedlhimidh, and Loarn, 
Breimaiun, and Seudna. 

The aforesaid Earc came to Cairneach 
in penitence; and such was the greatness 
of her penitence that she knelt at every 
second ridge from Tory island to where 
Saint Cairneach was, in the district of 
Ross Oiligh (or Ailigh"), at the same 
time that a dew of blood was issuing 
from the top of every one of her fingers 
as she approached Cairneach. I hail thee, 
said Cairucach, O Earc, and thou shalt go 
to heaven ; and one of every two worthy 


11 Ross Oiligh or Ailigli This was the cele- 
brated palace of Aileach, near Londonderry, for a 
full account of which see the Ordnance Memoir of 
the parish of Templemore, p. 27, sq. The whole 
district was anciently called Tir-Ailigh (ibid., 
p. 207); and probably Ross Ailigh was the 
place now called the Rosses, on the Foyle, near 
Oerry. Ere is said to have passed in peniten- 

tial pilgrimage from Tory island to Ross Ailigh, 
i. e. from one extremity to the other of the dis- 
trict belonging to her race. 

Every two. Colgan says : " Hi octo Ercae filii 
in adeo magnam temporis successu crevere gen- 
tern et potentiam, ut ex eis, viginti sex universas 
Hibernia; monarchic, et omnes Tir-eoganiae (vulgo 
Tyronia;) et Tirconallise Principes, hi ex Sedna, 


1 corhlomn poppa ; -\ lap ppiorailfrh eaj- 
lupoacca o Caipnfc 61 lapurii, paoibij 
a ppiopao oocum na jloipe piopume. 

6eanoacup Caipnfc an rnaijinpm, 
cona oe ainmmjcfp .1. Ceall Gapca, 
aic lonoopcaip Gape, -| pdjbaio Caip- 
nfc coimeuD ince .1. Cpiooan Gppcop. 

Q maicleaBap Cecan TDhec pbipbi- 

PS P n - 

Gape, umoppo, ap uaice plomncfp a 
mac muipcfpcac mac Gpca. 

ITluipcfpcac mac TTluipfooi^ -\ Gap- 
ca, coij mec lep .1. pfp^up, Dorhnall, 
&aooan, Nellm, ~\ Sjanoal, arhuil ap- 

Coij mec TTluipcfptaij5 50 m-blaio 
Hlec IDuipfoaij; mic Gojam. 
t)omnall, Nellm gap^ 50 ri-jup 
6aoDan, Sjanoal ip pfpjup (no peop- 


kings who shall ever reign over Erin shall 
be of thy seed; and the best women, and 
the best clerics, shall be theirs, and suc- 
cess in battle and combat shall bo upon 
them. And after ecclesiastical ministra- 
tions from Cairneacb, her spirit passed 
into eternal glory. 

Cairneach blessed that spot, and hence 
its name, viz., Ceall Earca [Earc's cell], 
where Earc died ; and Cairneach left a 
person in charge of the place, viz., Crio- 
dan p the Bishop. 

This is from the copy of the Book of 
Lecan Meic Firbisigh. 

Earc then, from her is her son Muir- 
cheartach Mac Earca named. 

Muircheartach, the son of Muireadhach 
and of Earc, had five sons, viz., Fearghus, 
Domhnall, Baodan, Nellin, and Scannal, 
as was said, 

The five sons of famous Muircheartach, 

The son of Muireadhach, sonofEoghau. 

Domhnall, Nellin,the fierce and puis- 

Baodan, Sgannal, and Fearghus (or 


illi ex Murchertacho prodierunt." Vit. S. Car- 
nech, 2 Mart. p. 782, c. 4. And in a note 
he adds : " Hsec colliguntur ex Ketenno, lib. 2, 
ex Quatuor Magistris in Annalibus, Gilda Mo- 
duda in Catalogo Kegum Hiberniaj, et aliis pas- 
sim scriptoribus qui de eisdem Regibus agunt. 
Omnes enim numerant 16 Reges ex Eugenii et 
decem ex Conalli posteris oriundos, quorum ge- 
nealogiam referunt ad Murchertachum ex Mure- 

dacio, et ad Sednam ex Fergussio Ercae filios." 

p Criodan Perhaps this is the same whom 

Colgan mentions as a disciple of St. Petroc, or 
Pereuse, abbot of Padstow (i. e. Petrocstowe), in 
Cornwall, who died about A. D. 564. Of Crio- 
dan Colgan says : " Cridanus colitur in 

Lagenia in ecclesia de Acadh Binnich, die 1 1 
Mali." Acta Sanctorum, p'. 586. n. 11, 12, 13. 


Qoep pliocc penleabaip cianaopoa 
(nac aicne a ujoap) clann ele bo bee ajg 
rFluipcfpcac mac Gapca; map po aoep ; 
Ire annpo na 6pfcam acao ap pliocc 
cuinn ceuocacaijj .1. oia ccuj ITIuipceap- 
cac mac [Gapca] bean Cuipij 50 puj 
cerpe maca DO .1. Conpaicin -\ "foamil- 
pichr, o cca puipijj -| pij 6peacan Copn, 
1 Hellin a quo ui Nellin. 

Hi abaip an penlebap aip ace pin. 
5'6eao jibe lenab ail luppmopacc ap 
plojpaio 6pfcon-Copn peucaio an ponn 
i Sa_iuib oa n-joipic i 8111,1 Cornwall, 
uaip ajpm 6pfcamcopn. 

It is said in a very ancient book (the 
author of which is not known) that Muir- 
cheartach Mac Earca had other children. 
Thus does it say : " These are the Britons 
who descended from Conn of the Hundred 
Battles, viz., Muircheartach Mac (Earca) 
having espoused the wife of Luirig, she 
bore him four sons, viz., Consaitin, and 
Gaidil-Ficht, from whom descended the 
chiefs and kings of Britain-Corn; Neillin 
a quo Ui Neillm." q 

The old book says no more about him 
than this. But whosoever wishes to in- 
quire about the kings of Britain-Corn, let 
him search the country in Saxonland, and 
which in Saxon is called Cornwall, for 
that is Britain-Corn. 

There can be very little doubt that " the old book," whose author was unknown, 
which is spoken of and quoted in the foregoing passage, is the identical legend of St. 
Carnech, which is for the first time printed above, p. 172, seq. ; but whether Mac 
Firbis quoted it from the book of Ballymote, or from an older copy, which contained 
also other similar matter, we have now no means of ascertaining. 

II. The following curious verses will also throw light on the history of Muredach 
and Ere, the daughter of Loam. They are taken from a poem beginning Gnna 
oalca Chuipbpe cpuaio, "Enna, the pupil of hardy Cairbre;" of which there is a 
very good copy in p. 163 of a manuscript volume of bardic poetry, of great interest 
and historical value, the property of the late O'Conor Don, by whose kindness it was 
deposited in trust with the Royal Irish Academy, that its contents might be exa- 
mined and transcribed by Irish scholars. 

6apc in^ean 6ouipn jan len Earc, the daughter of unsubdued Loarn, 

maroip na n-occap mac moip-rpen The mother of the eight great brave 




q Only three of the sons are here mentioned ; 
but the fourth, " Scannall, a quo gens Scanuail," 

is given above, pp. 187, 189, where the passage 
here quoted occurs. 


ipa piol ip rpeopac rail 
irjep Gojan ip Conall. 

Cijepnac ba cp6n a pi 
ip peapaoac 50 Bplaicpi 
TTIuipceapcac, Picon meaoac 
Clann ipce pe TTluipeabac. 

Clann Cijeapnaij an caoiB re 
pil Cijeapnaij riiic Gipce 
peapaoac pem plair abaib 
6 caio Cenel peapubai j. 

[Cenel TTloain co meabaiB 
o moan mac muipenoai^ 
niuipceapcac co meaoaip m!n 
ip ua6 aipopijpab Oilijj.] 

Sil pin na j-ceirpe mac min 
DO paj Gape a n-6ojan cip 
plomnpioo oaoiB anoip jan paill 
pil mac n-6ipc a ccpic Conaill. 

Qn Gapca ipa clanna pin 
injean f,oaipn a h-Glbam 
cug peapjup mac Conaill cam 
i ap cpao capeip 

Seaona, Peiolimio po peap 
6peanamn ip ^oapn lairhoeap 


' Call is a Brehon law term, signify -ing within 
the tribe or territory. 

Eoghan andConall: i. e. Eoghan son of Niall, 
of the Nine Hostages, the father of Muireadach, 
her first husband, and Conall Gulban, the father 
of Fergus, her second husband. 

Whose seed has been powerful within', 
Between Eoghan and Conall*. 

Tigernach, who ruled with bravery, 
And Fearadhach of kingly power, 
Muircheartach, and Moan, rich in mead, 
Were the sons of Earc by Muireadach. 

The race of Tighearnach of rich domains, 
Are the Siol Tighernaigh Mic Eirce, 
Fearadhach too, a full ripe chief, 
From whom are the Cenel Fearadhaigh. 

[Cenel Moain of the mead, 

From Moan, son of Muireadhach, 
Muircheartach, the gentle andmcrry, 
From him descend the kings of Aileach. ] 

Those are the descendants of the four 

gentle sons 

Whom Earc left in Tir-Eoghain; 
Now I shall name for you without fail 
The descendants of Earc's sons in Tir 

The Earc, whose sons these were, 
Was the daughter of Loam of Alba; 
Whom Fearghus, the son of Conall, took 
To wife, for dowry", after Muireadhach. 

Seadna, Feidhlimidh, well do I know, 
BreanainnandLoarn, the right-handed, 


I Cenel Moain The four lines enclosed in 

brackets are supplied by Mr. Curry from another 
copy of this poem in the Book of Fenagh. 

II For dowry : i. e. he gave her a dowry ; which, 
according to ancient custom, was the proof of an 
honourable marriage. 


clann 6ipce oelbjopa an opuinj, 
ajup Peapjuip rnic ConuiU. 

Nip pajaib peilim DO cloinn 
ace Gojan beag ip Coluim, 
nip puj 6penamn, peim 50 pae 
ace mao 6aoicm ppirbeupcac (no 

fxoapn ba laioip a jlac 

pob uapal ppimjeme a mac 
Ronan aeaip na mac meann 
Colman Seijinn ip aippeunn. 

Na cpi mic pin o'pajaib' 6apc 

jan c-pil ace naoirh 50 naoiriineape, 

Seaona aice p6 piolao 

cuur raoipeuc ep^n piojpao. 

Seaona mac peapjupa pail 
o puil piol Seuonu paopnuip 


Were the sons of Earc, valorous the 

And of Fearghus, the son of Conall. 

Feilim left no children, 

Except Eoghan the little, and Colum v . 
Breanainn of happy career left not, 
But only Baoithin of the goodly deeds. 

Loarn, whose hand was strong. 

Illustrious was the first-born of his 


Ronan, the father of the powerful sons", 
Colman, Seighinn, and Laisreanu. 

These three sons which Earc left, 

Were without issue y , except saints of 

saintly power. 

Seadna was her's for the propagation 
Of people, chiefs, and brave kings. 

Seadna, the son of Fearghus of Fail 2 , 
From whom descended the Siol Seadna 
noble and brave, 


Colum. This was the celebrated St. Co- 
lumba, or Columb-Kille. See Colgan, Trias Th., 
p. 477. Eoghan, his younger brother, was the 
father of St. Ernan, abbot of Druim-thuama in 
Tirconnell Colgan, Acta SS. in 1 Jan. p. 7. 

w Baoitliin This was the successor of St. Co- 

lumba in the government of the monastery of 
lona, and founder of the church of Tigh-baoithin 

in Tirconnell Colgan, Trias Thaum., p. 480, 

n. 4. 

" Powerful sons : i. e. saints. For St. Colman, 
who is also called Columbanus, see Colgan, 

Tr. Th., p. 480, n. 8. For St. Seighin, or Se- 
gineus, ibid. p. 482, n. 38. It is doubtful whe- 
ther this was the Segineus who was abbot of 
liangor, and died A. D. 664, according to the 
Four Masters ; or the Segineus who was Arch- 
bishop of Armagh, and died A. D. 687. For St. 
Laisreann, see Colgan, ib. p. 481, n. 26. 

y Without issue : i. e. Fedlim, Brenainn, and 
Loarn, left no posterity except saints ; but 
Seadna was the ancestor of kings and people. 

1 Fail : i. e. of Ireland. 


Cmel u joac coip 'p a 
pluaj panao 50 piop pollup. 

Clann Ciapuin, clann Cponntnaoil 


ip clann f-omjpij 50 piojaio 
ip laopin 50 n-jniom n-jupa 
piol Seaona mic 

Siol mtc n-(3ipce pin jan a\l 
a cip Conuill ip Gojam 
olc pean a ccaipoip boi la 
DO piol cCopmaic riiic 6nnu. 

t)o cumnij Sapc comaio 0616 
ap a h-occap mac mop blair 
peaponn puire nac ppic paill 
piol mic n-6ipc a ccpic Conaill. 

Cujpac mic Peapjjupa 61 
Dpuim f,ijean ap a uaiple 


Cenel Lughdach in the East a and here, 
And the hosts of Fanad b , 'tis clearly 

The Clann Ciarain, and the fair Clann 


And the kingly Clann Loingsigh, 
They, the distinguished for valiant 

Are the descendants of Seadna, the son 

of Fearghus. 

These are the descendants of Earc's sons 

without reproach, 
In the countries of Conall and of Eo- 

ghan c , 

111 did their friendship work 
To the descendants of Cormac, son of 


Earc besought a noble gift 

From her eight sons of great renown, 
A territory, free of all claim d , to de- 

From the descendants of Earc's sons in 
Tir Conaill. 

The sons of Fearghus gave unto her 
Druim Lighean e , because of its noble- 


a In the East : i. e. in Scotland ; and here, in 

b Fanad. A territory in the north of Tircon- 
nell, extending from Lough Swilly to Mulroy 
Lough, and from the sea to Rathmelton. It com- 
prised the parish of Cloondawadoge ; and Rath- 
mullen was its chief residence. 

Eoghan : i. e. Tir Connell and Tir Eoghain 


d Free of all claim. ppic pall, a Brehon 
law term nearly equivalent to our fee simple. 

11 Druim Lighean, or Cruachan Lighean, now 
Drumleene, on the western bank of Lough Foyle, 
near Lifford, is still the name of a townland in 
the barony of Raphoe, parish of Clonleigh, or 
Clonlaodh, county Donegal. A monastery was 


ap a coimoeipi ap cip call 
ibep Gojan if Conall. 

t)o pi jne a ciomna pe n-6g 
6apc aluinn, n! h-iomapbpe'j 
a cpioc DO Caipneac miao n- 
bo bea^rhac a bepb'pearap. 

Q h-eic, a h-dp, a h-eaoac, 
a rioolacab cpoimcabac, 
a ppeapbal pop 05 pleajaiB 
uaice ap riiacaib 

Q h-eappa6 ^aca bliaona 

map bo Biao beo peim piu^la 
up ceo ba jac cpao lappin 
DO Chaipneac 6 piol Sojain. 

Caspar piol Gojam an ciop 
ppi pe Caipnijj jan acpjip, 
ajup DO pabpuc, miao n-jal, 
'na biaij pe piciob bliaoan. 

mappun ip Cappun lappin, 
oa comapbu b'eip 


For its convenient situation within the 

Between Tir Eoghain and Tir Conaill. 

She made her will before her death 
Earc, the beautiful, it is no falsehood 
She bequeathed her territory to the ve- 
nerated, powerful Cairneach, 
The goodly son of her sister. 

Her horses, her gold, her apparel, 

Her presents of many heavy hundreds, 
And that he be entertained at ban- 
For her, by the sons of Muireadhach. 

Her suit of apparel every year, 

As if she were alive, by strict injunction, 
And an hundred of every kind of cattle, 
To Cairneach, from the seed of Eoghan. 

The seed of Eoghan paid the tribute 
During Cairneach's life without mur- 

And they paid it, noble deed, 
After him for the term of twenty years. 

Massan and Cassan f then 

Were the two coarbs after Cairneach ; 


founded by St. Columba at Clonleigh (Colgan, 
Trias Thaum. p. 435, n. 53), over which St. 
Carnech perhaps afterwards presided. Colgan, 
Acta SS. p. 782. See above, p. 241, n. ' ; and 
O'Donovan's Four Masters, at the Year 1522 
(p. 1357); 1524 (p. 1371); and 1538 ("p. 1813). 
f Massan and Cassan Colgan says : " Forte 
hie Cassanus fuit unus ex quatuor Sanctis Cas- 
sanis, de quibns egimus supra hac die [28 Martii] 

in vita S. Cassani Episcopi, et fortasse quartus qui 
20 Junii eolitur. Item eum qui hie Massanusap- 
pellatur, existimo esse, qui ab aliis Assanus voca- 
tur; et eolitur 27 April, secundum Marianum et 
alios. Solent enim nostrates praefigere particulam 
Afo, vel solum M nominibus Sanctorum a vocali 
incipientibus, ut antea sa;pe monui." Acta SS., 
p. 783, n. 8. 


cucpar t)puim li^ean jan cum 
ap clop Caipmj DO conjrhail. 

Gucpac clanna Neill co par 

jan ciop gun peace jan c-pluaij- 


cm cia po conjbaib jan c-pal 
ciop Caipnij a t>ubpuoap. 

mac IDuipceapcuij ihoip 
cona cloinn uupailaporhoip 
jabpac an Dpuim pa clop os 
pip Opomu lutj oa eipe. 

They gave away Druim Lighean freely, 
Upon condition of receiving Cairneach's 

The prosperous Clann Neill gave, 
Free of expeditions or of hostings 8 , 
Although they might have kept it 

without reproach, 
Cairneach's tribute as they asked. 

Fearghus, the son of great Muircheartach, 
With his noble, illustrious, great sons, 
Took the Druim'' subject to this tri- 
And hence they were called Fir Droma'. 

Although the foregoing curious poem was never before published, yet it was not 
unknown to the indefatigable Colgan k ; and it evidently forms the authority for the 
following historical narrative, which he has given in his Life of St. Carnech: " Mortuo 
deinde secundo conjuge Fergussio, Erca a quatuor filiis, quos eidem genuerat, in SUEB 
viduitatis solatium et sustentationem donatur suprarnemorato procdio nunc Druim- 
liyean nunc Cruchan-ligean appellari solito: quod et ipsa sub mortem condito testa- 
mento S. Carnecho sobrino, de filiorum consensuperpetuolegavit; relietaque Murcher- 
tacho caterisque filiis ex priori thoro susceptis sua regia suppellectile, eosdem, ultro 
ad hoc se offercntes, obligavit ad centum capita ex quolibet arinentorum genere eidem 
S. Carnecho ejusve successor! quotannis in perpctuuui numeranda. Ilasc autem 
pia et perampla devotae Principis legata, toto tempore, quo S. Carneohus supervixit, 


Droma Lighean, the descendants of Eochaidh oi 1 
Druim Lighean, or Feara Droma Lighean, the 
men of Drum-Lighean. See the genealogy of the 
O'Donnelljs, who were the chiefs of the Fir 

6 Hostings The successors of St. Carnech, 

it appears, preferred the tribute to the land, 
which was at that time burdened with the 
charges of expeditions and hostings, the main- 
tenance of troops, and also the obligation of Droma, in the Appendix to O'Donovan's Four 
serving personally in the wars, from which the Masters, p. 2426. 

k Colgan speaks of the author of this poem 
only under the general terms of ''author quidam 

ecclesiastical character of the owners did not 
protect them. 

11 The Druim : \. e. Druim Lighean. 

' Fir Droma They were called Ui Ethach 

anonymus, qui videtur ante oetingentos vel am- 
plius annos vixisse." 


et annis insuper viginti ab ejus morte, rata et firma manserunt, et fideliter solveban- 
tur. Verum postea Cassanus et Massanus qui S. Carnecho in rnonasterii regimine suc- 
cesserant, negligentiam aliquam in annua ilia armentorum pensione solvenda, vel jam 
commissam videntes, vel ne in posterum committeretur metuentes, consenserunt ad 
dominium praedicti prajdii in filios posterosve Muredacii ea conditione transferendum, 
quod dudum statuta pensio, quotannis, ut olim consuevit, integre solveretur. Hac 
ergo transactione peracta, Fergussius supra memorato Murchertacho natus, ejusque filii 
pradictum prsedium possidendum susceperunt, et annis pluribus retinuerunt, usque 
scilicet ad tempera Domnaldi filii Aidi Hibernia? Monarches, qui ex supra memorati 
Conalli semine oriundus, ab anno Domini 623 ad 639 regnavit." Acta SS., p. 782. 

From the foregoing documents it would seem that, at the time when Ere became 
St. Carnech's penitent, he was at Ross-Ailigh. That after the liberal endowments 
bequeathed to him by Ere, he established a monastery at Drium Lighean, or perhaps 
enlarged and enriched that which had been founded by St. Columba at Cluain Laodh, 
now Clonleigh 1 . 

There are also some data furnished in the poem for determining the year of St. Car- 
nech's death. The bard tells us that the successors of St. Carnech, twenty years after 
his death, consented to give up the manor of Druim- Lighean, and that Fergus, the son 
of Muircheartach, was the sovereign who accepted this surrender, and resumed posses- 
sion of the Druim, from which his posterity were termed Fir-Droma. 

But Fergus, according to O'Flaherty's Chronology, reigned conjointly with his 
brother Domhnall for one year only, viz., A. D. 565-6. The Four Masters place the 
commencement of the reign of Domhnall and Fergus in 559, and their death in 561. 
But the Annals of Ulster favour O'Flaherty's date. It is probable, however, that Fer- 
gus entered into possession of Druim-Lighean when he was chief of Tyrone, and before 
he became king of Ireland. Therefore St. Carnech must have died before the year 545, 
if we adopt the dates of O'Flaherty ; or before the year 539, if we adopt, with Colgan, 
the chronology of the Four Masters. 

There is another St. Carnech mentioned in Irish history, who is said to have been 
bishop of Tuilen, now Dulane, near Kells, in the county of Meath ; but his memory is 
now altogether forgotten there. Colgan is of opinion that this is not the same as the 
Carnech who is the subject of the foregoing remarks. For his day is not the 28th of 


' Colgan says: " Unde cum duso ecclesise, una septentrionem, satis vicinze ; in alterutra ipsum 
Domknac-mor, de Magh-Ith, appellata ; altera Abbatis, et per consequens Episcopi munus ex- 
Cluain Laodh dicta, sint illi praedio [soil, de ercuisse existimo." Acta SS., p. 782, c. 2. 
Druim-ligean], una ad occidentem, altera ad 


March, but the 1 6th of May, under which date his death is thus recorded in the 
Feilire of Aenghus : 

&as cam 

" The illustrious death of Carnech the truly powerful." 
And the gloss adds : 

.1. Caipnech o Cuilen i pail Che- i. e. Carnech of Tuilen, in the neigh- 
nannpa, -| DO 6peacnaib Copn oo. bourhood of Cenannas [Kells], and he is of 

the Britons of Corn [Cornwall]. 

By this it appears that St. Carnech of Tuilen was not a native of Ireland, but of 
Cornwall, and therefore Colgau supposes him to be the same as St. Cernach or Caran- 
tach, whose day in the Calendar of the British Church is the i6th of May, and who 
flourished about a century before the other St. Carnech, having been, as it is said, a 
contemporary of St. Patrick Trias. Thaum., p. 231. (Acta SS., p. 783, c. 8). It is pro- 
bable that his memory was introduced into Ireland, and a church dedicated to him at 
Tuilen, by the three tuatha or septs of the British, i. e. Welshmen, who settled there, 
according to the topographical poem of O'Dugan, and who were called Comcionol 
Chaipni, or Cairnech's Congregation. 

It is of this Carnech, or Carantoch of Tuilen, that Dudley Mac Firbis probably 
speaks when he says (p. 749, MS. Royal Irish Academy) : 

Caipnecc, DO 6pernuib Copn bo, ap Cairnech, he was of the Britons of 

lame pin a ofpap Caipnec pip .1. Caip- Corn, and hence he is called Cairnech 

nee mac 6uicfic, mic f.injjib, mic Cha- [Cornish]; viz., Cairnech, son of Luitech, 

luitn, mic locacaip, mic CIlcu. Qp son of Luighidh, son of Talum, son of 

atiiluio pin nupiop ^lolla Caoriiain i Jothacar, son of Alt. This is what Giolla 

Soaipib na m-6pfcon. Caomhain relates in the Histories of the 


The History of the Britons by Giolla Caomhain, who died about A. D. 1072, 
is a work which is not now known to exist, unless it be the same as the Leabhar 
Breathnach, or Irish version of Nennius, here published: for O'Reilly states (Trans. 
Iberno-Ga^lic Society, p. cxxii.), that in the Book of Hy-Many there was a copy of 
the Leabhar Breathnach, at the head of which was a memorandum stating that Nen- 
uius was the author, but that Giolla Caomhain had translated it into Irish. The 
genealogy of St. Cairnech, however, as quoted by Dudley Mac Firbis, does not now 
occur in any of the copies of this work which exist in Dublin (T.) 

No. XXII J. 


No. XXIII. Giraldus Cambrensis on the Picts and Scots. 

In the course of the year 1 846, the Second and Third Distinctions of the work 
of Giraldus Cambrensis, de Instructione Principis, have been printed, with only ex- 
cerpta from the First Distinction. The editors excuse this mode of publication, by 
alleging that the first portion is chiefly ethical ; but the words of the following cu- 
rious extract shew that some historical notices have been omitted. 

Excerptum vi. p. 188. 

" But since thePictiand Scoti have here been mentioned, I have thought it rele- 
vant to explain who these nations were, and whence, and why, they were brought into 
Britannia, as I have gathered it from divers histories. 

" Histories relate that the Picti, whom Virgil also calls Agatirsi, had their dwell- 
lings near the Scitic marshes. And Servius, commenting upon Virgil, and expounding 
that place" ' Picti Agatirsi,' says : ' We call the same people Picti whom we call Aga- 
tirsi, and they are called Picti as being stigmatized, since they are wont to be stigma- 
tized and cauterized for the abundance of phlegm. And these people are the same as 
the Gothi. Since, then, the continual punctures superinduce scars, their bodies become, 
as it were, painted, and they are called Picti from these cauteries overgrown" with 

" So, when that tyrant Maximus went over from Britannia to Francia, with all the 
men and forces and arms of the island, to assume the empire, Gratian and Valentinian, 
brothers and partners in the empire, transported 11 this Gothic nation, brave and strong 
in war, either allied or subject to themselves, and [won]' 1 by imperial benefits, from 
the boundaries of Scitia to the northern parts of Britannia, to infest the Britons, and 


m Contrariwise, he gives to the Agathyrsi the 
epithet of Picti. 

" Neither there nor elsewhere hath the extant 
Servius (Edit. Masvicii) one syllable of this ; nor 
has he anywhere any mention of the Gothi. 

This disfiguring of the features by cicatriza- 
tion was an entirely distinct practice, and limited 
to the face. The Hunnish tribes were those who 
delighted in such deformity. Ammianus says 
they cicatrized their new-born infants xxxi. 
cap. 2. Others relate that they inflicted these 
scars on occasion of grief and mourning. But 

the statements are not incompatible. The poet 
Sidonius only means bloody when inflicted by 

- " vultuque minaci 
Kuhra cicatricum vestigia dcfodissc." AdAmtum, 239. 

p Manifestly false ; for Eumenius of Autun, 
in the year 297, spoke of the Picti in Britannia. 
Paneg. Constantio. cap. xi. 

1 Imperialibus tarn beneficiis; tarn 

being the last syllable of some passive parti- 


call home the tyrant with all the youth of the island, which he had taken away never 
destined to return. 

" But they, being strong in the warlike valour natural to Goths, nevertheless finding 
the island stript (as I have said) of men and forces, occupied no small part of its north- 
ern provinces, never meaning to revisit their own country, and of pirates becoming 

" In process of time (having married wives from the neighbouring Hybernia since 
they could have none from the Britons) they took into alliance the Hybernic nation, 
also called Scotian ; and gave them the maritime part of the land they had occupied, 
and the nearest to their own country, where the sea is narrow, which is called' Gal- 
weidia, where they afterwards became unanimous in infesting the Britons, and 
advancing their own frontiers. And it is of them that Gildas, in his treatise de Ex- 
cidio Britonum, says : ' Then Britannia, destitute of armed soldiers, and deprived of 
the vigorous young men of the country, who, having followed the above-mentioned 
tyrant, never returned home, being now entirely ignorant of the use of war, began 
first to be oppressed and trampled by two very fierce nations, the Picti from the 
north, and the Scoti from the north-west.' &c., &c s . And now I will briefly relate 
how the mighty nation of Picti, after so many victories, has come to nothing. 

" When the Saxons had occupied the island, as I have said, and concluded a stable 
peace with the Picti, the Scoti (who had been joined to the Picti, and invited by them 
to inhabit their country) seeing that the Picti (although now fewer c , because of the 
affinity of Hibernia) were yet much their superiors in arms and courage, had recourse 
to their wonted and, as it were, innate treacheries" [predictions], in which they sur- 
pass other nations. They invited* all the magnates of the Picti to a banquet, and 
when an excess and profusion of meat and drink had been taken, and they perceived 
their opportunity, they removed the pegs which supported the planks, whereby they 


' Galloway. Here Giraldus evinces his com- twice, and is not intelligible to me, I suppose we 

plete ignorance of the history and geography of ought to read proditiones. 

the Scots colony. This tale, howsoever fabulous, and borrowed 

1 The Editor has omitted much of the quota- from the story of Hengist, puts on its true foot- 

tions from Gildas. ing the pretended total extirpation of the Picts 

1 If the text is sound, it probably means that by Kenneth M'Alpin. It was an extirpation of 

the Pictish superiority of numbers was diminished the rig/is, or royal Picts, in whom the crown was 

by the succours which the Scots obtained from heritable, of the whole tanistry (if I may so term 

their mother country. it) of the realm. 

u For this word, prcedictiones, which occurs 



all fell, by a wonderful stratagem, up to their hams into the hollow of the benches 
whereon they were sitting, so that they could by no means rise ; and then straight- 
way they slaughtered them all, taken by surprise, and fearing no such treatment from 
their kinsfolk and confederates, whom they had joined in fealty to their own enfeoff- 
ment w , and who were their allies in war. In this manner the more warlike and pow- 
erful of the two nations entirely disappeared; but the other, in all respects far inferior, 
having gained the advantage in the moment of so great a treachery [prediction], 
obtained even unto this day the whole of that country, from sea to sea, which after 
their own name they called Scotia." (H-) 

No. XXIV. Addenda et Corrigenda. 

Page 26, note m , " The Welsh also call themselves Gwydhil, and their country Tir 
Gwydhil." This is a mistake. A part of Anglesea (or the whole) was in the posses- 
sion of the Irish in the fifth and sixth centuries ; and certain monuments there are called 
Carrirj y Wyddyl, " Stones of the Gael ;" some rude old houses are called tre'r Wydde- 
lodd, " Houses of the Gael ;" and a prince of Mona living in those times was styled 
the Brenin o Wyddelodd. If there ever was a Tir y Gwyddyl, out of Albany, it was 
probably that colony in Mona. But that places the name in opposition to Cymmry, 
and not in synonyme with it. The statement that the Welsh call themselves Gwyddyl, 
or their country Tir y Gwyddyl, is altogether a mistake. 

P. 30, note f , line 1 8. It is, however, possible that the discreditable sense of the 
word havren may be a secondary and modern one, its older meaning having been 
void of reproach. During the long time since I penned this note, I have concluded 
this much, that Geoffrey's original was neither brought from, nor written in, Armo- 
rica. (//) 

P. 103, note s , col. i, line 8, for " is usually attributed to the year 473," read, "is 
variously dated from 456 to 473." 

P. in, line 6, " his shoulder." That ysgtcyd, a shield, was mistaken for ysgwydd, 
a shoulder, is the convincing remark of Mr. Price in his Hanes Cymru. See the 
notes to Schulz on Welsh tradition, p. 10. This easy mistake was probably fur- 
ther facilitated by the use of both words. Geoffrey says : " adaptat humeris quoque suis 
dypeum." Two of his Welsh translators have tarian ar ysgwydd; but we find poets 
affecting the gingle of ysgwyd ar ysgwydd. (H). 

P. 130, line (of the poem) 18, am pane epcail-icbi. This is very obscure and 
corrupt; am pano is not properly " in the portion," although it has been so conjec- 

"' Suo beneficio confeodatis. 


jecturally rendered: to be so it ought to be ippoinb, or ippano. Mr. Curry proposes 
to read am panb epcalicbi, for am pon epcaileao ambir, " when first their existence 
was discovered." Gpcaileao is an old word which is thus explained in a Glossary in 
the Library of Trinity College: .1. eipneab, uc epc, in bi bpecearh na bi epcailcec 
-|C. ap ip cpe epcaileao paillpijceap ainceap ni beaca& .1. apip cpia pin epnecm 
puppamai^ceup, no paillpigcep ainceap in beaca. " Ercaihadh, i. e. eirneadh (solu- 
tion), as in the saying, ' There will be no judge who will not be able to solve (ercail- 
tech), &c. ;' and, ' For it is by solution (ercaileadh) that all the difficult questions of 
life are made clear,' i. e. through erneadh (solution), all the questions of life are made 
clear or explained." (T). 

Ibid., line 22 (of the poem), caicne. This word is translated understood, on the 
authority of the following passage from the Leabhar Breac, fol. 27, b. a. 

din u eop ebpica linja locucoy Alii vero eos [sc. Apostolos] Hebraica 

puippe apbicpancup. Seo ira ab orn- lingua locutos fuisse arbitrantur. Sed 

nibupee mcellecca ea cj oca punc q pin- ita ab omnibus esse intellecta ea qua; dicta 

julip ppoppia pua loquepecup. paipenb sunt, quia singulis propria sua loqueretur 

aile u. ippeo abbpeuc conio on beplu (sic). Others think that they spake in the 

Gbpaioe nama po lubaippec -\ comb Hebrew language, and that it sounded 

uippioe bo caicne aeb u m-bepla oilip with the sweetaccent of his own language 

bo each. to each. 

The allusion, as the reader will evidently perceive, is to Acts, ii. 4-11. 

Ibid., line 26 (of the poem), pptlacap jun liun. In the same glossary already 
quoted lacap is explained by inbill, ready prepared: and luin by lean no puill, defect 
or neglect. See line 54. 

P. 284, note '. The word bpeacaib may be the third person plural of the verb 
bpecaim, to variegate, adorn, illustrate, colour with spots: and the meaning is, that 
Malcolm was king thirty years, a period that has been celebrated or illustrated, 
blazoned in poems or verses. (71) 

P. liv, Additional Notes, line 26, " Or silver-hip.'" Observe the strictly analogous 
names of the Danannian king, Nuadh Silver-hand. Compare also the Druidess Geal- 
cosach, or white-legs, whose tomb is shewn in Inishowen (H.) 

P. xlviii, lines 5, 6, " We read in Lib. Ballymote, that Bruide Cnit. . . . ivas Kiny 
of Ulster. Ap. Pinkerton, i. 502-504." The passage certainly does so stand in the 
Book of Ballymote, Cmc pi ulab; " Cnit [or Cint], King ofUladh." See p. xcii. And 
it is also stated in the Book of Lecan (see p. Ixvii. supra), that U rchal Bruicli-pont was 

p 2 thirty 


thirty years King of Uladh. But these passages, particularly the former, are so cor- 
rupt, that no safe inference can be drawn from them. 

There is in the Book of Lecan another copy of the Cruithnian story, besides those 
given above, p. Ixv. et seq., and p. xciii. et seq. ; but it is so nearly the same as the 
others, that it has not been thought worth while to transcribe it, especially as it is 
very corrupt, and adds nothing to the information given us in the copies which have 
been printed. It occurs in the history of the reign of Herimon, in a long account 
of the Milesian invasion of Ireland". 

The allusion to the King of Uladh, or Ulidia, in this tract, is as follows: 

Upculbpuire pone .ppp. b. ippi^e nut. Urcalbruide Pont thirty years in the 
Ipoe upbeapra bpuije ppi jac peap oib kingdom of Uladh. It is from him the 
1 penoa na peap. name of Bruide is given to every man of 

them and to the divisions of their lands. 

In this list of the kings the same confused mixture of the Bruides with the other 
names occurs which lias been already noticed in the Book of Ballymote, and originated, 
probably, in the same cause. See p. xcii., supra. 

Hence, although the name is written above Urcalbruide Pont, yet it is clear that 
two names, Urcal and Bruide Pont, are run together; and that the observation applies 
properly to Pont, or Bout (see above, p. 156), who is called Bout by Pinkerton. 

It will be seen also, that in the reading of this passage, as given above, p. 156, and 
also in that given from another part of the Book of Lecan (p. xci., supra), there is no 
mention of Uladh. There we find, instead of ippije nut. or nuluo, as in the former 
place, . cino uao, and in the latter, p?p." pig uao, intimating that after Bruide Pont 
there were thirty kings, who bore the common title of Bruide. 

Which of these was the true reading it is now impossible to say; but it is evident 
that we must be very cautious in drawing any inference from the mention of Uladh 
in so very corrupt a passage. (T.) 

P. cviii, note f , Maxsan and Gossan, These saints are mentioned in the poem on 
the Saints of the Cinel Laeghaire, in a poem beginning Naem rencup naem mnpi 
F'l (Book of Ballymote, fol. 126, b.l.). 

6eoan, dppan, Cupan cpiup, Beoan, Assan, Cassan three, 

cicup Richell a noepbpup, and Richell their sister, 

Qpcpaij mic Qebci am, Artraigh, son of noble Aedh, 

mic pemjjf-ibip mic OdUdin. son of chaste Liber, son of Dalian. (T.) 

1 Book of Lecan, fol. 13, b. 6. 





\ BONIA, the isle of Man, ... 29, n. 
Acha, or St. John's well, near Kil- 
kenny, 197, n. 

Adamnan's Life of St. Columba, . . 147, . 

deb, art or science, 151, n. 

Aenbeagan, king of the Picts, . ... 51 
Aengus the Culdee, his Libellus de Ma- 
tribus Sanctorum, . . . 180, n., 198, n. 

his Felire, . . . 201, n.,206, n. 

Agathyrsi, the original name of the 

Picts 121, 131 

Aiche, land of, 267 

Aileach, cii. n. 

QiTieace 62, n. 

Airthera. See" Orior." 
Alba, the ancient name of North Bri- 
tain 127, n. 

Albion, first name of Britain, .... 27 

, not of Latin origin, ... 27, n. 

Alectus, 05 

Ambrose [Merlin], fortress of, ... 91 

, king of France, 75 

, bishop of Milan, 69 

Amergin, of the white kine, Brehon of 
the Milesians, 57 


Amergin, his judgment between the Mi- 
lesians and Tuatha de Danaan, . . 247, n. 
Anglesey, or Mona, conquered by the 

Irish, 190,7*. 

Angus, notion of Macbeth being thane 

of, its origin, xc 

Antioch, legend of the foundation of, by 

Seleucus Nicator, xxiv 

Apurnighe, or Abernethy 163 

Arad Cliathach 257 

Tire, ib. 

Aran, isle of, confounded by Giraldus 
Cambrensis with Inishglory, . . 193, n. 
, dedicated to St. Endeus, . . . ib. 

Arbraighe, . 262, n., 203 

Archbishoprics, three in ancient Bri- 
tain, v 

Ard-leamhnachta, battle of, 124, n., 125, 135 

Argiall, kings of, 255 

Argingi, district of, . . 118, n., 119 

, sepulchre in, ib. 

Arius Froda, 147, n. 

Armorica, xlx 

Arngrim Jonas, Island. Primordia, . 148, n. 
Arnor Jarlaskald, . . . Ixxxii, Ixxxiii 
dpc, strenuus, valiant 276, n. 



Arthur, King of Britain, his twelve bat- 
tles with the Saxons, .... 109-113 

, his dog, . . .117 

Assan , or Massan, (St.) . . . cviii, cxvi 


Bablu and Biblu of Clonard 213 

Babona 179 

Ballymote, Book of ; section on the ori- 
gin of the Picts ; conjecture to explain 

the errors of, xci 

Banba, conquered by the Milesians at 

Sleibh Mis 247 

Bartollocci, Bibliotheca Rabinnica, . 228, n. 

Bassaleg, xxv 

Beantraighe, 257 

Bede, 146, n., 1C8, n., srj. 

Belfry of fire, 215 

Beli ap Bennli Gwar, grave of, . . xxiii 
Bellinus, or Beli Maur ap Manogan, 
King of Britain at the time of Julius 

Caesar's invasion, 59, xxiii 

benait), to draw out, or prolong, . . 30, n. 
Benli, or Beunli Gawr, i. e. the giant, 


Bernard (St.), Vita S. Malachise, . 179, n. 
Berre, now Bearhaven, county Cork, . 203 
Bertram (C.), his editions of Nennius, . 2 
Beulan, or Beular, the instructor of Nen- 
nius, 9 

blu, in the Brehon laws, put for bcnlc, 

a townland, 279, n. 

Bladhma, now Slieve Bloom, . . 196,197 
Bloom, Slieve, the well of, .... ib. 
Bocuilt, or Buellt, earn of, . . . .117 

botien, 60, n. 

Bodhe, or Boidhe, Ixxx 

Boetius (Hector) 186, n. 

Bran ap Llyr vii 

Bran ap Llyr, his head buried under 

the Tower of London, xvii 

Brand's Orkneys, 149, n. 

bncip , active, 273, n. 

Brath, son of Deagath, 237 

Breagh-magh, or Bregia, the Pictish Set- 

tlementin 125,145 

Brebic, cataract of, 119 

Brendan (St.), of Inisglory, . . . 193, n. 

Brentracht, 240, n., 241 

Breogan, sons of, 243 

Brigantia, 239 

_, tower of, .... 240, n., 241 

Bregond, or Breogan, . . . 238, n., 239 

Britain, why so called 27, n. 

, first called Albion, . . . . ib. 

. , its principal cities, . . . 27-29 

, its rivers, 31, n. 

, its first inhabitants according 

to British traditions 31-33 

, according to the traditions of 

the Romans, 33-37 

-, dates of the invasion by the Bri- 
tons, Cruithnians, and Saxons, . . 59 

, wonders of the 113 

, history of, abridged from Bede, 


Britus, genealogy of, 35 

Bruide, the common prenomen of the 

Pictish kings, 157-159,xlv 

, its meaning, ib. 

, ceased to be the regal appella- 
tion on the approach of civility, . . xlvi 

Buais, or Bush River, 266 

Buan, son of Fergus Mac Roigh, . 264, n. 

Buichne 255 

Bucuc, or Abacuk, the headless man 

of Clonmacnois 207 

Bullorum Viri, the Firbolg, .... 45 
Bullum, a shepherd's staff, ... 44, n. 




Cadroe f St.), life of, 225, n. 

Cailli Fochladh, the children of, . . . 203 
Cairnech (St.), son of Sarran and Ba- 

bona, miracles of, 178 

, documents relating to, . ci 

St. Cairnech, of Tuilen, not a native of 

Ireland, cxi 

, his genealogy, . ib. 

Caiteal, 83 

Caledonians, xxxi, xxxii 

, Ptolemy's testimony re- 
specting (see Vec.turiones), .... Ixii 

Calcuth, synod of, lix 

, its canon against scar- 
ring the body, ib. 

Calry of Loch Gill, near Sligo, . . 262, n. 
Campbell. See Mac Caithlin. 

Cantguic, city of, xviii 

Cantigern, mother of Ua Dangal, . .213 

, three women of the name 

mentioned in Irish history, . . . 212, n. 
Carantoch (St.), probably the same as 

St. Cairnech of Tuilen, cxi 

Carausius invades Britain, .... (55 

Cassan, St cviii, cxvi 

Cat, or Caithness, .... 148, n., 149 

Cathbran, 125, 139, 141, 159 

Cathmachan, 141 

Catigern, or Kentigern, 99 

Catmolodor, 141 

Cearmna, king of the southern half of 

Ireland 263, n. 

Cenel Moain, cv 

Ceretic of Elmet, 86 

Chalmers's Caledonia, 150, . 

Chronicon Pictorum, Irish version of, 159, 


Chiula, or cyula, a boat, .... 76, n. 
Ciar, son of Fergus Mac Roigh, . . . 263 


Cianan of Daimhliag, tradition of his 

body remaining uncorrupted, . .221,71. 
Ciarriaghe, tribes of, ..... 264, n. 
Cille Cess, now Kilkeas, mill of, . . 217 

Cinaeth Mac Alpin, ....... 151 

Cirine, i. e. St. Jerome, ..... 69 

Cities of Britain, comparison of their 

names in the Irish and Latin Nennius, iii 
Cladh na muice, ...... 64, n., 65 

Claudius invades Britain, ..... 63 

Clonard, aged couple of, ..... 213 

Clonmacnois, three wonders of, ... 207 
Cluain-fearta Molua, now Clonfertmul- 

loe, ........ 200, n., 201 

Coarb, meaning of the word, . . . 185, n. 
Coemain Brec (St.), Abbot of Roseach, 

201, n. 

Colgan, Trias Thaumaturga, 161, n., 184, n., 

202, 203, n., 276, n., 286, n. 

- Acta Sanctorum, 161, n., 179, n., 

184, n., 189, n., 190, ., 208, n., 218, n., 

225, n. 
Colman (St.), his church at Seanboth, 

or Teinpleshambo, 217, 

Columbcille, his verses on the seven sons 

of Cruithne, 51 

, Poem attributed to, . . 144, n. 

Comestor (Peter), Historia Scholastica, 

228, n. 
Comgall, (St.), appoints St. Molua his 

confessor, 206, 207, n. 

Con (Loch), its wonderful well, . . . 195 
Conaing's tower, said to be on Tory 

Island 48, n. 

Conaire II., King of Ireland, surnamed 

Caomh, or the beautiful, .... 275 

Conall Glas, 266, n., 267 

Condivicium, or Condivicnum, city of, xviii 
Confinn 265 



Congalach, son of Mailmithigh, his ad- 
venture with the aerial ship, . . .211 
Conmac, son of Fergus Mac Roigh, . 263 

Conrnaicne, tiibes of, 264, n. 

Constantine, son of Muirchertach Mac 

Erca 186, n., 187 

Constantinople, second (Ecumenical 

Council of, 68, n., 69 

Constantius invades Britain, and dies 

there 65 

Coradh, . . . 257 

Corann, well in the plain of, . . . .197 
Core, son of Fergus Mac Roigh, . . 263, n. 

Cores. Dalian, 264, n., 265 

Corc-Oiche 267, n., 269 

Corco-Modhruadh, or Corcomroe, 264, n., 265 

Corco Raeda 255 

Corco Riune, ib. 

Cor Emmrys, xxv, xxvi 

Cormac's Glossary 253, n. 

Coronis 234, n., 235 

Corpraighe, 258, ., 259 

Corpre Arad, 257 

Craebh Laisre, 208, 7i., 209 

Cremhthann Sgiath bhel, King of Lein- 

ster 123, 137 

Criodan, Bishop, ciii, ib. n. 

Crossans 182, n., 183 

Cruc Ochident, xvii 

Cput), or cpo6, cattle 81, n. 

Cruithne, son of Inge, or Cing, seized 

North Britain 51 

, his seven sons, ib. 

, identical with the first Bruide, xlvii 

, takes women from the Mile- 

sians, 245 

Cruithnechan, son of Lochit, invades 

North Britain 127 

, obtains women from the 

Irish, ib. 

Cruithnians, or Picts, their conquest of 

Britain, 41-43 

, Lluyd's derivation of the 

name, v 

, Duald Mac Firbis's expla- 
nation of it ib. 

, kings of, .... 155-167 
, their arrival in Ireland in 

the days of Herimon, a pure mythology, xlvii 

, kings of Ireland, . Ixxii, Ixxiii 

, their principal men, . . . 1 25 

, their origin, . . . 12 \,sq. 

-, section of the origin of the, 

various copies of in the Books of Bal- 

lymote and Lecan, xci 

-, antient poem on the his- 

tory of, 126-153 

, date of their transit from 

Ireland to Scotland, xlvii 

, Mr. Skene's distinction be- 

tween the Cruithne and Piccardach 
not well founded, Ixii 

Cualpne 254, n. 

Cuanach, a chronicler cited in the An- 
nals of Ulster, 37, n. 

Cuaniia Mac Cailchinne, chief of Fer- 
moy, 265, n. 


Dacherii Spicilegium, 145, n. 

Daiinliliag, now Duleek, St/Cianan of, 221, n. 

Dal Cais, 259 

Dal Ceata 261 

Dal Cein 259 

, families belonging to the race 

of, ib. n. 

Dal Confinn 264, n. 

Dal Core, 260, n., 261 

Dal Finn Fiatach, 257 


Dalian, son of Fergus Mac Roigh, . 264, n. 

Dal Mogha, 260, n., 261 

Dal m-Buain, 264, n., 265 

Dal n-Araidhe, or Dalaradians, . . . 265 
Dalriadians seize the Pictish districts in 

Ireland, 59 

Dal Selle, 268, n., 269 

Danann, daughter of Dalbaoith, . . 45, n. 
Darlugdach, Abbess of Kildare, . . .163 

Dartraighe, 258, n., 259 

Dathi, King of Ireland, story of his 

having been killed in Latium, . . . xix 

OKOTIOC 182, n. 

Deer, miracles respecting, common in 

Irish hagiography, 183, n. 

Deirgbeint, or Derwent, battle of the, . 101 
Delbhna, or Delvin, tribes of, 260, n., 261 

Derga, 2C3 

Dicuil, De Mensura Orbis, . . . 147, n. 

Dicaledones, xxxi, xxxii 

Dinas Emmrys, red and white dragon 

of, xxvi 

Dinn, a high fort 92, n. 

Dirna of the Daghda, 220, n. 

Doomsday Book, 186, n. 

Domhnall Breac, xliv 

Donogh, Mac Donall Mic Morrough, 

King of Ireland, 205, ib. n. 

Donn, one of the chiefs of the Milesians, 

drowned at Teach Duinn, in Kerry, 55-57, 

56, n. 
Dragons, prophecy of the, . . . xxv, xxvi 

Dromceat, synod of, xlviii 

Drumlighean, now Drumleen, . 241, n., cvii 

Duan Albanach, 270,271 

Duan Eireannach, 221 

Dubhdaleath, liv 

Dubhthach Daeltengaid, .... 267, H. 
Du Chesne, Antiquitcs, &c., des Villes 

de France 122, n. 


Ducks of St. Colman, . . . 217, 218, n. 

Duharra, in Tipperary 257 

Duleek. See Daimhliag. 

t)umn, a mound, or tumulus, ... 67, n. 

Dumha Dessa 209 

Dundalethglas, liv 

Dun-Chermna, or Dun-Patrick, 262, n., 263 
Dun Monaidh, 285, n. 


Ealga, a name of Ireland 1 43 

Earc, daughter of Loarn, King of Alba, 

180, n., ci, cii, civ, sq. 
, poem on her de- 
scendants, civ, sq. 

Eas Maghe, yew tree of, .... 220, n. 
Eber. See Heler. 

Ebhlinne, Sliabh, 246, n., 247 

Eire, Queen of the Tuatha De, con- 
quered by the Milesians, 247 

Elair, or St. Hilary 135 

Elbod (St.), his date and history, . .6,7 

, brought the Welsh churches 

into conformity with the Roman mode 

of keeping Easter, 7 

Eleutherius, Pope, sends missionaries to 

Britain, 63 

Eligius, or Eloy (St.), sermon preached 

by, 145, w. 

Elvodugus. See Elbod. 
Embros Gleutic, or Emmrys Wledig, 
i. e. Ambrose, sovereign of the land, 

97, 98, n. 

Enfled, daughter of Edwin, . . . .113 
Engist. See Hengist. 

Eochaidh Doimhlen, 255 

Eochaidh Muinreamhain, . . 153, n., 275 
Eochaidh Mac Eire, King of the Fir- 
bolg, his earn, 198, . 



Eochaidh of Rathluine 259 

Eocho Mairedha (Lough Neagh called 

from him), 267 

Eoghanachts, the, .... 258, n., 259 
Eothail, strand of, now Trawohelly, 198, n. 

, earn on, ib. 199 

Episfort 100, n., 101 

Erglan, chief of the Nemedians, 274, n., 275 
Eri, or Ireland, first inhabitants of, . . 43 

Ernai, 262, n., 263 

Eryri, Mount, now Snowdon, .... 98 
Europe, division of, between the sons of 

Japheth 33 


Fahhal, a river tributary to the Boyne, 

213, n. 

Fachtna Fathach, King of Ireland, . 263, 

265, n. 

puiroi, 66, n., 93, n. 

Fanad, territory of, cvii 

Fathain. See Othuin. 

Faustus (St.), son of Vortigern or Gor- 

tigern 104, n., 105 

Fearmail, chief of Guorthigerniawn, . 105 

Felire Beg, quoted, xii 

Fenians, 223, ib., jj., 225 

Fenius Farsaidh, King of Scythia, . 223, n., 

227, 229 

Per da Ghiall 250, n., 257 

Fermnaigh, now Ferney, . . 260, n., 267 
Fial, wife of Lugadh, her death, . . 249, 7i. 
Fiatach Finn, King of Emania, . . 257, n. 
Finacta, King of Ireland, conquers the 

Picts 51 

Finnabhair Abha, now Fennor, 214, n., 215 

Finnleikr Jarl the Scot Ixxix 

Firbolg, derivation of the name, . . 44, n. 


Firbolgs, conjecture respecting their date 
and origin ......... xcix, c 

- , Keating'g account of the three 
tribes of the, ...... 45, n., ix 

- seize Man, and the islands of 
Ara, Islay, and Rachlin, .... 49 

Fir Domnann, ....... 45, ix 

Fir Droma, ......... cix 

Fir-Galeoin, twofold derivation of the 

name, .... 45, ib. n., 49, 50, n., ix 

pochlait), a cave, ...... 1 1 6, n. 

Fomorians .......... 45 

Forann. See Pharaoh. 

Forcu, ........... 149 

Fordun (John of) Scotichronicon, 159, ., 

161, n. 
-- , his misrepresentations of 

the history of Macbeth, .... xc 

Fothads, the three, .... 256, n., 257 

Fotharts, the, ....... 254, n. 

Fothla, conquered by the Milesians, . 247 
Fothudan, promontory of, ..... 273 

Four Masters, 205, n., 207, n., 208, ., 209, n. 
. an ash tree, .... 116, n. 


Gabhal Liuin, now Galloon, wonderful 
well of, .......... 195 

Gabraighe Succa, ....... 269 

Gamh Sliabh, now the Ox Mountain, 
Co. Sligo ; well of, ..... 220, n. 

5e bulgu, ......... xii 

Gaecial, adventures of the, according to 
their own traditions ...... 53-57 

Gaedhuil Glas ......... 231 

Gael, the common name of the Irish and 
the Highlanders of Scotland, in their 
respective languages, . . . 26, n., cxiv 
Geathluighe, ...... 235, n., 237 


5ai6il, used to translate the Latin 

Scoti, 26, n. 

5aiUiciTi, a dart, 45, n. 

Gale (T.), his edition of Nennius, . . 2 

Galengs, the 260, n., 261 

Galeoin [Gelonus], son of Hercules, . 49 

Galeons of Leinster, 269 

Germanus (St.), miracles of, .... 79 

, his miracle as recorded by 

Hericus Autisiodorensis, .... xxl 

, Apostle of the Isle of Man, . viii 

Giolla Caoimhin, said to be the trans- 
lator of the Historia Britonum into 

Irish, 21, n., cxi 

. . , history of the Britains by, cxi 

Gildas (St.), his Historia Britonum, . 1 

, a common title with the Irish, . ib. 

Giraldus Cambrensis, his account of the 

Picts and Scots cxii 

. , his work, De In- 

stitutione Principis, . .... cxii 
_ ., Descriptio Cam- 
bria; 129, n. 

, Topographia Hi- 

berime, 192, 193, 195, n., 197, n., 204, n., 
216, n., 218, n., 251, n. 

Glammis, thane of, error respecting, . xc 
Glas, son of Agnomon, . . . 234, n., 235 
Glass towers, legends of, .... 47, 
gleac, a fight, a battle, .... 283, n. 

Glen Ailbe, in Angus, 119 

Glendaloch, Book of, ... 192, n., 193 
Glewysing, region of, in Monmouth- 
shire xxv 

, its kings, ib. 

Golgotha, or Gaethluighe, . . 235, ib. n. 
Gortigern or Vortigern, son of Gudal, 

king of Britain 75, xxvii 

, variations in the spelling of 

the name ib. 


Gortimer, warfare of, 99 

, his four battles with the Sax- 
ons, 101 

Gratian, reigns conjointly with Valenti- 

nian, 69 

5puna cacha, xi 

Gratianus Municeps, xxi 

Grecian origin of the Gael, . . . 225, n. 

Grian, 257 

Grimm's Deutsche Mythologie, . . 145, . 
Guaire, Sliabh, now Slieve Gorey, . 213, n. 

Guanach, 37 

, probably the translator of the 

Historia Britonum into Irish, . . . 21 
Guaul, or Wall of Severus, . . 64, n., 65 
Gueleon or Gelonus, son of Hercules, 

ancestor of the Picts, . . 120, n., 121, 131 
Guent, wonderful cave of, . . . .11" 
Gunn (W.), his edition of Nennius, . 2 

Gunnis, 99 

Guta, the Isle of Wight, .... 29, n. 
Gwenddolen ap Ceidaw, prince of the 

Celyddon, xxxiv 

Gwynnedd, or North Wales, ... 98, n. 
Gwyddil, the Welsh word for Irish, 26, n., 


Heber, son of Milesius, takes the north- 
ern half of Ireland, 57 

Heilic, Loch, wonder of, 117 

Hengist arrives in Britain, .... 77 
, his stratagem and banquet, . 85-89 

Herer, i. e. Snowdon 93, 98, n. 

Hericus of Auxerre, 12, xxi 

Herimon, son of Milesius, takes the 
southern half of Ireland, .... 57 

, expels the Picts out of Ire- 
land, 125, 141 

q 2 



Higden (Ralph) Polychronicon, . . 192, n., 

219, n. 
Historia Britonum, attributed to Gildas, 1 

, and to Marcus Ana- 

choreta 11 

. , compiled by Marcus 

for the edification of the Irish, A. D. 

822, 18 

. , republished by Nen- 

nius, A. D. 858 ib. 

, treatment of the 

work by transcribers, 19 

, and bv its Irish 

translator, 20, 21 

Horsley's Britannia Romana, . . . 65, n. 
Huasem, poet of the Picts 143 


Japheth, descent of the Gael from, . . 225 
Iccius, Portus, supposed to be the vil- 
lage of Vissent or Witsent, . . . 31, n. 

Icht, sea of, 31 

Ida, son of Ebba, 113 

He or Hay, a settlement of the Picts, 14C, n., 


lltutus (St.), miraculous altar of, . 117, w. 
lubber Boinne, the mouth of the river 

Boyne, 14C, n. 

Inbher Buais [the Bush river], . 206, n., 


Colptha, 247, n. 

Scene, the mouth of the river 

Skeen 249, . 

Slaine, or Wexford bay; the 

Picts landed there, . - . . 123, 135 

Inis Geidh, now Inishkea, the lone crane 
of, 221, n. 

Gluair, or Inishglory, wonderful 

property of, 192, 193 


Inis Fithi, divided into three parts by 
lightning, 205, n., 207 

Innes, his theory of the origin of the 
Picts, xxix, xxxi 

Johannes Malala, xxiv 

John of Salisbury, Polycraticon, sive 
de Nugis Curialium, 123, n. 

lona Club, Collectanea de Rebus Albani- 
cis, published by, 272, n. 

lonmanaich, 257 

Josephus, . . . ; 236, n. 

Ireland, date of its invasion by the Gaels, 59 

Irrus, the S. \V. promontory of Kerry, 248, n. 

Isidorus Hispalensis, his testimony re- 
specting the Scots xcviii 

Ith, death of, 24 1 

, account of his death in the Book 

of Lecan ib. n. 

Julius Caesar invades Britain, . . . 59-61 


Karl Hundason, said by the Northmen 
to have taken the kingdom of Scot- 
land, Ixxxii 

, identical with Mac- 
beth Ixxxiii 

Keating, History of Ireland, quoted 42, ., 

43, M.,44, ., 49, n., 5C, n., 142, n., 229, n., 

sq., 240, Ji., 247, n., 269, . 

Kenneth M'Alpin, . . . . . 151. n. 

Kilkeas. See Cille Cess. 


Lagenians, are of the race of Heri- 

mon 253, n. 

Laighse, or Leix, the seven, .... 265 
Langhorne, Chron. Reg. Angluc, . 190, n. 



Lanigan, Eccl. History of Ireland, 179, n., 
181, B., 187, n., 217, B. 

Laoighne Faelaidh, race of, ... 204, n. 
Laodicea in Syria, foundation of, by 

Seleucus Nicator, xxiv 

Lassair (St.), 208, n. 

Latham, now Larne, 257 

Layamon, 245, n. 

Leabhar Gabhala,55, n., 148, n., 234-5, B., sq., 
241, n., 244, n., 247, n., 249, B. 
Leamain (the river Levin), . 1 13, 1 14, B. 
Lecan, Book of, Tract on the History 

of the Picts in, Ixv 

, three different copies of the 

chapter on the origin of the Picts in, xcii 
Leix. See Laighse. 

Lemnon, Loch Lomond, wonders of, . 113, 

1 14, B. 

Leo, or Loth, king of the Picts, . . xxxvi 
Letha, or Letavia (i. e. Armorica), 69, xix 
, fabulous origin of the name as 

given by Nennius, ib. 

, used by the Irish also to signify 

Latium, ib. 

LiaFail, 200, B., 201 

Liathan, son of Hercules, 53 

Liathmhuine, the plain now covered by 

Loch Neagh, 267, B. 

Ligurn, grandson of Eochadh Finn Fo- 

thart, 261, B. 

Linnmhuine, ancient name of Loch 

Neagh, 267, n. 

Llan y Gwyddyl, now Holyhead, . 190, n. 

Lleirwg Lleuver Mawr, xv 

Lloyd and Powel, Description of Wales, 


Loarn Mac Ere, King of Scotland, 178, n., 

179, n. 

Loch Cre, 217 

Febhail 255 

Loch Heilic 117 

Laigh, disappearance of, ... 207 
. Leibhinn, or Leane, . . . 208, 209 

Lein, circles of, 220, n. 

Lemnon (Lomond) 113 

. n-Eochaidh. See Neagh. 

nan-Onchon, 199, ib. . 

Loch Kiach, now Lough Reagh, 220, n. 

Loingraib, or Llwyngarth, altar of, . 117, n. 
Lucius, king of Britain, his conversion 

to Christianity 63, xiii 

Lughaidh Gala, 262, B., 263 

Lughaidh, son of Ith, .... 243, 261 
, Tract on the history of the 

race of, in the Book of Lecan, . . ib., n. 

Lugaid Lage 260, n., 261, 263 

Lugaidh Orcthe, 262, B., 263 

Luighni, the, 260, n., 203 

Luimnech, 240, B., 241 

Lulacli Mac Gilcomgan, . . Ixxxiv, Ixxx 

Lumphannan, battle of, Ixxxi 

Luh'ig, son of Sarran, 181 

Lynch, Dr. John, Cambrensis E versus, 

105, n., 166, n., 190, n., 193, B., 195, n., 
197, B., 204, B. 
, his Latin translation of Keating's 

History of Ireland 227, n. 


Mabillon, Vet. Analecta, . . . .145, n. 

Macbeth Ixxviii 

, his claim to the Crown, . Ixxx, 


, meaning of the name, . . . ib. 

, legend of his irregular birth, Ixxxix 

, married to Gruoch, daughter 

of Bodhe, Ixxx 

, celebrity of his name among 

the Northmen, Ixxix 



Macbeth, identical with Karl Hundason, 


Mac Brethach, probably Macbeth, . 152, n., 

153, Ixxviii 

Mac Caithlin, now Campbell, in Scot- 
land, family of, their descent, . . 261, n. 

Mac Coisi, the poet, 209 

Macedonius, heresy of, 69 

Mac Eoghan (Muiredhach), . . . . ci 

Mac Firbis, book of, 265, ., 269, n., 271, n. 

, his history of Muiredhach 

Mac Eoghan, ci 

Machlin, the quern of, 119 

Mac Neill (Hugh) bloody shower in the 
time of, 208, n., 209 

Mac Rustaing, Grave of, . . .201, ib., n. 

Maol-Gobhann, well of, 215 

Maelgwn Gwynedd, king of Wales in 
the sixth century, xxxiii 

Maelmura of Othain, . . . 221, 222, n. 

Magh Ellite, 93 

, the Campus Elccti in the re- 
gion of Glewysing xxv 

Magh Fothaid, 267 

- Ithe 240, n. 

- Macha, the plain of Armagh, 266, n., 


- Moghna, 267 

Sulidhe, the plain round the river 
Swilly, 266, n., 267 

Tuireadh, battle of, . . . . 198, n. 

Uisnigh, 267 

Magnantia, or Mentz, 63 

, cause of the error that Clau- 
dius died there, 63, n. 

Maiate, xxxii 

ITlnir, druidism, 144, n. 

Manann, or Man, wonders of, . . .119 
, ancient history of, .... vi, vii 
its conversion to Christianity, . viii 

Manannan Mac Lir, account of, from 

Cormac's Glossary vii 

, his true name Oirb- 

sion or Orbsen, ib. 

Manks, an Irish people, probably Cru- 

theni or Ulster Picts, xliii 

Marcus Anachoreta xxi 

, published the Histo- 

ria Hritonum before Nennius, ... 1 1 
, a Briton born, but 

educated in Ireland, 12 

, had been an Irish 

bishop 14 

, his history, . . 14, 15 

, date of his Historia 

Hritonum 16, 17 

Martin (St.), of Tours, ... 67, 213 

, cave of, 212, n. 

Maximian, becomes emperor 67 

plants the British colony in Ar- 

morica, ib. 

Maximus invades Britain, . . . ib. xv. sq. 

, his magical dream xvi 

made emperor by the soldiers, 69 

Meadon, the well of grain in, . . . .119 

Merlin xxiv, xxxiv 

Merlin, Roman de, 47, n. 

Merobaudes, 69, n. 

Mervyn, King of Man, xliii 

Messingham, Florilegium Insula Sancto- 
rum, 218, n. 

Michael (St.), apparition of, in A. D. 

708 xviii 

Midir 263 

Miledh or Milesius, 55 

, sons of, their expedition to Ire- 
land, 241, ty. 

., division of Ireland between the 

sons of, 57 

Milesian invasion of Ireland, date of, . 55 



Mis, Sliabh, 246, n., 247 

Mochuille (St.) 265, a. 

Moddan of Duncansby, Ixxxii 

, slain by Thorfinn Sigurdson, . ib. 

Mogh Lamha, 254, n. 

. Nuadhat, 261 

Roith, a celebrated Druid, . . .265 

. , families descended from him, 

ib., n. 
-, legend of his having assisted 

Simon Magus, ib. 

Molagga (Saint), 265, n. 

Molua (Saint), 200, n. 

, story of his vision in com- 
pany with St. Comgall 206, n. 

Monaidh (see Dun Monaidh), .... 285 

Mons Jovis, xviii 

Moryson (Tynes) 205, n. 

TTlumcinn, the top or surface, . . 55, n. 

Muiredhach, son of Eoghan.sonof Niall, 179, 

ci, sq. 

Muirchertach Mac Erca, . .181, ci, sq. 

Musca, or Muscraighe (now Muskerry), 

262, n., 263 


Naomh-Seanchus, 180, n. 

Neachtain, a disciple of Saint Patrick, 

214, n. 
Neagh (Loch), its wonderful property, 

194, 195 

, story of the origin of, as 

told by Cambrensis, 194 

, ancient name of, . . . 267, . 

Nectan I., his several surnames, . . . xliv 
Nel, son of Fenius Farsaidh, . . 229-231 
Nemed ; his followers peopled Ireland, 45 

Nemroth, i. e. Nirnrod, 227 

Nennius, various forms of the name, . 4, 5 


Nennius, may have had the title of Gil- 
das, 1 

, his date, 2, 3 

Nimrod, 227 

Ninia (St.), xxxiii 

Noe, division of the world between the 

sons of, 31-33 

North, anciently denoted by the left 

hand side, 41, n. 

Nuull, meaning of the word, . . . 261, n. 


O'Conor, Dr., Rerum Hibernicaruni 
Scriptores, . . 126, n., 252, n., 270, n. 

O'Donnell (Magnus), Life of St. Co- 
lumba, quoted, xxv 

O'Donovan (John), Irish Grammar, 

128, n., 129, n. 

, Hy-Fiachrach, . 207, n. 

. -, Battle of Magh Rath, 

127, n., 150, n. 

, Tribes and Customs 

of Hy-Many, . . . . 185, n., 256, n. 

, Book of Rights, 257, n. 

O'Driscol, 261, n. 

Oen-aibhle 263 

O'Flaherty, Ogygia quoted, . 43, n., 44, n., 
46, n., 47, n.,48, ., 57, n., 127, n., 178, n., 
19-2, n., sq., 195, n., 200, n., 220, n., 224, n., 
254, n., sq., passim, 277, n., 280, n., 282, n. 

O'Flynn, Eochy, a poem by, cited, . 56, n. 

O'Hederscol, or O'Driscol, family of, 261, n. 

OiTieacc, 62, n. 

Oran (St.), of lona, xxv 

Orbhraigh, or Orrery. See Arbhraighe. 

Ore, the Orkneys 49-51, viii 

O'Reilly (Edward), account of Irish 
writers (Trans. Iberno- Celtic Society) 

209,n., 221,n., 222, . 


Orior, the wells of, . . . . 210, n., 211 

Orkney inga Saga, 147, n. 

Ors and Engist arrive in Britain, . . 77 

, their genealogy, . . . ib. 

Orosius, 239, n. 

Othain, or Fathain, now Fahan, . . 222, n. 

Owen ap Maxen Wledig xvii 

Owles. See Umhaile. 


Parthalon, first possessor of Ireland, . 43 
, Heating's account of his par- 
ricide and death 43, n. 

, the name identical with Bar- 

tholomeus viii 

Patrick (St.) 107, 101 

, legend of the voice calling 

him from Caille Fochladh, . 202, 203, n. 
, privileges obtained by 

him for the men of Ireland, . . 219, 71. 

Pausanius Chronographus, .... xxiv 

Pennant, Tour in Scotland quoted, . . xxv 

Petrie (Geo.), on Tara Hill, 127, n., 140, n., 

181, n., 184, n., 190, 191, n., 200, n. 

, Round Towers, . . 187, n. 

Pharaoh, King of Egypt, .... 229-233 
Piccardach, use of the word in Tigher- 

nach and the Annals of Ulster, . . Ixii 
Pictavis, or Poictiers, founded by the 

Picts, 5:?, 122, n., 123, 133 

Pictones and Pictores, used to designate 

the Picts in the Irish Annals, . Ixii, Ixiii 
Pictish language in Bede's time different 

from the Gaelic, xxxix 

Picts, origin of, xxix, xxxix 

, legendary history of, documents 

relating to Ixv 

, rule of succession to the crown by 

the female line Iv 

Picts, story of the wives given to, from 

the Book of Lecan, Ixxi 

, Chronicon Pictorum, . . . .Ixxv 

, etymology of their name, . . . xlii 

. See Cruithnians. 

Poictiers, founded by the Picts, 53, ib., n., 123 

Pogus, or Powis, 85 

Policornus, King of Thrace, . . 121, Ixvii 

Pompa or Babona 179, n. 

Pinkerton, Inquiry into the History of 

Scotland, 121, n., srj., 124, n., 152, n., sq., 
160, H., 162, 163, n. 
, his theory of the origin of the 

Plots xxix 

Pirminii Abbatis Libellus, quoted, . 145, n. 
Promontorium, used to signify a rath or 

fort, 29, n . 

Pughe (Dr. Owen), his etymology of the 

name Picts xlii 


Rachra, or Rachlin, seized by the Fir- 
bolgs 49 

Rachrann in Brc-gia, now Lambay Island, 139 

Rath Both, now Raphoe, the well of, . 197 

Rees (Mr. Rice), Essay on the Welsh 
saints, quoted, 104, n. 

Reeves (Rev. \V.), Eccles. Antiq. of 
Down and Connor and Dromore, 271, n., 

275, n. 

Reptiles, venomous, none in Ireland, 218, n., 


Resuscitation of animals a common mira- 
cle in Irish hagiography, xxiv 

Rhydderch Hael, prince of Strathclyde, Ix 

Rhydychain, now Oxford, the centre of 
Britain, xxvi 

Richard, Analyse des conciles, . .188, n. 

Riffi, or Mount Riphaeus, . . 235, 236, . 



Righbard, son of Brighe, 267 

Hinn, a promontory, 274, n. 

Rodri Mawr, division of Wales by, . . xxiii 
Roinn, the British name of the isle of 

Thanet, 78, n., 79 

Romans, come to Britain 59 

Ross Dela, now Ross Dala, . 215, ib. n. 

, fiery belfry of, ib. 

Ross Oiligh, cii 

Rowland's Mona, 190, 191, n. 

Rus Ecb, now Russagh, .... 201, n. 
Rycaut's Turkish Empire 229, re. 


Sabraind, the Sabrina or Severn, origin 

of the name, .... 30, n., 1 15, 117 
Samuel, son of Beulan and L;cta, proba- 
bly the same as Nennius, .... 1 1 

Sarran, genealogy of, 178, n. 

Saxons, their conquest of Britain, . 43, 75 
Scota, daughter of Pharaoh, . . . .231 

, Scotland, called "the East," by 

Irish writers, 287, n. 

Scots, the name identified with Scytha;, x 

, history and meaning of the name, ib., 


, derivation from Scythae impossible, 


Seadna, cv 

Seanboth of Colman, ducks of, . . .217 

Seeds of battle, 60, 7*., xi 

Seleucus Nicator, foundation of Antioch 

by, xxiv 

of Laodicea 

in Syria, ib. 

Severus invades Britain, 63 

builds the Saxon wall 65 

Severus II., 71 

. , who, xx 


Severus II.,, probably identical with Gra- 

tian, ib. 

Shakspeare, his error respecting the thane 

of Glammis, ....... xc., n. 

Sitiein or paibem, ancient form of the 

emphatic pan, 30, n., 32, n. 

Siward, Earl of Northumberland, . Ixxxiv 

Simeon of Durham, Ixxxii 

Skene, Mr., his translation of the Duan 

Albanach, 272, n. 

, his Highlanders of Scotland, Ixi 

Stone, bleeding 213 

Slane, great cross of, 215 

Slieve Riffi, 235 

Sleinnaibh, 241 

Soghans, the seven, 265 

Solinus, his account of the Pictish polity 

as to the wives of their kings in the 

Hebrides Ivi 

Spe&, meaning of the word, . . . 144, it. 

Sru, son of Esru, 235 

Stevenson, (Jos.), his edition of Nennius, -2 
Suidhe Odhrain, now Seeoran, lake of, 213 
Swine's dike, 64, n. 


Talieson, 128, n. 

Call (a Brehon law term), 278, n., cv, n. 

Tallaght, near Dublin, the monument of 
Partholan's followers, .... 44, n. 

Tara 141 

, three wonders of, 1 09 

Teach Duinn, in Kerry, Keatinge's ac- 
count of, 56, n., 248, . 

Teamhair. See Tara. 

Teineth, or Thanet, 79 

Templeshanbo. See Seanboth. 

Tinnandrum, i. e. Trinovantum or Lon- 
don, origin of the name, .... Gl, . 

Ciftnoeol, tradition, 26, n. 



h, the hollow of the temple be- 
fore the ear, 38, n. 

Cop, a lord, a chief, 223, n. 

Torinis, or Tours, pilgrimages to, . . 213 

Tory Island, why so called, . . . 48, n. 

, destruction of the Fomo- 

rians and Nemedians on, . . . . ib. 

Tours, Council of, in A. D. 566 or 567, 

188, n. 

Tower of the Fomorians, .... 47-49 

Tradry, rural deanery of, . . . . 260, n. 

Tranon, or Traeth Antoni, the estuary 
of the Anton 115, n. 

Tratraidhe 260, n., 261 

Tuatha de Danann, their invasion of Ire- 
land, . 45, 47, ix 

, their celebrated men, 47 

, their conflict with 

the Milesians 247 

conjecture respecting 

their date and origin c 

Tuatha Fidhbha, or men of the woods, 

123, 137 
Tuilen, St. Cairnech of, cxi 

Welshmen who settled at, . . ib. 

Turner, History of the Anglo-Saxons, 76, n. 
Tzschucke in Pompon. Melam, . . 129, n. 


Ua Dangal, son of Beathamnas, his ad- 
venture at Tours, 213 

Uisneach, hill of, 246, n., 247 

Uaisneimh, poet of the Picts. See Hua- 
sem 125 


Umnyenn, an ash tree 116. n. 

Ui Tairsigh, 269 

Ulexis, 67 

Ulfa, 139 

Ulster, Annals of, 214, n. 

Umhaile, district of, 207, n. 

Ussher, Primordia, quoted, 41, n., 186, n., 
201, n., 203, n. 


Valentinian and Theodosius joint empe- 
rors 69 

Vecturiones, xxxi, xxxiv 

Vecturiones and Caledons, Mr. Skene's 
opinion of their Gadelian origin, . . Ixii 

Victor, joint emperor with Maximus, 
slain, 71 

Viks, the supposed ancestors of the Picts, 
a mere fiction of Pinkerton, . . xxix, xxx 

Vincent of Beauvais 228, n. 

Vortigern, etymology of the name, see 
Gortigern xxviii 


Wallace's Orkneys, 147, n. 

Ware (Sir James), Antiquities of Ire- 
land 192, n., 194, n. 

Wolf, descendants of the, in Ossory, . 205 

Wonders of Britain, 113 

. of Ireland, 192,193 

of Man, 119 

Wood (T.), Primitive Inhabitants, &c., 
quoted, xlv, n. 



AT a General Meeting of the IKISH ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY, held 
in the Board Room of the Royal Irish Academy, on Saturday, the 
1 9th day of December, 1846, 

The Secretary read the following Report from the Council : 

" The month of December being the time of the year in which the Council 
are bound, by the by-law passed on the loth of July, 1844, to summon a Ge- 
neral Meeting of the Society, they beg leave to lay before your Lordship, and 
the Members here present, a Report of the proceedings during the past year, 
and to congratulate the Society on being now met together to celebrate its sixth 

"Since the last General Meeting, held on the ipth of December, 1845, 
twenty-two new Members have been elected 8 ; whose names are as follows : 

His Excellency the Earl of Bessborough, 

Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. 
The Earl of Portarlington. 
Viscount Suirdale. 

Rev. Beaver H. Blacker. 
'Patrick Chalmers, Esq. 
John David Chambers, Esq. 
William Chambers, Esq. 


Those to whose names an asterisk is prefixed are Life Members. 


Thomas Clarke, Esq. 

'Rev. Edward F. Day. 

William Donnelly, Esq. 

John Flanedy, Esq. 

John Hyde, Esq. 

"The Right Hon. Henry Labouchere, 

The Rev. Daniel M'Carthy. 

John Nolan, Junior, Esq. 

Denis O' Conor, Esq. 

R. More O'Ferrall, Esq., M. P. 

Richard O'Reilly, Esq. 

Henry Thompson Redmond, Esq. 

John Sadleir, Esq. 

Rev. Charles Strong. 

William Robert Wilde, Esq. 

" The Society has to lament the death, since the last Meeting, of the follow- 
ing seven Members, one of whom was a Member of the Council, and a zealous 
friend to the Society, at its original formation : 

The Bishop of Kildare. 
Viscount Templetown. 
Sir Aubrey de Vere, Bart. 
James Gibbons, Esq. 

Thomas Goold, Esq., Master in Chancery. 
James A. Maconochie, Esq. 
John Smith Furlong, Esq., Q. C. 

" The number of Members on the Books of the Society now amounts to 
443 , including 60 Life Members. 

" Since the last Annual Meeting, the Council have issued to all Members, 
who have subscribed for the year 1845, tne valuable work edited by Mr. Har- 
diman,from a MS. in the Library of Trinity College, entitled, A Chorographical 
Description of West or H-iar Connaught, written, A. D. 1684, by Roderick 
O'Flaherty, Esq., author of the ' Ogygia.' This volume is illustrated with a 
map of West Connaught, and a fac-similc of O'Flaherty's hand-writing, and 
extends to 483 pages, including the Introduction. 

" The delay in the publication of this volume was chiefly owing to the edi- 
tor's absence from Dublin, but also, in some degree, to his having discovered, 
after the work was far advanced, a great number of original documents con- 
nected with the history of West Connaught, which it seemed very desirable to 
print in the Appendix, as a more favourable opportunity of publishing these 
important records might not occur hereafter ; the Council, therefore, willingly 
acceded to Mr. Hardiman's wishes, to whom they take this opportunity of 
returning their sincere thanks. 

" The volume contains a mass of topographical and historical matter of very 
unusual interest and value. It is highly creditable to Mr. Hardiman's learning 


and research, and the Council are happy to find that it has been most favour- 
ably received by the Members of the Society. 

" The Council had hoped to have been able to give, along with the foregoing 
volume, Cormac's Glossary. But in this intention, which was announced at 
the last annual Meeting, they have been doubly disappointed. The unex- 
pected size to which Mr. Hardiman's Appendix and notes extended, and the 
consequent expense of the work, render it impossible to put together, as an 
equivalent for one year's subscription, two such costly books. O'Flaherty's 
West Connaught has actually cost the Society sixteen shillings per copy ; and 
when to this are added the expenses of delivery, salaries, and other charges of 
the year, it will be seen that the Council would be wanting in their duty as 
Trustees of the Society's funds, if they should persevere in their original inten- 
tion of giving any additional volume, and especially one so costly as Cormac's 
Glossary, to the Members of the year 1845. They hope, therefore, that the 
Society will perceive the necessity which exists for a change in the arrange- 
ment proposed by the Council of that year, and announced in the last Annual 

" Another source of disappointment has arisen from the unexpected obstacles 
that have been experienced in the preparation of Cormac's Glossary for the 
Press. No person who has never actually engaged in such studies can ade- 
quately estimate the real difficulties of this work, filled as it is with obsolete 
words and obscure allusions, fragments of the languages spoken by Northmen, 
Picts, and British in the tenth century, and quotations from Brehon laws and 
ancient poems, all of which must be sought for in our manuscript libraries, 
without the aid of catalogue or index of any kind, except such as the private 
labours of Mr. O'Donovan and Mr. Curry have provided for themselves. These 
difficulties are so frequent, and arise so unexpectedly, that the Council feel it 
to be impossible to say when this important and laborious work will be ready 
for delivery ; but they can promise that no pains or labour shall be spared to 
bring it out as speedily as is consistent with the necessary attention to accuracy. 

" The first volume of the Miscellany of the Irish Archaeological Society, 
constituting the book for the present year, is now in course of distribution to 
the Members. 

" In addition to the contents, as announced in the Report of last year, there 
have been added some short pieces, particularly The Annals of Ireland, from 

a 2 the 

the year 1443 to 1468, translated from the Irish, by Dudley Firbisse, or, as 
he is more usually called, Duald Mac Firbis, for Sir James Ware, in the year 

" These Annals, which have been quoted by Ware, Harris, and others, are 
of considerable value and importance, although never before published. They 
have been translated from an Irish original, now lost, or at least unknown, 
which was evidently in the hands of the Four Masters, and has been made use 
of by them as an authority, for they have frequently transcribed it verbatim in 
their Annals. 

" The Council propose to give for the year 1847, The Irish. Version of the 
' Historia Britonum' of Nennius, with a translation and notes, by the Secre- 
tary ; and additional notes, and an Introduction, by the Hon. Algernon Herbert. 
A considerable portion of this work is printed, and it is hoped that nothing will 
prevent its completion in the course of a few months. 

" Of the projected publications of the Society, it will be necessary now to 
speak very briefly. 

" It was announced in the last Annual Report, that the Council had in 
view a collection of the Latin annalists of Ireland. Of these there are already 
in the Press : 

" i. The Annals, by John Clyn, of Kilkenny, which have been transcribed 
from a MS. in the Library of Trinity College, Dublin, collated with a copy in 
the Bodleian Library, Oxford ; and will be edited, with notes, by the Rev. 
Richard Butler. 

" 2. The Annals of Thady Dowling, Chancellor of Leighlin, which will be 
edited, with notes, by Aquilla Smith, Esq., M.D., from a MS. in the Library 
of Trinity College, Dublin. 

" 3. The Annals of Henry Marlborough ; from a MS. in the Cottonian 
Library, British Museum, collated with an imperfect copy in the Library of 
Trinity College, Dublin. 

" To these it is probable that one or two others of the minor Annals may be 
added, which, although in themselves of little moment, are valuable, as they 
have been quoted by our principal historians, and are an essential part of the 
original sources of Irish history. 

" Of the other works proposed for publication, the Council are happy to be 
able to state that one, which has been long announced, and which has been looked 


for by many Members of the Society with much anxiety, is now nearly ready 
for the printer. The Macarise Excidium, or, Destruction of Cyprus, by Colonel 
Charles O'Kelly, giving an account of the Civil Wars of Ireland under 
James II., was one of the first works undertaken by this Society. It was 
copied from a MS. in the Library of Trinity College, and two or three sheets 
of it were actually printed, when it was discovered that the work had been ad- 
vertised, and was then on the eve of publication by the Camden Society of Lon- 
don. Subsequently, however, by the liberality of Professor Mac Cullagh, a 
Latin copy of the work, in a MS. coeval with its author, was placed at the 
disposal of the Council, and Denis Henry Kelly, Esq., of Castle Kelly, a de- 
scendant of the author, kindly proposed to edit it, and had actually completed a 
very correct translation of the Latin copy, when another MS., in English (also 
coeval with the author), was discovered, and a transcript of it procured for the 
Society by Mr. Kelly. The means were thus supplied for putting forth a much 
more correct and authentic text than that of the Camden Society ; the Council, 
therefore, resolved to resume their original intention of bringing out this cu- 
rious work ; especially as they were fortunate enough to induce Mr. O'Callaghan 
to promise his valuable aid in the illustration of it. Within the last fortnight 
Mr. O'Callaghan has completed his portion of the task, and has placed in the 
hands of the Council a collection of notes, which cannot fail to prove highly in- 
teresting to the student of our history, and for which he is entitled to the 
warmest thanks of the Society. This work will, therefore, be put to press 
without delay, as soon as the promised transcript of the English version of 
it is received from Mr. Kelly. The work will necessarily be expensive, but 
the Council are resolved to undertake it, in the hope that the great interest of 
its subject, and the well-known qualifications of its annotator for illustrating 
that portion of our history, will induce the Irish public so far to support the 
Society, as to cover the expenses of its publication. 

" A second volume of the Irish Archaeological Miscellany will also be im- 
mediately undertaken. The Council are already in possession of some mate- 
rials for this work, such as a Latin translation of a portion of the Annals of the 
Four Masters, supposed to be from the pen of Dr. Lynch, author of " Cam- 
brensis Eversus," the Obits of Lusk, &c. ; but they would earnestly invite other 

" Other works are also in contemplation, which the want of funds compels 


the Council to defer. Of these the following are ready for immediate pub- 
lication : 

" I. The Annals of Inisfallen. The original intention was to edit these 
Annals from a copy preserved in the Library of Trinity College, and partly 
published, under the name of the Annals of Inisfallen, by Dr. O'Conor. Misled 
by the high authority of that distinguished scholar, the Council, at the begin- 
ning of the present year, engaged Mr. Curry and Mr. O'Donovan in the task of 
preparing a transcript of the Trinity College MS. for publication. But it was 
very soon found that this MS. was not at all what Dr. O'Conor had supposed it 
to be ; it turned out to be a modern compilation from the old Inisfallen Annals and 
other sources, and, in short, of no authority whatsoever. It has, therefore, 
been resolved to adopt as a text the real Annals of Inisfallen, preserved in the 
Bodleian Library. In the preface to the work, the history of the Dublin copy, 
with the reasons for regarding it as unworthy of credit, will be given at length. 

" II. The History of the Boromean Tribute, from a MS. in the Library of 
Trinity College, edited, with a translation and notes, by Mr. Eugene Curry, 
has for some time been nearly ready for the Press. This work relates to an 
interesting period of Irish history, which is comparatively little known, and of 
which but very scanty notices occur in our popular historians. But it will be 
a book of some 300 or 400 pages, and want of funds has hitherto delayed its 

" The same reason also compels the Council to postpone the more expensive 
publications which have been announced, such as the Annals of Ulster, and the 
Book of Hymns, although both of them are works of the highest interest, and 
importance. Some progress, however, has been made in preparing them for 
the Press. A transcript of the Annals of Ulster, the property of the Secretary, 
has been placed at the disposal of the Council. It was copied by Mr. Curry 
from the ancient MS. in the Library of Trinity College, and has been collated 
with the Bodleian MS. by Mr. O'Donovan, who was sent to Oxford by the 
Council for the purpose. The Book of Hymns has also been transcribed from 
the original MS. in the Library of Trinity College ; but the only other copy of 
it known to exist is said to be in the possession of the Franciscan College of 
St. Isidore, at Rome, and is consequently beyond the reach of the Society. It is 
a great pity that the funds for the publication of this valuable manuscript cannot 
be procured. The Manuscript is itself of the seventh or eighth century, and as 


it was, no doubt, transcribed from much earlier documents, it may be taken as 
representing the doctrine and devotion of the Irish Church in the age of St. 
Columba, when Ireland was so justly known throughout Europe as " Insula 
Sanctorum." A Hymnarium of the seventh century is a literary treasure that 
ought not to be left any longer in obscurity. 

" Of the other works suggested for publication, the Council have nothing to 
say in addition to what was stated by their predecessors in the Report of last 
year; they are precluded by the deficiency of funds from undertaking any such 
expensive publications as the Dinnseanchus, or the Brehon Laws, which present 
difficulties of so peculiar a nature. For such great works, therefore, they can 
only hope to prepare the way, and they cannot but flatter themselves that the 
publications of this Society have already done much to awaken a taste for Irish 
literature, and to arouse the Public to some little sense of the national disgrace 
which rests upon us, for allowing these invaluable monuments of antiquity to 
slumber so long on the shelves of our libraries. 

" The Council have it in contemplation to publish, as soon as they find it 
possible, the Topographical Poems of O'Dugan and O'Hecrin, with illustrative 
notes by Mr. O'Donovan, a work that cannot fail to prove interesting to the 
Public ; but so many circumstances, over which they have no control, may 
combine to delay this design, that they cannot undertake as yet to fix the time 
when this publication may be expected. The same remark applies to Uuald 
Mac Firbis's Account of the Firbolgs and Danes of Ireland, and to the Naemh 
Seanchus, or History of the Saints of Ireland, attributed to Aengus the Culdec 
or some of his disciples, and preserved in the Book of Lecan. In short, there is 
the greatest abundance of interesting and important materials, and funds alone 
are wanting for giving them to the Public. 

" It will be remembered by the Society that in former Rcportsb the Council 
more than once declared that they were overdrawing the funds of the Society, 
and giving to the Members a higher value for their subscriptions than the dis- 
posable means of the Society justified. This was done for the purpose of bring- 
ing the Society into notice, and of enabling the Irish public to judge of the great 
abundance of the materials that exist, as well as of the manner in which it was 
proposed to render our ancient literature accessible to students. In tins there 


b See Report for 1 842 (prefixed to the Battle of Magli Kagh), p. 4. Report for 1 845 
(prefixed to O'Flaherty's West Connaught), p. 6. 


is no doubt the Council judged wisely ; but the time is now come when a dif- 
ferent course must be pursued. The experience of five years, during which the 
limited number of 500 members has never been obtained, proves clearly the 
small amount of interest that is felt for the objects of the Society; and it is, 
therefore, become the duty of the Council to announce, that the number of 
pages hitherto published in the year must henceforth be very seriously dimi- 
nished, unless a large accession of additional Members can be obtained. If every 
Member would engage to procure one new Member in the course of the next 
year, the means of bringing out the works in preparation would be in a great 
measure supplied ; but if the Society remains at its present limit, Members 
must be content to perceive a very sensible diminution in the bulk of our 
annual publications." 

The Report having been read, it was moved by the Provost of 
Trinity College, seconded by Lieutenant General Birch, and 

" RESOLVED, That the Report now read be received and printed, and cir- 
culated amongst the Members of the Society." 

Moved by N. P. O'Gorman, Esq., seconded by Charles Mac 
Donnell, Esq., and 

" RESOLVED, That the Rev. Charles Graves, and James MGlashan, Esq., 
be appointed Auditors for the ensuing year, and that their statement of the ac- 
counts of the Society be printed with the Report." 

Movedby JohnO'Callaghan, Esq., seconded by Rev. Dr. Wilson, and 

" RESOLVED, That his Grace the Duke of Lcinstcr be elected President of 
the Society for the ensuing year ; and that the following Noblemen and Gentle- 
men be the Council: 

KlLDARE, M. R. I. A. 


TRIM, M. R. I. A. 

ADARE, M. P., M. R. I. A. 

M. R.T.A. 

THE REV. J. H. TODD, D.D., M.R.I.A. 
MAJOR LARCOM, R. E., V. P. R. I. A. 




Moved by the Rev. Dr. Russell, Vice-President of the College, 
Maynooth, seconded by John O'Donoghue, Esq., and 

" RESOLVED, That the thanks of the Society be given to the President and 
Council of the Royal Irish Academy, for their kindness in granting the use of 
their Board Room for this Meeting." 

The Rev. the Provost of Trinity College having been requested 
to take the Chair, it was 

" RESOLVED, That the thanks of the Society be given to the Most Noble 
the Marquis of Kildare, for his conduct in the Chair at this Meeting." 

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AT a General Meeting of the IRISH ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY, held 
in the Board Room of the Royal Irish Academy, on Wednesday, the 
22nd day of December, 1847, 

The Secretary read the following Report from the Council : 

" The labours of the Irish Archaeological Society have now been continued 
for a period of seven years, and the Council, on laying before you their annual 
Report of the progress and prospects of the Society, arc compelled, with great 
regret, to abandon the tone of hope with which they have hitherto addressed 

" They regret to say that the experience of the last seven years has forced 
upon them the conviction, that very little interest is felt by the Irish public for 
the publication of ancient Irish literature, or the preservation of the ancient Irish 
language. In seven years, during which this Society has been before the 
public, we have not succeeded in obtaining 500 subscribers, including those 
resident in England, in any one year, who have been willing to contribute an 
entrance fee of 3, and an annual subscription ofi, towards the objects of 'the 
Society ; and yet, before the establishment of the Society, nothing was more 
common than declamations on the national disgrace of suffering our ancient 
Irish manuscripts to moulder in oblivion. 

b 2 " Since 


" Since the last Annual Meeting, twenty-five new members have been 
elected. Their names are as follows: 

His Excellency the Earl of Clarendon. 

Lord John Manners. 

Mons. Le Comte O'Kelly Farrell. 

Robert Archbold, Esq. 

Rowland Bateman, Esq. 

Richard S. Bourke, Esq., M. P. 

W. H. Bradshaw, Esq. 

John William Browne, Esq. 

*R. Clayton Browne, Esq. 

Hev. George Crolly. 

Rev. John Dunne. 

Sir Thomas Esinonde, Bart. 

John Greene, Esq. 

Right Rev. Dr. Haly, R. C. Bishop of Kil- 

dare and Leighlin. 
Rev. James Hamilton. 
The Kildare-street Club. 
G. A. M'Dermott, Esq., F. G. S. 
Right Rev. Dr. M'Nally, R. C. Bishop of 


Robert Power, Esq. 
*Rev. G. C. Renouard, B. D. 
John Reynolds, Esq., M. P. 
George Smith, Esq., F. R. S. 
Michael Staunton, Esq. 
Rev. Dr. Walsh. 

The Very Rev. Dr. Yore, V. G. Dublin. 
" During the past year the Society has lost, by death, the following Members : 

The Duke of Northumberland. Daniel O'Connell, Esq., M. P. 

The Earl of Bessborough. The O' Conor Don., M. P. 

Right Hon. Thomas Grenville. William Potts, Esq. 

James Mac Cullagh, Esq. Remmy Sheehan, Esq. 

Joseph Nelson, Esq., Q. C. Rev. Robert Trail, D. D. 

" The number of Members now on the books of the Society amount 10458, 
of whom sixty-two are Life Members. 

" To show the progress of the Society, the Council think it right to lay 
before this Meeting the following tabular view of the number of Members on 
our books in eacli year since the commencement of our labours: 








































; From 

Those to whose names an asterisk is prefixed arc Life Members. 

1 3 

" From this it appears that during the last two years the annual increase in 
the number of Members has been very considerably less than in any former 
year since the foundation of the Society ; and although the unparalleled sea- 
son of distress with which we have been visited during the past year, and the 
many calls upon the sympathies of the public, may, in part, account for this 
fact, yet it is greatly to be feared that this is not the whole cause, and that we 
are also to attribute the falling off to a very general apathy on the part of the 
Irish public to the objects for which the Society was founded. 

" This conclusion is strongly forced upon the Council by the fact, that a large 
number of the existing Members of the Society are in arrear of their subscrip- 
tions, and that the publications of the Society have, therefore, been greatly re- 
tarded for want of funds. 

" The Council, on the faith of promised subscriptions, did actually un- 
dertake several important works, some of which are in the Press, and some 
ready for publication. These they have been under the necessity of suspend- 
ing, until the result of the present appeal to the Members of the Society is as- 
certained. And they have been further compelled to take the still more serious 
step of discontinuing their engagements with Mr. O'Donovan and Mr. Curry, 
gentlemen to whose indefatigable exertions and extraordinary acquirements in 
Irish literature and topography the Society and the learned world are already 
so deeply indebted. 

" Unpromising as the state of our affairs undoubtedly is, the Council are 
not without hope that the very statement of the facts may have the effect of 
calling forth the exertions of the friends of Irish literature, and averting the 
danger which threatens the very existence of the Society. If the Members 
who arc in arrear would promptly pay up their subscriptions, all the existing 
difficulties of the Society would be removed, and the Council of the ensuing 
year would be enabled to carry on their labours with confidence and vigour. 

" The Council beg leave to recommend to the Society the adoption of two 
or three changes or modifications in our Fundamental Laws, which, if they re- 
ceive your approval, may, it is hoped, bring in the subscriptions, and promote 
the general working of the Society. 

" By the seventh law it is enacted, that ' Any Member who shall be one 
year in arrear shall be considered as having resigned.' Instead of these words 
the Council would propose to substitute the following : ' Any Member who 
shall be one year in arrear of his subscription shall be liable to be removed by 



the Council from the books of the Society, after due notice served upon him 
to that effect.' 

" The Council recommend this change, because many Members have ex- 
cused themselves from replying to the circulars, and other notices addressed to 
them by the Treasurer, on the ground that, being more than a year in arrear, 
they did not consider themselves as any longer Members, as the seventh Fun- 
damental Law declared that they were to be regarded as having resigned. It 
was impossible, however, for the Council to act generally on so rigid an in- 
terpretation of this law, as they would thereby not only run the risk of giving 
unnecessary offence, but also, in some instances, deprive the Society of valuable 
and zealous Members, whose absence from the country, or some other accidental 
circumstance, had caused to fall into arrear. The obvious intention of the 
rule was merely to enable the Council to remove from the Society's books the 
names of such Members as had ceased to take an interest in its objects. 

" The Council would also recommend the introduction of a rule which 
would enable them to nominate Vice-Presidents, who shall be ex officio Mem- 
bers of the Council. They would propose, therefore, to alter the second Fun- 
damental Law to the following : 


" ' The affairs of the Society shall be managed by a Council, consisting of 
a President, three Vice-Presidents, and twelve other Members, to be annually 
elected by the Society.' 

" The Council propose this alteration, because the power of nominating 
Vice-Presidents will enable the Society to place upon the Council those whose 
zeal for the welfare of the Society has entitled them to that distinction, although 
their rank and public duties, or their absence from Dublin, render it impossible 
for them to be present at all the Meetings of the Council. 

" It remains now to give some account of what has been done in reference 
to the publications of the Society since our last annual meeting. In the Report 
then laid before you it was stated that the funds at the disposal of die Council 
rendered it necessary to diminish very considerably the publications issued to 
Members in exchange for their subscriptions. It was proposed, however, to 
give to all Members who had subscribed for the year 1847, 'The Irish 
Version of the Ilistoria Britonum of Nennius, with a Translation and Notes by 
the Secretary, and additional Notes and an Introduction by the Hon. Algernon 

" This work, we regret to say, is not yet completed, although it is far ad- 

vanced.* The delay has been occasioned in a great measure by the necessity of 
sending each proof sheet, for Mr. Herbert's remarks and corrections, to England ; 
but principally by the discovery of a most interesting ancient historical poem, 
which was necessary to the illustration of the work, and which the Editor is 
now adding to it from a MS. of the twelfth century in the Library of Trinity 
College, Dublin. 

" The Council will not anticipate the duty of the Editor by describing more 
particularly the nature of this document, or the reasons which have induced 
them to delay the publication for the sake of admitting it. They feel assured 
that every Member of the Society will agree with them in thinking that it was 
better to incur the delay than to bring out the work in a less perfect form ; they 
have little doubt that the Historia of Nennius in its Irish dress, with the curious 
illustrations of British, Scottish, and Welsh history with which it is accompanied, 
will be received by the learned world as a valuable addition to the sources of 
British history. 

" The disappointments experienced by the Council from the circumstances 
already referred to, render it impossible for them to say much on the subject of 
future publications. For an account of the works already undertaken, and 
partly in progress, they have nothing to add to what was said in the Report 
presented to the Society last year. They may add, however, that the Macariui 
Excidium, or Destruction of Cyprus, by Colonel Charles O'Kelly, is now com- 
pleted, and ready for the press, and as soon as the funds at the disposal of the 
Council enable them to do so, it shall be placed in the hands of the printer. If 
any considerable portion of the arrears due to the Society should be collected, 
the Council would propose to give this work as the Society's publication for the 
year 1848. 

" The Council have received from Mr. Shirley, the Rev. Mr. Graves of 
Kilkenny, Mr. O'Donovan, and other friends, some valuable contributions to the 
second volume of the Irish Archaeological Miscellany ; and they are in u con- 
dition, if funds permit, to bring out a fasciculus at least of this work during the 
ensuing year. 

" Since the last meeting of the Society Mr. Reeves has published his Eccle- 

* The volume has been completed since the Annual Meeting was held, and is now 
in course of distribution to the Members. 


siastical Taxation of the Dioceses of Down and Connor and Dromore, in a form 
exactly similar to the publications of this Society. This may be hailed as a sa- 
tisfactory proof that the labours of the Society have excited in others, and in the 
public at large, a thirst for sound historical and topographical information. Mr. 
Reeves, it will be recollected, has undertaken to edit for the Society the whole of 
the important document, of which he has already brought out a part in the volume 
alluded to. We have no hope that the Society's funds will enable the Council 
to undertake this work for some time to come ; but it may, perhaps, be interest- 
ing to the Society to have on record the following account of his intended 
labours, with which Mr. Reeves has kindly furnished the Council : 

" 'Ecclesiastical Taxation of Ireland, A. D. 1306. Edited from the original Exclie- 
ijuer Rolls, London. By the Rev. WILLIAM REEVES, M. B., M. R. I. A., &c. 

" ' This Record notices all the dioceses of Ireland, and the several churches 
contained in them, arranged under rural deaneries, except the dioceses of Ferns, 
Ossory, and the upper part of Armagh. The deficiency, however, as far as 
regards Ossory, may be fully supplied from the Red Book of Ossory, in which 
are two taxations of the diocese, anterior to 1320. In the Registry of Primate 
Sweteman is contained a catalogue of the churches in the upper or county of 
Louth part of Armagh, of about the same date. So that Ferns is the only hiatus, 
for the repair of which there are no available materials. 

" ' Though the recital extends only to the names and incomes of the benefices, 
so that the notice of each occupies but a single line, the bare text would fill a 
volume nearly as large as any of those yet published by the Society. It is 
therefore proposed that the work should appear in lour parts, containing seve- 
rally an ecclesiastical province, with brief notes, identifying each name with 
the corresponding modern one on the Ordnance Map, and noticing such autho- 
rities as illustrate the ancient history and modern condition of the churches. 

" ' This arrangement will enable the Editor to put to press the first part, 
which is the province of Armagh, as soon as the Council think fit ; and at the 
same time avoid the inconvenience of swelling a single volume to such a size as 
to be unwieldy, or to monopolize the resources of the Society. 

" ' Dec. 16, 1847.' " 



The Eeport having been read, it was moved by the Rev. 
Richard Mac Donnell, D. D., Senior Fellow of Trinity College, 
Dublin, and 

" RESOLVED, That the Report now read be received and printed, and cir- 
culated amongst the Members of the Society." 

Moved by the Very Rev. L. F. Renehan, D. D., President of the 
Royal College of St. Patrick, Maynooth, and 

" RESOLVED, That Sir Colman O'Loglilen and Mr. O'Donoghue be ap- 
pointed Auditors for the ensuing year, and that the statement of the accounts of 
the Society be printed with the Report." 

Moved by the Rev. James Wilson, U. D., Precentor of St. Pa- 
trick's Cathedral, Dublin, and 

"RESOLVED, That, in accordance with the recommendation of the Council, 
the following words in the 7th Fundamendal Law, ' Any Member who shall 
be one year in arrcar of his subscription shall be considered as having resigned,' 
be omitted ; and that the following words be substituted instead thereof: ' Any 
Member who shall be one year in arrear of his subscription shall be liable to be 
removed by the Council from the books of the Society, after due notice served 
upon him to that effect.' " 

Moved by George Petrie, Esq., LL.D., V. P. R. I. A, and 
" RESOLVED, That, in accordance with the recommendation of the Council, 
the and Fundamental Law be altered to the following: ' The affairs of the So- 
ciety shall be managed by a Council consisting of a President, three Vice-Pre- 
sidents, and twelve other Members, to be annually elected by the Society.' " 

Moved by the Rev. Charles Russell, D. D., Professor of Eccle- 
siastical History in the Royal College of St. Patrick, Maynooth, 

" RESOLVED, That His Grace the Duke of Leinster be elected President 
of the Society for the following year : that the Most Noble the Marquis of 
Kildare, the Right Hon. the Earl of Lcitrim, and the Right Hon. the Viscount 

c Adare 


Adarc, be the Vice- Presidents of the Society ; and that the following be elected 
on the Council : 



M.R.I. A. 

W. E. HUDSON, ESQ., M.R.I. A. 

V. P. R. I. A. 

REV. WM. REEVES, M. B., M. R. I. A. 
The Very REV. L. F. RENEHAN, D.D., 

President of Maynooth College. 

M. R. I. A. 
REV. J. H. TODD, D. D., F. T. C. D., 

M. R. I. A." 

Moved by John C. O'Callaghan, Esq., and 

" RESOLVED, That the thanks of the Society be voted to the President and 
Council of the Royal Irish Academy, for their kindness in granting the use of 
their room for this meeting." 

Moved by Sir Colman M. O'Loghlen, Bart., and 

" RESOLVED, That the thanks of the Society be voted to His Grace the 
Duke of'Leinster, for his kindness in accepting the office of President of the 
Society, and for his conduct in the Chair on this occasion." 




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(Council : 

V. P. R. I. A. 


Very REV. DR. RENEHAN, President of St. 
Patrick's College, Maynooth. 



REV. J. H. TODD, D. D., M. R. I. A., Se- 

JJUmbers of 

[Life Members are marked thus *.] 

"His Royal Highness THE PRINCE ALBERT. 

'His Grace the DUKE OF BUCKINGHAM and 

"His Grace the DUKE of LEINSTER. 


















The EARL of DUNRAVEN, M. R. I. A. 





The EARL of LEITRIM, M. R. I. A. 



*The EARL of Powis. 


The EARL of ROSSE, M. R. I. A. 








Rev. Edward S. Abbott, Upper Mount-street, 

Abraham Abell, Esq., M. R. I. A., Cork. 

"Sir Robert Shafto Adair, Bart., Ballymena. 

Miss M. J. Alexander, Dublin. 

Robert M. Alloway, Esq., Abbeyville, Boot- 

William Antisell, Esq., Ballyowen Cottage, 

Rev. George F. A. Armstrong, A.B. 

Rev. John H. Armstrong, A. B., Herbert- 
place, Dublin. 

George Atkinson, Esq., A. M., M. B., Upper 
Temple-street, Dublin. 









The HON. the LORD BISHOP of DERKY and 





Rev. James Kennedy Bailie, D. D., M.R.I. A. 
Ardtrea House, Stewartstown. 

Abraham Whyte Baker, Esq., Blessington- 
street, Dublin. 

James B. Ball, Esq., Merrion-square, East, 

Sir Matthew Barrington, Bart., M. R. I. A., 
St. Stephen's-green, Dublin. 

Hugh Barton, Jun., Esq., Regent-st., London. 

Miss Beaufort, Hatch-street, Dublin. 

Sir Michael Dillon Bellew, Bart., Mount- 
Dillon, Galway. 

Samuel Henry Bindon, Esq., Great Bruns- 
wick-street, Dublin. 



Lieutenant-General Robert H. Birch, Leeson- 

street, Dublin. 

John Blachford, Esq., Bucklersbury, Lon- 
The Rev. Beaver H. Blacker, A. M., Airfield, 

The Right Hon. Anthony Richard Blake, 

St. Stephen's Green Club, Dublin. 
Loftus H. Bland, Esq., Upper Filzwilliam- 

street, Dublin. 
Bindon Blood, Esq., M. R. I. A., F. R. S. E., 


Sir John P. Boileau, Bart., London. 
Walter M. Bond, Esq., The Argory, Moy. 
Beriah Botfield, Esq., M. R. I. A., London. 
W. H. Bradshaw, Esq., Dysart House, Car- 

Kight Hon. Maziere Brady, Lord Chancellor 

of Ireland, M. R. I. A. 
Thomas Brodigan, Esq., Pilton House, Dro- 

William Brooke, Esq., Q. C., Leeson-street, 

John \V. Browne, Esq., Upper Mount-street, 

*R. Clayton Browne, Esq., Browne's Hill, 

Haliduy Bruce, Esq., M. R. I. A., Dame-st., 

Colonel Henry Bruen, M. P., Oak Park, 


Samuel Bryson, Esq., High-street, Belfast. 
The Chevalier Bunsen, London. 
John Ynyr Burges, Esq., Parkanaur, Dun- 


Joseph Burke, Esq., Elm Hall, Parsons- 

John Burrowes, Esq., Herbert-st., Dublin. 
Robert Burrowes, Esq., Merrion-square, N., 


Rev. Samuel Butcher, A M., M. R. I. A., 
Fellow of Trinity College, Dublin. 

The Very Rev. R. Butler, A. B., M.R. I. A., 
Dean of Clonmacnoise, Trim. 

'William E. Caldbeck, Esq., Kilmastiogue. 

'Robert Callwell, Esq., M. R. I. A., Herbert- 
place, Dublin. 

Edward Cane, Esq., M. R. I. A., Dawson- 
street, Dublin. 

George Carr, Esq., M. R. I. A., Mountjoy- 
square, S., Dublin. 

Rev. Joseph Carson, B. D., M. R. I. A., 
Fellow of Trinity College, Dublin. 

Rev. William Carus, A. M., Fellow of Tri- 
nity College, Cambridge. 

Thomas Cather, Esq., Blessington-street, 

Patrick Chalmers, Esq., Auldbar, Brechin, 
N. B. 

John David Chambers, Esq., London. 

William Chambers, Esq., High-street, Edin- 

George Chamley, Esq., Gaybrook, Malahide. 

Sir Montagu L. Chapman, Bart., M.R.I. A., 
Killua Castle, Clonmellon. 

Edward Wilmot Chetwode, Esq., M.R.I.A., 
Woodbrook, Portarlington. 

Thomas Clarke, Esq., Baggot-street, Dub- 

Rev. William Cleaver, A. M., Delgany. 

James Stratherne Close, Esq., Gardiner's- 
row, Dublin. 

Rev. Thomas De Vere Coneys, A. M., Pro- 
fessor of Irish in the University of Dublin. 

Frederick W. Conway, Esq., M.R. I. A., 
Terrace Lodge, Rathmines Road, Dublin. 

Adolphus Cooke, Esq., Cookesborough, Mul- 

James R. Cooke, Esq., Blessington-street, 


Philip Davies Cooke, Esq., Ouston, Doncas- 

Rev. Peter Cooper, Marlborough-street, 

Sir Charles Coote, Bart., Ballyfin House, 

William Coppinger, Esq., Barryscourt, Cork. 

Rev. George E. Corrie, B.D., Fellow of 
St. Catherine's Hall, Cambridge. 

The Yen. Henry Cotton, D. C. L., Archdea- 
con of Cashel. 

Rev. George Edmond Cotter, Glenview, 

James T. Gibson Craig, Esq., Edinburgh. 

Michael Creagh, Esq., Upper Gloucester- 
street, Dublin. 

Rev. George Crolly, Professor of Theology, 
St. Patrick's College, Maynooth. 

Rev. John C. Crosthwaite, A. M., The Rec- 
tory, St. Mary-at-Hill, London. 

Rev. William M. Crosthwaite, A. M., Dur- 
rus, Bantry. 

Rev. Edward Cupples, LL. B., V.G. of Down 
and Connor, Lisburn. 

Miss J. M. Richardson Currer, Eshton Hall, 

Francis E. Currey, Esq., Lismore Castle, 

'Eugene Curry, Esq., Portland-street, North, 

James W. Cusack, Esq., M.D., M.R. I. A., 
Kildare-street, Dublin. 

'The Rev. Edward Fitzgerald Day, Home, 

Quentin Dick, Esq., London. 

*F. H. Dickinson, Esq., Kingweston, Somer- 

C. Wentworth Dilke, Esq., London. 

Rev. Robert Vickers Dixon, A.M.,M.R.I.A., 
Fellow of Trinity College, Dublin. 

j Thomas Dobbin, Esq., Armagh. 
Joseph Dobbs, Esq., Clanbrassil Terrace, 

William C. Dobbs, Esq., Fitzwilliam-place, 


'William Donnelly, Esq., LL.D., Registrar- 
General, Auburn, Malahide. 
Rickard Donovan, Esq., Crown Office, Cork, 
Peter Dowdall, Esq., Summer-hill, Dublin. 
Charles Druitt, Esq., Lima. 
William V. Drury, Esq., M. D., M. R. I. A., 

Lower Merrion-street, Dublin. 
Charles Gavan Duffy, Esq., Holme Ville, 

Rathmines, Dublin. 
Major Francis Dunne, M. P., Brittas, Mount- 


Rev. John Dunne, Professor of Logic, Car- 
low College. 
Rev. Charles R. Elrington, D. D., M.R.I. A., 

Regius Professor of Divinity, Trin. Coll., 


John Edward Errington, Esq., C.E., London. 
Right Hon. Sir Thomas Esmonde, Bart., 

Ballynastra, Gorey. 
Robert Ewing, Esq., Greenock. 
*J. Walter K. Eyton, Esq., Elgin Villa, 

M. Le Comte O'Kelly Farrell, Chateau de la 

Mothe, Landon, Bourdeaux. 
Rev. Thomas Farrelk, St. Patrick's College, 


Samuel Graeme Fenton, Esq., Belfast. 
Sir Robert Ferguson, Bart., M. P., Derry. 
Clement Ferguson, Esq., Lower Ornionil- 

quay, Dublin. 

John Ferguson, Esq., Castle Forward, Derry. 
! 'Edward Fitzgerald, Esq., Carrigoran, New- 

John D. Fitzgerald, Esq., Merrion-square, 

West, Dublin. 


Rev. Joseph Fitzgerald, M. R. I. A., P. P. 

' Rahan, Tullamore. 

Patrick Vincent Fitzpatrick, Esq., Eccles- 
street, Dublin. 

John Flanady, Esq., Dublin. 

Rev. Matthew Flanagan, Francis-street, Dub-